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Synthesis and Electrochemical Performances of Several Manganese Oxides

On 20/05/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Three electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) samples were characterized by XRD and chemical analyses. Their electrochemical performances were studied by cyclic voltametry, constant-current discharge, and choronopotentiometry. It is found that three samples have the same structure, γ-MnO2, but their combined water contents are different. The chemical compositions of three samples can be formulated as A: Mn0.8814+Mn0.0443+O1.6552-(OH)(0.345<sup>-, B: Mn0.8804+ Mn0.0483+O1.6662-(OH)0.334- and C: Mn0.8794+Mn0.0543+O1.6772-(OH)0.322-. The electrochemical performances are influenced by the combined water contents, which are related to the number of cation-vacancy in the samples. The open circuit potential, discharge capacity and peak potential of one electron reduction increase with the increase of the combined water contents in the samples.EMD were inserted with H by chemical methods in a nonaqueous environment. Compounds with compositions varying from the staring material to fully H-inserted material were prepared and investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Slow-scan cyclic voltammery was used to investigate the voltammetric behavior of EMD. The concentrations of soluble Mn(III) species, during the reduction of electrolytic manganese dioxide in alkaline solution, have been monitored in situ by UV-visible spectroscopy. The concentration of Mn(III) ion in solution changes with discharge time. The first electron discharge process of EMD can be described by three different steps: (1) the reduction of Mn4+ ions on the surface of EMD particles and the structural defect regions within the EMD, (2) the reduction of Mn4+ ions in ramsdellite, (3) the reduction of Mn4+ ions in pyrolusite.Microporous todorokite-type manganese oxides had been synthesized by a route inwhich the key Na-birnessite precursor was prepared by oxidation of Mn(0H)2 with K2S2O8 in aqueous NaOH. The foreign metal cations, such as Mg2+ and Ni2+, were used in a subsequent ion-exchange reaction that converted Na-birnessite into a related layered material, buserite. Hydrothermal treatment of the buserite ultimately yielded Mg-todorokite or Ni-todorokite. In lmol-L”1 LiPF6 solution, it was found that the initial capacity of Mg-todorokite was 286 mAh-g”1 and the second discharge only had a capacity of 103 mAhg1. On the other hand, the initial capacity of Ni-todorokite was 124 mAh-g”1, and a capacity of 104 mAh g’1 was still found in the second cycle. Therefore, Ni-todorokite was better than Mg-todorokite in the performance of reversiblility.Cryptomelane and amorphous manganese dioxide were prepared by using reflux methods after the oxidation of Mn2+ by KMnO4. Cryptomelane was attained by using water as solvent, while yielded amorphous manganese dioxide was yielded by using ethanol as solvent. The initial capacity of Cryptomelane was 196 mAhg”1, but it had a poor rechargeability. The amorphous manganese dioxide yielded superior electrochemical cycling stability. It was found that the initial capacity of amorphous manganese dioxide was 208 mAh-g”1, and it still had a capacity of 167.6 mAh-g”1 after four charge/discharge cycles.

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Development of Full-Range Capacity Stepless Control System in Reciprocating Compressor

On 15/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Reciprocating compressors have widely applied in the petrochemical industries which are the national economy’s pillar industries. With the constant changing in petrochemical processes and the growing tensions energy in the world, the capacity regulation is needed, moreover the reducing energy is needed based on the capacity decreased ratio. Full-range capacity stepless control is one of the methods of capacity regulating for reciprocating compressor, and it possesses Economic, safe and well-fixing character.From the reciprocating compressors cycle with the actual work, the Basic principle of full-range capacity stepless control is analysed. The mathematical models of thermodynamic calculations of full-range capacity stepless control is established. The mathematical relations between state parameters of multi-level compressors and times of pressing-off inlet valve are calculated.The entire system, which achieves synchronous operation function between reciprocating compressor and hydraulic distributor and regulatory function of capecity and Level-pressure, is composed of the actuating mechanism and the monitoring system. Hydraulic distributor is the core of the actuating mechanism. The monitoring system is composed of host Computer and slave Computer. Servo-motor and controller make up slave computer. PC and configuration software make up host computer.Stepless control system is established in the lab and applied to a 3L10/8 L-type air compressors. Synchronous operation between hydraulic distributor and reciprocating compressor and regulation control of capacity, level-pressure and exhaust temperature are initially achieveed. The changeing time of pressing-off inlet valve, capacity, level-pressure and exhaust temperature in various status are analysed and compared with theoretical calculations based on lab experiment results. The conclution is found.Research work is conclused and the future study is presented.

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The Research of Human Resource Development Management in High Technology Enterprise

On 24/08/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 With the accelerating pace for the global economization and more and more keen competitiveness around the world, the importance of human resources Management is more and more paid attention to by enterprises everywhere in the world. China is no reception to that. But in many Chinese enterprises, the human resources Management at the present stage is not defined scientifically or correctly. It’s still using the old mode of personnel management in the past. This makes the human resources management stay on the technical layer and its role has not been development yet.The rapid grow of science and technology makes the requirement on raw materials, lobar, capital, space and time is getting less and less. Therefore, in the new factors that create value, knowledge is regarded the most important resource. This is especially true with high-tech enterprises. Compared with traditional enterprises, high-tech enterprises take a clear feature: knowledge, substituting the financial capital and in-kind materials, has become the first factor of Investment. But as intangible asset, knowledge cannot exist or play any role all by itself. It takes the form of employee capacity and will be transferred into Enterprise value through the employees.The core concept for modern Enterprise management is knowledge management. In other words, actually it is human resources management. It’s human resources that can take an initiative role. Through their creative work, they will turn the experience and skills, which they possess in the form of non-coded knowledge, then combined with the fixed assets and financial capital of the enterprises, into great value to the enterprises. Therefore, they are the direct generator of Enterprise value. But, with the employees as a highly flexible asset with knowledge, the subjective features of the employees add to the complexity and difficulty for the enterprise management.The knowledge-based employees have the features of innovation, diligence, independence, confidence and frankness. These features make the human resourcesmanagement “a two-edged sword”. If the management is successful, not only the core competitiveness of the enterprise will be enhanced and the strategy of the enterprise will be implemented smoothly, but also, the development of the enterprise will be promoted and thus more value will be produced by the enterprise. On the contrary, if the management is failed, there will be lack of cohesive force in the enterprise, which results talents leaving the enterprise and the core competitiveness of the enterprise will be lost. Eventually, the enterprise will be washed away by the market. Under the current circumstances, the law and regulations to safeguard the enterprise capacity are not complete. The talents are taken away by other enterprise that offers them higher salary or they will job-hop to those better enterprise. The loss of pillars in the enterprise will cause damage to the enterprise or even put the enterprise into very difficult position. So how to make the employees play fully their role and make knowledge into enterprise value, is the most important task for human resources management.From the angle of exploiting the staff’s ability, this article regards abstractly the enterprise as the special group of the staff’s capacity and ability. And at the same time it also think the function of the human resource management is to provide sufficient capacity resource for the realization and development of the enterprise strategies. The substance of the human resource management of the high technology enterprise is the exploitation and management of the enterprise capacity store. As a result, based on the exploitation of the staff, this article clarifies the model of the human resource management system (HRMS), that is the exploiting type of HRMS. The word exploitation includes two different meanings: one is to make well use of present capacity of the staff; the other is to exploit further the staffs potential capacity. Because the enterprise is the group of the human reso

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Research on Enterprise’s Market Opportunity of Being Entered

On 29/05/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 With more development of Economic globalization and coming-up of the knowledge economy, all kinds of market opportunities to the enterprises appear. To get advantages in the furious market competition, the enterprises must be good at seeking for the market opportunities, identifying the market opportunities, and choosing the appropriate entrance opportunities. Established in the thought that market opportunities are developing dynamically, combining the methods of qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation, study access possibility of market opportunities from the following three sides: capacity of market opportunity, competition intensity of entering market for the enterprises, and developing trend of market opportunity, and then make accessibility vector of market opportunities as the final integrative measurement indexes of access possibility of market opportunities.

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Research on Enterprise’s Market Opportunity of Being Entered

On 29/05/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 With more development of Economic globalization and coming-up of the knowledge economy, all kinds of market opportunities to the enterprises appear. To get advantages in the furious market competition, the enterprises must be good at seeking for the market opportunities, identifying the market opportunities, and choosing the appropriate entrance opportunities. Established in the thought that market opportunities are developing dynamically, combining the methods of qualitative analysis and quantitative calculation, study access possibility of market opportunities from the following three sides: capacity of market opportunity, competition intensity of entering market for the enterprises, and developing trend of market opportunity, and then make accessibility vector of market opportunities as the final integrative measurement indexes of access possibility of market opportunities.

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System Simulation of Capacity for Container Terminal Based on Stochastic Petri Net

On 29/03/2012, in Economics papers, by rain

【Abstract】 Port capacity is the production capacity of port Enterprise under constant exotic environment, and plays a significant role in production control. Port is a typical discrete event dynamic system, and port capacity is influenced by many complicated elements. Therefore, the method of calculating port capacity becomes an important subject in port administration study.According to the features of container terminal, firstly this paper analyses container terminal capacity and the relationships among the subsystems, and summarize the probability distributions of stochastic variables which influence the capacity. Then, depending on the system structure model of port capacity, using modeling theory of discrete event dynamic system — Stochastic Petri Net and hierarchy modeling method, establish the hierarchy model of container terminal capacity and the dynamic model of berth, loading and unloading, container yard and transportation subsystems.According to the hierarchy model of container terminal capacity and dynamic models of subsystems, associating with the features of production and simulation targets, rationally simplifying the production segments, depending on WITNESS, the modern simulation language of discrete event dynamic system, establish simulation models of container terminal capacity and subsystems, and validate the reliability by actual port production data. Then, based on the simulation models, simulate the capacity of each production segments under different number of container vessels which increases year by year, and find the bottleneck of capacity. Finally, present promotion scheme, and simulate the capacity on adopting the scheme.

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Research on the Price Method of Passenger Special Line

On 13/03/2012, in Transportation, by rain

【Abstract】 The volume of passenger traffic increases constantly and rapidly in some area where Economic activity is highly frequent. High-speed railway, a new line special for passenger traffic, is being planned to build in these areas in our country. Price making of passenger train is an important part of transport organization work, with the building of dedicated passenger traffic lines, price making of passenger train on which the research is needed to be studied in time. It is very necessary to study the price method of the special high speed railway lines, in order to take up the market share quickly, and to develop more Social and Economic benefits.Firstly, this paper comprehensively analyses the technico-characters of dedicated passenger railway. It uses method of system science to qualitative analysis the characters and factors influencing price making on the special high speed railway lines, and finally given the possible conclusions.Secondly, under the background of macro-economy and current status in our country, on the basis of analyzing the advantage and disadvantage of the current railway price system, the financing problem of the special high speed railway line and possible manage system, the possible price making modes on high-speed lines are also drawn.Then, the variation traffic volume is analyzed, the volume and price models have been given out to study the variation between the traffic volume and price rate of transportation corridor.Finally, it is studied that the reasonable price making mode of high-speed line. External price making of high speed line is analyzed. Based on the analysis, conclusions of our special high speed railway lines are proposed, integrating with the facts such as price making principle, subject, strategy, method and form. At last, the article takes seasonal differential price method in passenger special line as an example to proceed example analysis.On the basis of studying the relative data in the world ,this paper combines the research subject about relative dedicated passenger railway of which the author has engaged in,applying the methods of system science、Mathematics、operations reseach、transportation corridor and integration of transport theory,it does detail research about the influence and effect of dedicated passenger railway on the regional transportation corridor , including function influence、structure impact、reasonable scheme, its purpose is to conclude some law and provide a beneficial supporting tool for constructing integration of transport corridor with reasonable structure and high efficiency.in this thesis, absorbing the reform experience and lesson in price form mechanism and price strategy of other transportation fashion, combined with the research subject about relative dedicated passenger railway of which the author has engaged in, applying the theory and methods of system science、mathematics、macroeconomics, microeconomics, operations research, it does detail research about the price form of passenger special line, its purpose is to conclude some law and provide the price form and systemic price tactics means for the Enterprise of the passenger special line.

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The Organization of H-R Management System Which Adapt to the Development of Mordern Chinese Banking

On 16/02/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 MR DENGXIAOPING SAID: “SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IS THE FIRST PRODUCTION CAPACITY” So the people who master the techniques and skills are the key element of the Production capacity.The thesis about human resource and salary Management is that we serve the bank staff members through the enforcement of salary system, career plan and organize system. We invite to our side men of wisdom and valor ; train successors for profession and promote the human resource value.So we satisfy our bank staff members and clients , in this way ,we can achieve our final aim for promotion of the human resource.Finance is the core of the modern market economy. Accompany with knowledge explosion and global economy , new financial products and business emerge in an endless stream. How will the Chinese banking face to the financial competition?The essential way is that we should make innovations about the property right; build legal person system; change organizing system; rebuild the business process; consummate the risk-controlling mechanism; build salary system. By this means, we can realize the banking conversation..The negative characteristic of the Chinese banking is that we seek the large and all-inclusive , small and all-inclusive model .so the large but weak, the small but rough model came into being.The practice prove that if the people master the right method and means , own excellent human resource ,he will win: otherwise, he will lose.We should adapt to the background and character of Chinese banking, absorb the advanced method about HR Management., especially the discovery and achievement of western banking.In a word, we should widen field of vision, decisive a global strategy, train teams of modern bankers and build normal train mechanism. In addition, we’ll use balance card method to improve the merit system ,carry out the reform of merit reform and the Chinese banking will blaze new trails and forge ahead.

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A Further Understanding of the Accounting Professional Judgment in the New Accounting Standards

On 10/02/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 The accounting professional judgment born in uncertainty within accounting, further detailed accounting standards can’t substitute the professional judgment. Running through the whole process of accounting, the accounting professional judgment is closely related to produce, use, and supervision of the accounting information.The promulgation of the new standards, realizes the convergence with the international accounting standards, the most notable feature is that change guided by the rules to guided by principles. the new standards no longer province specific accounting treatment, but give the criteria of the recognition and measurement, so increase the space of accounting professional judgment, and raise a higher demand of the accounting staffs’practice capacity.In China, the research about accounting professional judgment started lately is the new issue in the accounting research field. Especially, the promulgation of the new accounting standards impact accounting professional judgment largely. So it has a great research space. This paper tries to make a further understanding of the accounting professional judgment after mastering the new accounting standards.Structure of the paper:This paper is divided into five chapters. The structure and the main points are listed as follow:Chapter 1:Prolegomenon. This chapter introduces the background to the study,research thinking, the main content, and some research about accounting professional judgment, which lay the foundation for later analysis.Chapter 2: The preliminary understanding of accounting professional judgment. This chapter introduces the definition、features、principles of the accounting professional judgment, the specific performance of capacity of the accounting professional judgment.Chapter 3: The analysis of the process and result of accounting professional judgment. There are many impacting factors through the process of accounting professional judgment, including Environmental factors、criteria factors、personal factors、characteristics of accounting. Then through the analysis of a case, it notes if under the unreasonable purpose, the result of judgment is not realistic.Chapter 4: The concrete application of professional judgment in the new accounting standards. In the new accounting standards, the accounting professional judgment changes a lot. This part mainly analysis the concrete application in the specific criteria such as the fair value, the plant asset, etc.Chapter 5: A further understanding of the accounting professional judgment in the new accounting standards. Through comparing the old and new standards, this part summarizes new requirements to the accounting professional judgment, establishes a new standard, and proposes some useful measures.Viewpoints of this paper:1. Summarize new changes of accounting professional judgment. Including: guided by principles, more stress the accounting professional judgment, increase occupational risk of the accountant, the accountant should expand his knowledge and skills such as English、compute.2. Establish a new standard to accounting professional judgment. Good professional ethics: be familiar with the regulations, act according to law; love and respect their jobs, dedication; seek truth from facts, objective and fair, fair presentation; professional competence, reform and innovation; keep secrets. Good competence of professional judgment: a good accountant should have the solid expertise, the wealth of knowledge, some skills such as English and compute, the ability to update knowledge, the capacity of analysis、practice、expression and creative.3. Propose some useful measures. First, build a good supported environment. Second, strengthen the building of professional ethics continuously. Third, improve the professional skills.Contribution of this paper:1. The topic of the paper has realistic significance. After the implementation of new accounting standards, this paper understands the accounting professional judgment to a deep level. It’s good to improve the capacity of the accounting professional judgment under the new situation, and improve the status of China’s accounting professional judgment.2. Recognize the accounting professional judgment under the new situation. In a progressive manner, this paper introduces from preliminary understanding to a further understanding, analysis the accounting professional judgment theory more systematically and summarily. It has the guiding role on substantive work to a certain extent.

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Study on Effect of FDI Technology Spillover to Endogenous Innovation Capacity of Manufacturing in China

On 31/12/2011, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 FDI already held the high proportion in our country manufacturing industry, already became our country native place manufacturing industry powerful competition influence. Since long ago, our country manufacturing industry technological innovation relies on from the overseas technical introduction, this tendency still has not obtained the essentially change until now, especially joins after WTO in our country, FDI will inrush our country manufacturing industry to be able massively to give our country inevitably the manufacturing industry technological innovation to bring the serious pressure, simultaneously, will threaten our country native place manufacturing industry the industry safe and the healthy development. But Our country Native place Manufacturing industry Enterprise independent innovation capacity itself aggregate level is low, the start development is late, must draw support from the external environment powerful factor to carry on the promotion and the enhancement to it. Using and promotes our country native place manufacturing industry with the aid of the FDI technology spillover effect to create. The this article main intention is through to the FDI technology overflow effect research, analyzes factor which the FDI technology overflow produces, as well as how do these factors affect to our country native place manufacturing industry independent innovation ability, subsequently provides the theory support for our country native place manufacturing industry independent innovation ability enhancement. This article in synthesizes and absorbs above the domestic and foreign correlation theories foundation, from analyzes the FDI technology spillover effect to have factor obtaining, has analyzed the FDI technology spillover factor react intrinsic way, mainly has explored and has proven the FDI technology spillover to influence on endogenous innovation capacity in our country manufacturing industry. First, spillover to the FDI technology with the technological innovation related concept and the theory has carried on the elaboration, carried on the analysis above this foundation on the FDI technology spillover to the endogenous innovation capcity influence way, simultaneously, has constructed the independent innovation ability system according to the system theory, and each part of as well as the function carried on the description on this system. Next, this article elaborated emphatically the FDI technology spillover to influence action mechanism of our country manufacturing industry endogenous innovation capacity system, this article emphasized in the analysis FDI technology spillover intrinsic and external factor to our country endogenous innovation capacity influence, as well as our country endogenous innovation capacity the influence change intrinsic pattern which receives under the FDI technology spillover condition. Finally, this article according to the viewpoint access which elaborated to carry on the real diagnosis analysis, further confirms this article the theory viewpoint.