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Comparative Research of Mao Zedong & Deng Xiaoping’s Society Research Thought

On 18/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Thought of Social research and study is an important content of the Marxism-Leninism. Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping combinated the Social investigation and study thought of Marxist-Leninist with Chinese national conditions, creatively developed this thought, and formed a special thought with Chinese characteristics.For a long time, Scholars have deeply researched Mao Zedong’s thought of social research and study, and have harvested many theses and monographs, but not have enough research toward Deng Xiaoping’ thought of social research and study, and not to mention the comparative study between Mao Zedong & Deng Xiaoping’s Society Research Thought. To be the subject of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping thought of social comparison research study to find out their thought of the same points with different point, and based on this point analyzed the causes of the similarities and differences.This dissertation divides into five parts: The first part discusses the research status; The second part discusses Mao Zedong’s theory of social research and study; The third part discusses the Deng Xiaoping’s theory of social research and study; The fourth part takes a comparison of their theory of social research and study; Part V expounds the significance of the comparison of their theory.

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On Translation of Conversational Implicature in Fictional Dialogue

On 09/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Dialogue between characters in fiction is the most important and fascinating part.Fictional dialogue has its communicative, individual, sociocultural features and it playsan important role in revealing the character’s personality, reflecting the Social reality,attracting the readers and advancing the story plot. However, very few monographs athome and abroad have specifically discussed the translation of fictional dialogue. Littlestudy has been done on it in works such as Chapter8in Literary Stylistics and FictionalTranslation by Shen Dan (1995) and Chapter6in Pragmatics in Chinese Culture by QianGuanlian (1997). Very few articles can be found to focus on the translation of fictionaldialogue in the kernel foreign language journals published in the past decades. What’smore, we notice that these limited studies are confined to the framework of theories, suchas aesthetics, literary stylistics, sociolinguistics, etc., but very few of them have focusedon the translation of implicature or intended meaning in fictional dialogue. Dialoguestake up almost two thirds in Jane Eyre. Although translation studies of Jane Eyre havebeen done fully since its publishing, few studies explored the translation of fictionaldialogue and its rich conversational implicatures from the perspective of pragmatictheory and hence this thesis.Grice’s conversational implicature theory is one of the most important theories inPragmatics. The theory points out that the reason why people can communicate with oneanother coherently and smoothly is that all the involved interlocutors must obey theCooperative Principle (CP), that is, they have to be correspondent with their mutualpurpose and direction throughout the talk exchange. In speech communication theconversational implicature is generated when the speaker violates the CP and one ormore of its related maxims and the hearer has to guess his intended meaning according tothe specific context. The conversational implicature has its cultural characteristics and isaffected by the writer’s/speaker’s intention; therefore, in the translation process thetranslator should reproduce the implicated meaning with its both linguistic and cultural features. Characters in fictional dialogue always violate some regularity and adoptimplicit and indirect expressions to mean more than what is actually said, so theimplicature is sometimes difficult to comprehend because of the conversational situation,the Social and cultural context, different opinions, interests, beliefs and backgroundknowledge of both interlocutors. Therefore, in fictional translation, it is of great help toapply the conversational implicature theory to analyze the fictional dialogue and guidethe translator to interpret its implicated meaning hidden between the lines and thusincrease the accuracy of his/her translation.This thesis begins with a very important concept in pragmatics–meaning andfocuses on introducing Grice’s Cooperative Principle (CP) and the conversationalimplicature theory (CI). The generation of conversational implicature is explained byanalyzing daily conversations and some related translation theories are also introduced inthis chapter. Chapter2focuses on the application of the CI theory to fictional dialogue.Conversational implicatures in Jane Eyre are analyzed in detail under the guidance of theCI theory. On the basis of CI theory, chapter3focuses on the understanding andreproduction of conversational implicatures to realize pragmatic equivalence in fictionaldialogue translation and summarizes concrete translation methods by comparing twoChinese versions of Jane Eyre (Zhu Qingying,1980;Song Zhaolin,2007). In the processof comparing the two Chinese versions, the author of the thesis finds that they applydifferent translation methods to render different dialogues. When dealing with the samedialogue they will choose more or less the same translation method, but they are a littledifferent in diction. Zhu Qingying prefers to translate the dialogue literally so that hertranslation is closer to the form and literal meaning of the original, whereas Song Zhaolintends to translate the meaning of the dialogue and pays particular attention to antithesisand rhythm so that the aesthetic and colloquial characteristics of the fictional dialoguecan be fully reflected in his translation.The thesis studies the fictional translation from the perspective of pragmatic theory, focusing on the accurate understanding and conveyance of conversational implicature inthe translation process of fictional dialogue under the guidance of Grice’s CI theory andthe CP. The author finds that only the TL text which genuinely conveys theconversational implicature hidden in the SL text can be called the best translation faithfulto the original. The thesis tries to apply pragmatic theory to analyze the generation andinterpretation of conversational implicature in fiction and discusses the feasibility ofapplying the theory of CI to translation studies and concludes that this theory plays aunique role in guiding the translator to discover and accurately understand the implicatedmeaning of fictional dialogue. It also contributes the translator to convey the deeperintended meaning in the target language text. The thesis also summarizes the translationmethods by comparing two Chinese versions of Jane Eyre. Different translators oftenemploy different methods to convey different conversational implicatures. But no matterwhat methods the translator uses, the prerequisite is that he/she has to accuratelyunderstand the SL conversational implicature, which can then be successfully conveyedin the TL text. Only in this way can help the readers to grasp the intended meaning of theoriginal and appreciate foreign fictions better.The significance of the thesis lies in two aspects. It not only sheds light on conveyingthe intended meaning of fictional dialogue in the translated versions, but also verifies thestrong validity of pragmatic theory in literature translation.

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The Comparative Study of Origins of Least Common Multiple

On 26/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The least common multiple is one of the Basic content in elementary mathematics,generally refers to take the smallest of several number multiples of positive integer. The leastcommon multiple and the greatest common of the relationship is the least common multiple ofthe important properties. In ancient civilizations, Greece, China and other countries or regionshave some understanding. The ancient Greek Euclid Element appear the least commonmultiple concept, Chinese Northern Wei dynasty Zhang Qiujian in Zhang Qiujian Arithmeticdescribed the least common multiple and greatest common of the relationship. India Mahaviraand Japanese Guan Xiaohe are given to the least common multiple of the understanding atlate. This article discussed the least common multiple of the countries or regions, according tothe mathematical description the standard, and concluded these countries or regions of theleast common multiple’s origins: Oriental civilization represented Chinese traditionalmathematics to research arithmetic and astronomy calendar cycle for the least commonmultiple origins, representing the Western civilization is ancient Greek mathematics tonumber theory research for the least common multiple origin. In this paper, comparison thesame of country or region in the different stages of the least common multiple of theunderstanding, and the same period of the different country or region to the least commonmultiple understanding, analysis of the eastern and western civilization produces the leastcommon multiple reasons, namely traditional Chinese mathematics in the mainstreamideology attention to practical application, ancient Greek mathematics in mainstream ideologyvalued logic deductive reasoning obtained. This paper also discusses China only in researcharithmetic and astronomy calendar presented in the least common multiple, ancient Greeceonly in the study of number theory has the smallest common multiple reasons. Culture is thereflection of thought, and thought is the direction of the cultural development. This paperpoints out that the culture behind the mainstream excluded non-mainstream ideology, isimportant reasons that eastern and western origins different. Finally, try to discuss China andGreece have different academic mainstream ideological reasons. Early stages of thedevelopment of mathematics, environment external constraints and knowledge accumulationmodes let them to academic research has produced different mainstream ideology.

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A Comparative Study on Default Translation in Hongloumeng

On 24/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Translation is a communicative act carried out between two cognitive systems with Relevance Theory (RT) as a guide by means of the medium of language that involves the cognition of the original writer, the translator and the target language reader. According to Zhao Yanchun (2003, 05) default is the filtered information which has no influence on the contextual effect, it is communicative strategy related to cognition in a work creation. Whether adopt default in translation completely depends on the purpose of the translator and the extent of translatability. It demands the translator’s responsibility to reduce the inter-lingual difference through certain strategies. Relevance theory manifests defaults and corresponding translation for it takes communication as a dynamic cognitive process.On the level of textual comparison, the phenomena of default translation take important position and scholars throughout the world make their efforts in this aspect. However, there have been no complete and thorough comparisons between two different English versions of a work.The purpose of this thesis is to explore the following problems by combining RT with comparative study on translating texts: For what purpose default is used in translation? And to what extent the relevance are achieved?Using the concept of “relevance” as an evaluating criterion, this dissertation begins with the introduction of the Basic concepts in RT and the comparative study on default translation in Hongloumeng, with the aim of getting systematic recognition on this problem and comparing the reconstruction strategies of default translation in Hongloumeng. This paper includes five chapters.In the Introduction the author introduces the research achievements on RT inside and outside China, current research gap, originality of this paper as well. Since default basically involves cognitive psychology in communication, and RT is a communicative theory concerning cognition, RT naturally can explain default and its application in literature translation.

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The Comparison of Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu

On 13/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The formation and development of studying Modern Beijing phonemic system play a significant role for us to explore the formation and to regulate the development of common speech of the Chinese language, because we stipulate that common speech of the Chinese language as standard pronunciation.This thesis chooses the Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu which on behalf of Beijing phonemic system between Ming and Qing Dynasties to inspect as an entry. We combine with the predecessors of the research results, and use of historical series method, the internal analysis and voice analysis method to contrast consonants, vowels and tones between Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu meticulously. We use of historical comparative method as a guide, and compare the two phonemic systems with middle ancient Chinese and common speech of the Chinese language. On this basis, we reconstruct the consonants and vowels in the two rhyme diagrams. At the same time,we combine the phonetic facts’ description in Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu, in order to discuss the phenomenon of light tone, r-voice and the relationship of mandarin and Beijing phonetics. We hope the conclusion of this thesis can expand the current academic research on this two rhyme diagrams and further deepen our knowledge of developmental characteristics of Beijing phonemic system.

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Comparative Research on the Post-modern Perspective on Curriculum

On 05/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

From the end of the20th century to the early21st century, our scholars mainly discussedthe meaning and its characteristics of the post-modern curriculum. After that we turn into theperiod of critical reflection on the postmodern curriculum reform. According to the paststudies, we focuses on the respective research and few studies are in parallel comparisonbetween several scholars’ curriculum theory. Therefore, this paper explores and analyzes fourinternationally influential postmodern curriculum theory scholars (William F. Doll, Jr.,William F. Pinar, David Smith and Patrick Slattery) theory by comparing their curriculumtheories.This paper adopts the comparative research and theoretical study methods to graduallyanalyze their postmodern curriculum(the analysis of the theory of “intersection” and”complement”),then on the basis of this, to explore the ideas which can be applied to thecurriculum practice, and which can not.This paper is divided into four parts. First of all, we analyzes the intersect parts of thepost-modern curriculum from two aspects of “homeless” way of thinking and value of”individual care”; Secondly, we analyzes the complementary parts from two aspects: visualangle and its breadth, teachers’ view; in the perspective of postmodern curriculum, and basedon the Chinese context, we analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of post-moderncurriculum, thinking about how to integrate our curriculum with their post-modern curriculumtheory from the two perspective—-the absorbing of curriculum implicit value and the applyof explicit method. Finally, to think about the concerns of our curriculum construction fromthe aspects of the traditional culture concept and school Education reform reality.After the analysis and research of the postmodern curriculum theory, we find that theintrinsic value and the external impact of postmodern curriculum theory is not reduced as theimportant emphasis. First, today’s curriculum essence, curriculum contents, curriculum goalsand the relationship between teachers and students are all changing, The rise of life educationindicates that the course is developed as the student-irritated direction. Thus, some of thepostmodern curriculum theory still has the special significance of today’s curriculum. Second,according to our national conditions, we should learn to build our own course. Postmoderncurriculum theory integrates the advantages and disadvantages; we should take the essenceand discard the dross. But what we have to alert is that the advantages of the theory itself are not necessarily suitable for our Education reality. We can think about how to construct ourown course.

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Two Rebellious and Unnecessary Men

On 19/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

As two well-known heroes of world literature, Jia baoyu and EB OHE and are typical and characteristic. Living in different nations with different family origin and Social contexts, at the first glance, Baoyu and EBE OHE belong to different Social group and lack similarity. After explosive research, the author of this dissertation notices astonishing characteristic similarity of them.Generally speaking, the past research focused on the weakness of EBEH OHEH and neglected his rebellious part. On the contrary, most studies on Baoyu only concentrated on his rebellious part but not his “unnecessary parts”. Fortunately comparative literature offers us a broaden vision to analyze this two characters. Affected by various factors, Baoyu and EBEH OHEH exhibit tremendous tendency to be out of orientation, unavoidably they become nothing but “unnecessary man” of this sophisticated society. “To be rebellious” is not only their leading personality but unavoidable fate.’To be rebellious” provides us a new angle to experience EBEH OHEH’s renewal and “to be unnecessary” offers readers a new image of Baoyu from different respect.In a word, they two are tragic heroes of world famous tragedy, their personal tragedy is also the tragedy of their personality and their society. What’s more, their doom are unavoidable, thought well-educated and well-cultivated, they never converge into the main stream of society and become unnecessary. This kind of desertion and dislocation reshaped them neither into peacock or crow, they are neither accepted by the upper society nor the public, so they could do nothing but absorb in unhappiness and melancholy. Though companied by a group of sisters or maids, Baoyu is lonely spiritually; Involved in countless dinner party or dancing party, EBEH OHEH is unhappy and lonely too. So they are always indilemma and conflict which embody in the form of struggle between their inner spiritual world and outer material society. According to the author, the two reflect the problem of their time,even represent the dilemma of our whole human being. From this respect, Baoyu and EBEH OHEH are not longer two literary characters but vivid representatives of our society.

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The Comparative Study for Zhang Cong Zheng and Lee Jae Ma’s Medicine Idea of Preserving Health

On 19/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Since a long time ago, people have made importance of living a long life without disease. In Chinese Medical science, it says “Saint makes treatment before illness rather than after that.”, so there have been a lot of efforts to keep physical balance with the view of preventional heath care. Heat care means to make efforts to prolong life by taking advantage of some ways such as regimen, diet, medication, massage, ascetic, Meditation etc. In Huang Di Nei Jing, it says “The way of wise persons” regimen should keep harmony always regardless of hot and cold weather, between glory and anger, controlling Yang and Yin, just if anyone can avoid devil properly, he gets longevity “, it emphasizes that we can maintain our Health and live a long life through diet and regimen.The concept of Health before the mid-19th century was the health of the body means, after that, the conception of that “a sound minds in a sound body” was added to the mental concept, From the mid 20 century, it had been changed into the idea of enjoying ordinary life such as work, exercise, food, rest, sleep etc. According to the world health charter which announced by World Health Organization (WHO) “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and Social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity。”We can also think that peaceful condition of sprit and body, or its environment nearly has the same meaning of pursuing health care through regimen and diet.In oriental countries, sice ancient time, various kinds of studies for health care such as medicine, acupuncture, massage, and meditation, ascetic had been performed. Zhang Cong Zheng who was representative person for purgationist school among the 4 great persons in Jin and Yuan penod, succeeded to the plutonism by Liu wan Su to use cool medicine many times.He performed unique Medical practice by using the new therapy of sweating and emetic. In case of health care, he made every effort to correct the defect of compensating heat by using dry heat. He also insisted that practice of health begins from diet.He said “Regimen should be controlled by using diet, Medical treatment should be controlled by medicine.” emphasizing that practice of health begins from diet.As devil law caused from heart, glory, angry, sorrow, thought and horror exists adjusting that,the stable heart fire makes spiritual willingness can treats illness. It also achieves got good achievements in depression.The collection of Korean traditional summary had been made by the Dong Yi Bo Gam, written by Heo Jun.After that, Lee Jae Ma created the 4types medical science in which he divided human into 4 types, insisting that every individual should take treatment to the self-character for treatment and physical condition.He boldly escaped from the traditional point of view in which people regarded disease as a struggle between good influence and evil influence, thinking that disease caused from losing balance between internal organs or debility of physique. He applied this idea into health care, saying that there are 5 delights in human life. The first one is longevity, the second one is meditation, the third one is reading, the fourth one is property, the fifth one is contribution to self-society. Among these factors, he emphasized that longevity is the biggest pleasure, others only could be achieved through longevity. He classified human’s physique into great yang, small yang, great yin, small yin to explain that different treatment should be applied to these differences.The traditional Korean medical science has been developed by the combination of the native medicine and the introduced medicine from China. So it has been influenced by Chinese medicine. There are many documents and case record from Chinese medical books quoted in Bing Zheng Lun of Dong Yi Su Sae Bo Won, such as Nei Jing, Shang Han Lun, Huo Ren Shu, Gu Jin Yi Jian, Yi Xue Ru Men. Among those, Huang Di Nei Jing and Shang Han Lun had mainly affected a lot to form the 4 type medical science.Although his theory was originated from Shang Han Lun, Dong Yi Su Sae Bo Won explained human body’s phenomenon with the new opinion, summarizing and compromising each past time medical scientist’s theory. So the traditional Korean medical science among which Dong Yi Bo Gam have had great influence, got inspire from the school’s theory which insisted compensation of warm, ground, Yin etc. But in the field of the idea medical science, it applied different type of treatments to various kinds of physique, receiving great influences from Han Liang and Gong Xie school.The two theorist emphasized hygienism and harmony of characters. It contains comparative values. This thesis is composed of three parts.The first part and second part analyzes the life and theory, regimen of Zhang Cong Zheng and Lee Jae Ma respectively. The third part, based on each person’s regimen, perform comparative study review their idea and regimen.

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A Comparative Study of Three Chinese Versions of the Importance of Being Earnest from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

On 07/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The dual nature of drama as literary art and performing art at once, and the duality of play, namely, readability and performability make drama translation quite different from other forms of literary translation with the dual purpose of stage performance and literary reading, and therefore increase the difficulty in drama translation. In the light of present situation, drama translation is still deficient in systematic and theoretical guidance, and the purpose of translation in the process of drama translation remains to be overlooked.In this thesis, skopos theory of German Functionalist School is applied to a comparative study of three Chinese versions of The Importance of Being Earnest, the representative and well-known play by Oscar Wilde as a great dramatist. The formation and development, theoretical framework, and contributions and limitations of skopos theory are reviewed in the first chapter. Drama, and the history, principles and evaluation of drama translation are overviewed in the second chapter. A comprehensive Introduction to The Importance of Being Earnest is made, and a detailed analysis and comparative study of the three Chinese versions from the perspective of skopos theory in many aspects, such as the comparison of the skopos, translation strategies, translation methods and so on are carried out, and a proposal concerning the problem emerging in the comparative study and deserving further study is put forward in the third chapter.Through the comparative study of the Chinese versions by the three translators from the Mainland of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong respectively under the guidance of skopos theory, this thesis aims to illustrate the decisive influence of the purpose of translation on the three Chinese versions in the process of translation, discuss the applicability of skopos theory to drama translation, and justify that skopos theory is applicable to such kind of literary translation as drama translation and therefore conducive to the translation studies and criticism of drama translation.

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The Comparative Study on Anhui’s Urban Competitiveness

On 02/10/2014, in Management, by rain

With the arrival of the era of knowledge-driven economy and the swift and violentdevelopment of global Economic integration, scholars from various countries are morelikely to study the problem of competition, not only the original competition betweencountries but also the competition between cities. Cities are becoming more and moreimportant in the development of countries and regions. After take into WTO, Themarketability of Chinese economy promotes the Economic growth of cities in China andthe internationalization makes the China will be in invincible position in the internationalcompetition. Therefore researches have being paid on competitiveness in recent years,subject such as Economics, Management are involvedThis issue is regarded as a valuable work in theory.The cities in Anhui Province are function as the growth poles, Which key to the fasterdevelopment of provincial economy and society. Thus, how are the competitiveness thecities have? What is the structure of levels? How about the advantages and disadvantagesof the cities? All these problems should be considered in the process of drawing up theformulate development strategies of city. So the study on urban competitiveness has thesignificant meaning in practice.First, analysis the research background and significance of urban competition,re-recognizes the concept and intension of the urban competitiveness, reviewing the indexmodels. Second, establishes a new urban competitiveness index system of estimationcombining qualitative analysis methods and formative positive analysis methods. Thepaper carries on PCA method to the selected data of index system through the SPSSsoftware and it reaches the city’s competitiveness score and ranking. Analysis the city’scompetitiveness from six aspects including Economic strength, industrial structure, the roleof government, service facilities, scientific and technological strength, the degree ofopening up. Finally, at the basis of the synthetic evaluation, combing the advantage anddisadvantage analysis of urban development of Anhui, paper propose the strategy how topromote the competitiveness of Anhui cities.