A Comparative Study on the Versions of Chapter Titles in Shui Hu Zhuan

On 23/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

This thesis on the translation of chapter titles in Shui Hu Zhuan aims to carry out a comparative study on the two versions rendered by Pearl S. Buck with the title of All Men Are Brothers and Sydney Shapiro with the title of Outlaws of the Marsh. Chapter titles as a distinctive literary style are unique to Chinese language in that they are in the form of couplets, namely two antithetical lines generalizing the plot of each chapter, functioning as guides to the stories. Therefore, chapter titles are supposed to be exquisitely translated in order to arouse readers’interest and then to usher them to the plot-loaded content.In the thesis, Peter Newmark’s theory, communicative translation and semantic translation is employed as the theoretical basis. Evidence shows that Pearl S. Buck’s version is dominated by semantic translation while Sydney Shapiro’s version is partial to communicative translation. Comparisons are made to reveal the differences between the two versions of chapter titles in Shui Hu Zhuan from several aspects, such as the lexical level, the syntactical level and the reproduction of cultural images.Then, characteristics of the two versions are clearly presented, reflecting the different intentions of the two translators and the corresponding strategies they adopt. By adopting the approach of semantic translation, Pearl S. Buck preserved a large quantity of information that abounds with Chinese elements. Such a version, though sometimes regarded as weird or even redundant, tallies well with her original intention that strong flavor of Chinese characteristics should be retained in the version. In contrast, Sydney Shapiro adopted the approach of communicative translation in order to produce a version that is idiomatic and readable. He stated that excessive preservation of Chinese features would surely affect the smoothness of the version and could become obstacles to readers who are not acquainted with Chinese culture.Apart from the contrastive analysis, this thesis also delves into the factors and causes conspiring to hinder the translation of chapter titles, namely linguistic constraints and cultural constraints. These constraints are unavoidable in the process of translation, since they are resulted from the giant gap–distinctiveness of different languages and different cultures. Hence, to bridge the gap by rendering versions that are as effective and readable as the original is a demanding task all translators are faced with.Since Shui Hu Zhuan is one of the four great classical novels in China, the study on its translation may serve as a typical model representing the research on translation of Chinese classics. This thesis attempting to probe into the translation of chapter titles in Shui Hu Zhuan is limited in that it involves only one aspect concerning the translation of this great novel. Nevertheless, as a study focusing on translation, it is of great significance to apply translation theories to practice, to some extent validate the translation theories.


The Oralimage of Jesus from Christians in Luocheng Mulamautonomous County

On 18/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

This thesis focuses on the oral image of Jesus from Christians in Luocheng Mulam (Mulao) Autonomous County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. So, an introduction to such a study will be wrote. In chapter one, the historical process of belief in Jesus in Luocheng county is introduced. In chapter two, first-hand information about Jesus’ image told by Christians in Luocheng is collected through my survey and interview. To know whether Jesus’ image has been changed in Luocheng county, it is necessary to know Jesus in New Testament of the Bible. Therefore, chapter three discuss Jesus’ image in the four gospels. In chapter four, Jesus’ image told by Christians in Luocheng county is compared with the Jesus in the four gospels of the New Testament of the Bible, aiming at exploring the similarities and differences. Through comparison, the conclusion is made as follows: there are more similarities than differences between the oral image of Jesus in Luocheng county and the Jesus image in the Bible. Obviously, this result is different from surveys conducted by other scholars. Previous researchers hold that owing to cultural differences, life situations, Chinese Christians emphasize realistic aspects of Jesus and in most cases fail to understand Jesus’ spiritual aspect. However, this paper analyzes and points out that a full image of Jesus can be understood by Christians in Luocheng county. The paper list several reasons why Christians in Luocheng county are able to perceive Jesus’image fully: cultural communication goes deeper, national religious policies are relatively loose, and rural living standards are improved.


A Comparative Study Towards the Development Strategy of E-learning between China and America

On 14/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Since the information industry shows a rapid trend development, E-learning is the following requirement and the inevitable result of the Education development under the information society. It is the current world’s developing trend of Education, as well as the aims of educational reform among many different nations and regions. E-learning has profound significance for changing educational idea and notion, deepen educational reform, improve Education quality and efficiency and cultivate innovative talents. It is the inevitable choice for the leaping development of education.E-learning projects began in the1980s in China. The State adheres to major projects as its guiding principle and demonstrations and experiments as assistants. In the following20years, with huge investments and some active participation of Social forces, E-learning has made obvious progress. At the same time, with the intensification of the process of globalization, it is inevitable for E-learning to adapting itself to internationalization. As a super power, America has been walking in front of the world for its E-learning application and research, which leads E-learning developing trend of the whole world. Therefore, it is necessary to review American’s E-learning development strategy.On the one hand, it will promote the development of educational technology. On the other hand, we can use other countries’E-learning development of successful experiences and lessons so as to offer valuable reference for the related strategy making, and implementing in China.This paper combines the historical research with the contrastive studies. On the historical research aspect, it tries to review and conclude the E-learning development history of American and China in different periods and under different background, which include1996、2000、2004and2010versions of background, aims, measures, characteristics and impact of American Educational Technology Planning and both national and local level on E-learning development of E-learning strategy development history in China. On the contrastive studies aspect, SWOT matrix are utilized to compare development strategy between American and China and describe the opportunities and threatens they faces, and strength and weakness they bears.This paper adopts historical study, comparative analysis and SWOT model. By adopting the methods of historical study, this dissertation, reviews the progress of backgrounds, contents, characteristics and impacts of four different versions of American E-learning development. In the historical perspective, laws and regulations are drawn from the studies and experiences. By adopting the methods of comparative analysis, this dissertation, describe the opportunities and threatens they faces, and strength and weakness they bears andcompare E-learning construction between American and China. Ultimately, SWOT model are used to make E-learning development decision.From what has been discussed above, we may finally get some Enlightenment. Firstly, E-learning development strategies are established under the background of past situations. Secondly, E-learning development strategies are established according to different stages. Thirdly, E-learning developments are escorted by relevant laws and regulations set up by governments. Fourth, the development of educational technology needs full attention from departments at all levels. Fifth, Attention should be paid to the inferior group and promote impartial education. Sixth, it is important to value students’ current situation and improve teachers’information literature. It is of benefit to the advancement of new education models with educational technology.


A Comparative Study of European, American, Australian and Chinese Language Proficiency Scales

On 12/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Under the global background of Economic globalization and multiculturalism,western countries especially Europe, North America and Australia pay much moreattention to foreign language Education, due to which governments established newstandards after entering the new century. On the contrary, research on languageproficiency standards in China starts relatively late. The Office of Chinese LanguageCouncil International in2007launched authoritative Chinese proficiency standards. Inthis paper, four representatively well-structured foreign language proficiency standardsare introduced and analyzed with details: Common European Framework of Referencefor Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (CEFR); American Council for theTeaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL); International Second Language ProficiencyRatings (ISLPR); Chinese Language Proficiency Scales for Speakers of OtherLanguages (the Scales) for the purpose of providing an overall outlook of currentlanguage proficiency standards and digging deep into the newest values of foreignlanguage Education so as to explore the tendency of language proficiency stand ardsconstruction to further enrich and develop Chinese language proficiency standards.Through detailed analysis and comparison, this paper points out the similaritiesand differences among the four standards in terms of language proficiency,communicative competence, division of communicative competence, cultivationobjectives, and cultivation measures,etc. It finds the communicative language abilitymode, on which the description of language competence is based, contributes to thetheoretical foundation of the four scales. They all highlight the importance ofcommunicative competence. In addition, based on the analysis and comparison, thispaper puts forward some practical suggestions and advice for the future developmentof Chinese language proficiency standards from the aspects of description ofclassification of task-oriented communicative language ability in Chinese, declarativeknowledge, strategic competence, and affective factors. For instance, in terms ofdeclarative knowledge, the description of classification of declarative knowledge couldbe included in Chinese language proficiency standards. Finally, this paper proposessuggestions on lifelong Chinese learning. In accordance with the comparison andanalysis, this paper has carried out a thorough analysis to the world representativelanguage proficiency standards, providing feasible suggestions for the futuredevelopment and improvement of Chinese proficiency standards.


A Comparative Research on Different Locus of Controls and Time Management Disposition of Undergraduates’ Academic Procrastination

On 11/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Academic procrastination is one of the hot issues studied in the field of educational psychology in recent years. Especially, there are many related research on the influence factors and measuring tools of academic procrastination. However, the comparative study on different types of academic procrastination are rarely seen. The methods of Chu and Choi’s(2005) are used to classify academic procrastination into active procrastination and passive procrastination in this thesis, from the angle of influence of procrastination and the individual subjective wishes. The active procrastinators are different from the passive ones, whoes behavior of procrastination is a kind of adaptive learning method to some extent.Based on the questionnaire and interviewing method, the following issues are discussed in this thesis:first, the differences in terms of locus of controls, time Management disposition and the extent of academic procrastination between the two kinds of procrastinators; second, the relationship between the types of academic procrastination and locus of controls or time Management disposition; third, the predicting effect of locus of controls and time management disposition on the two types of academic procrastination.The conclusions below are reached by means of quantitative statistic analysis and interview research:1. Nowadays, academic procrastination is a very common phenomenon among college students, and the proportions of active procrastination and passive procrastination in the procrastinators are different under different learning task situations.2. There are no significant differences between the active procrastinators and passive procrastinators in terms of the college students’genders, branches of knowledge and the extent of academic procrastination.3. In the circumstance of preparing for exams, there are significant differences between the active procrastinators and passive procrastinators in terms of locus of controls(including the dimensions of internality and powerful others), the total points of time management disposition (including the sense of time value, the sence of control, and the sense of efficacy). Nevertheless, the two types of procrastinators are almost the same in the sense of time value and the extent of academic procrastination.4. In the circumstance of finishing course assignments, there are significant differences between the active procrastinators and passive procrastinators in the respects of locus of control (including the dimensions of internality, chance and powerful others), the total points of time management disposition (including the sense of time value, the sence of control, and the sense of efficacy), and the extent of academic procrastination.5. Active procrastinators belong to the type of internal control in the sense of locus of control, who are good at time managing. On the contrary, passive procrastinators belong to the type of being controled by powerful others, who are poor in time managing.6. In the circumstance of preparing for exams, the active procrastination can be predicted by interality and the sense of time value, while the passive procrastination can be predicted by powerful others, the sense of time efficacy and the sense of time control. In the circumstance of finishing course assignments, the active procrastination can be predicted by interality, while the passive procrastination can be predicted by powerful others and the sense of time control.


A Comparative Study of the Country Wife and Tess of the D’Urbervilles from a Psychological Perspective

On 10/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

This thesis attempts to make a comparative study of the Country Wife,the popular novella of the contemporary Chinese writer Jia Pingwa and Tess of the D’Urbervilles,the most varied and rewarding novel of the British novelist Thomas Hardy from a psychological perspective by using Freudian Psychoanalysis.The two heroines share a lot of similarities, especially, their choices of lives and fate. Tess in Tess of the D’Urbervilles is one of the most controversial figures that Hardy has ever created. Both Tess and Darky have suffered from feelings of failure, however, when they encountered true love, they made very different choices which led to totally different fates. There has been plenty of criticism on Tess of the D’Urbervilles, and most of them focus on the natural feature of his work. However, a comparative study of the Country Wife and Tess of the D’Urbervilles from a psychological perspective is rare.Sigmund Freud defines id, ego, and super-ego as the three parts of the psychic apparatus. Freudian Psychoanalysis provides a radically new insight to the analysis of human beings’ psychological activities. By using this method, this thesis explains the behavior of protagonists and reveals the purpose behind their behavior from the aspect of psychological.


A Comparative Study of Two Chinese Versions of Jennie Gerhardt–from the Perspective of Ideology and Poetics

On 02/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Jennie Gerhardt (1911) is one of the literary works by Theodore Dreiser(1871-1945), a famous American writer in the 19th century. Jennie Gerhardt and Sister Carrie are among the”one hundred of the best English novels in 20th century”selected by The Modern Library in America. Since Jennie Gerhardt was introduced into China in the early 20th century, various Chinese versions have come out, among which, the versions of Fu Donghua and Pan Qingling are the most popular. Fu’s version everywhere reveals the traces of domestication, with the characteristics of vernacular Chinese in Shanghai. However, Pan’s version distinguishes itself as a foreignized one, which brings a spiritual foreign culture feast for our Chinese people. Why are two versions so different? What are the main factors that impact the differences in these two versions? How do the main factors exert impact on the two versions? With these questions in mind, the author of this thesis decides to make comparison with these two versions in order to investigate the reasons.AndréLefevere sates translation activities should be studied in cultural system and declares that”translation is a rewriting of the original text”. He explores the impact of ideology, poetics, patronage and universe of discourse on the translators. Different translators living in different times and cultural context have different tendency toward ideology and poetics. Besides, the translators always take into account of ideology and poetics that accord with the target culture during the course of translation so as to meet more readers’demands. Therefore, this thesis, based on the Rewriting Theory, the author proceeds to make a comparative study between the earliest Chinese version of Jennie Gerhardt rendered by Fu Donghua in the 1940s and the other Chinese version produced by Pan Qingling in the 1980s so as to analyze the impact of different ideology and different poetics on the translators in the process of translating.By comparison, the thesis comes to conclusion that: the translators are impacted by their individual ideology and poetics, dominant ideology and poetics before translation and during translation. Specifically, ideology and poetics yield tremendous effects on the translators’selection of translation materials and translation strategies as well as the choice of words, syntax and language styles. At the same time, the thesis proves the validity of the Rewriting Theory in translation and in turn adds abundant amount of examples to this theory.

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The Comparative Research on the Construction and Benefits of Curing Barn in JianYang

On 23/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The compare of the three semi-auto bulk curing bams such as Donghai, Haidisheng and Pugaimi which were popular in Jianyang of Fujian Province showed as following:1. Donghai and Haidisheng took the same square of the ground and the ratio of the room for tobacco and the whole room that they were higher than Pugaimi by 11.72%. Hence, the comprehensive utilization of Donghai and Haidisheng was higher than Pugaimi.2. From the cost of the construction part, the building costs of Donghai and Haidisheng was the same and the heating equipment of Haidisheng was most expensive which was 10000yuan each unit and the price of Donghai was 9800 yuan each unit and Pugaimi was the cheapest which was 7200 yuan each unit. And the setting costs of the three curing barn were the same which were 300 yuan per unit. In conclusion, the total cost of the Haidisheng was the most expensive which was 27652 yuan/ barn and Donghai took 27452 yuan/ barn. Due to financial support, the final payment of Haidisheng was 9652 yuan and Donghai was 9452 yuan and Pugaimi was 7131 yuan which was the cheapest.3. The collection was needed in the flue-curing process. The average flue-curing costs of dried tobacco per kg that Donghai was Basic as same as Haidisheng which was 2.805 yuan and 2.804 yuan respectively while Pugaimi was 3.149 yuan and it was higher 0.345 yuan than the others.4. Donghai costs the most energy and the curing price was 2.04 yuan/ kg and Haidisheng cost least, 1.75 yuan/kg. Hence, from the energy cost’s perspective, the best semi-auto bulk curing barn was Haidisheng. The cost of coal, electricity and wood of Pugaimi was the least and Haidisheng cost more coal and wood than Donghai while cost less electricity than Donghai. It showed the construction of Haidisheng and Pugaimi was more reasonable but due to the fuel cost was more than Donghai, it seemed the intelligent control system cause the fuel waste.5. Donghai equipment had most faults, including fan, electrical machine, electrical cabinet and furnace and Haidisheng’s auto-system could breakdown while Pugaimi Basic had no fault. The operation of Donghai was difficult while Haidisheng and Pugaimi was easy and convenient. It was easy to settle furnace in Donghai and Haidisheng but difficult in Pugaimi. 6. Analyzed the external and internal quality of the flue-cured tobacco, the ratio of tobacco with orange color of Pugaimi was high and the ratio of ruined tobacco was lower of Donghai and Haidisheng. The internal chemical ingredients of Pugaimi was within reasonable tolerance that the tobacco quality of Pugaimi was better than the others.7. From the comprehensive data that Pugaimi was worthy to extend and the flue-curing equipment was better to choose Haisheng facility.


A Comparative Study of Qu Qiuba’s and Mao Zedong’s Thought on Chinese Revolutional Way

On 21/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Mao Zedong’s thought is the collective wisdom of Communist Party of China. It is a gradually developing system of scientific theory and is the product of the application of Maxism in China. Qu Qiubai and Mao Zedong are people of the same time and they both are politicians with poetic and intellectual quality. They also hold more or less the same idea about the national conditions of China, the problem of peasants, the leadership of the proletariat and the exploration of the new ways of Chinese revolution.During the process of exploring the ways of Chinese revolution, Qu Qiubai and Mao Zedong think quite differently about the nature of Chinese revolution, the attitude towards the bourgeoisie, the problem concerning land and peasants and the separatist regimes of the countryside. Because of different personality, different experiences of growing and struggling, different influences on them of the Communist International instructing the Chinese revolution and different perspective in the process of exploring the way of Chinese revolution, they have different thought about Chinese revolution.


On the Consciousness of Critical Realism in Shen Congwen and Li Taijun

On 20/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Shen Congwen and Li Taijun were prestigious writers who were active and productive during 1930s in China and Korea respectively. Through the distinctive way of their own, they criticized the real life of the 1930s and activated the literary atmosphere of that time. First of all, I generalize the intentions and characteristics of the Beijing style of writing and the “Community of Nine people” from the time background, which were led by Shen Congwen and Li Taijun respectively. Secondly, I inquire into their writing similarities under the similar background of time and culture. At the same time, the differences, which were caused by their own personalities and experiences, are also studied here. Lastly, I analyze the reason and the significance of their writing tendentiousness in their works. All in all, this article centers on their styles of novel writing, through the parallel study, Social historical criticism, etc. Furthermore, their writing similarities are mainly treated here, to analyze the significance and the value. When comparing these two writers, I try not to be restricted to some particular writers or works, but to overcome the regional or national barriers to find out the common laws of the literature.