W

Comparative Study on Song-Ci (Poetry) and Ci of Chosen Earlier Stage

On 28/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Originating from a China’s literary form, Ci has formed some rules that are peculiar to it. Ci has first appeared in Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, and has been very prosperous in Song, Ming and Qing Dynasty. However, in Chosen Ci has not been popular in Chosen earlier stage and cannot attract much attention from the intellectuals. This paper will dealwith the spread and development of Song-Ci in the Goryeo Dynasty and the Chosen earlier stage, the comparison between Song-Ci and the poetry inChosen earlier stage, and the features of the poetry in Chosen. Moreover, the reason why Ci could have achieved a great deal in the last periodof Chosen will be studied and the function of Ci in promoting the cultural intercourse between China and Korea will be analyzed in this paper.When systematically studying Ci in Chosen earlier stage, and analyzing Ci in Chosen Dynasty in accordance with the general features of Chinese Ci, the parallel study will be mainly adopted and the influence research and other methods will be used to generalize the peculiar features of Ci in Chosen earlier stage. Besides, the characteristics of Ci in Chosen earlier stage will be summarized and its contributions to Korean literature, especially to the development of poetry in both China and Koreawill be found out.The purpose of this paper is to study Ci and its development in Korean literature, and to further the study to find out the profound achievemeat of Ci in Korea, which is more than a development of Chinese poetryin Korea. That is to say, the Ci in Korea will be studied as a Korean literary form, which has contributed much to the development of Korean literature; and the features of Ci in Chosen earlier stage will be definedin comparison with Song-Ci in Chinese literature. In this paper, the study of Korean Ci is separated from that of Chinese Song-Ci, which provides much research possibilities and space to the further study.Although there have been much achievement about the comparative study on the poetry between China and Korea, the comparison of Ci in these t wo countries is not very common. Especially, the study on the “non-mainstream” literary type in the specific time with the comparative analysesis a new experimentation. Moreover, the study of Korean Ci is separatedfrom that of Chinese Song-Ci, which provides possibilities to find out its profound values and significance. The study of Ci in Korea is restricted to the time of the Chosen earlier stage, namely Japanese pirates’ invasion in 1592, to have a more detailed research of Ci in this period. Ihope that the paper can be a stable foundation to further the study ofthis topic.

W

A Comparative Study of the Translation of Fuzziness in the Two Versions of Hong Lou Meng

On 17/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Fuzziness is an inherent characteristic of language. Fuzzy language, which leaves much space for readers’ imagination, is an ideal carrier for literary works. As a masterpiece of Chinese literature, Hong Lou Meng abounds with many fuzzy expressions, which pose a great challenge to translators.If the fuzzy beauty fails to transfer in translation, it will not only ruin the original artistic and aesthetic value, but also be a great loss to the original work and the target language readers. Therefore, proper translations of them are of great significance to spread Chinese culture and promote cultural exchange between China and the other parts of the world.The present study is a comparative study of the translation of fuzziness in the two English versions of Hong Lou Meng. Unlike most of the previous studies, all the findings of this study are obtained from the investigation of the corpus. After reading the novel, the author selects 130 examples which include typical fuzzy expressions, and classifies them into six large categories, namely, fuzziness in physical appearance, fuzziness in personality, fuzziness in scenes, fuzziness in religion, fuzziness in medicine and fuzziness in sex. And three research methods will be adopted, namely, corpus-driven approach, comparative study and induction.Altogether there are five chapters in this thesis. Part one is the introduction of the whole thesis, including the research background, significance of the study and research questions. Part two is literature review of the research on fuzziness. A brief review of previous studies of the two English versions is also provided. Part three reports the methodology and data collection for this thesis. Part four gives a comprehensive analysis of the translation of fuzziness in the Yangs’and Hawkes’versions and presents the research findings. Part five discusses the limitations of the present study as well as the suggestions for further research.After the comparative analysis of the six categories of fuzziness, the author finds out that Hawkes intends to let his English readers have a good taste of the subtlety and beauty of the original text by emphasizing on both the form and content, as can be seen from his translation of the fuzziness in appearance, personality and scenes. In addition, Hawkes naturalizes the cultural divergence and resolves some puzzling elements when it comes to the translation of fuzziness in religion, medicine and sex. Therefore, his version turns out to be more comprehensible and acceptable to English readers. The Yangs, however, only convey the implied meaning of the original text and in most cases, discard the metaphorical images in their translation of the fuzziness in appearance, personality and scenes. As for the translation of fuzziness in religion, medicine and sex, the Yangs retain images in some examples to satisfy the English readers’ psychology of seeking novelty. Though it is close to the surface meaning of the original, it can not be easily understood by English readers. The analysis shows clearly that in the translation of fuzziness, the original meaning is the most important. Translators are supposed to seek for the transfer of spirit and style of the original work on the basis of correctly transmitting the original meaning. In addition, translators have to take in to consideration the target readers’ perceptive and receptive capability to make sure that the translated work will not beyond readers’ reach or cause cultural misunderstanding.Although this thesis only conducts a comparative study of six categories of fuzziness in Hong Lou Meng, the author hopes that it can help us have a better understanding of the Yangs’and Hawkes’translation practice, serving as a revelation so that others may come up with more valuable research and ideas. It is also hoped that people could acquire useful information and guidance from this thesis, thus to make their C-E translation of fuzziness more fulfilling and easier.

W

The Comparative Study and the Error Analysis of the Words with the Meaning of”Two”

On 16/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

In the HSK corpus of Beijing Language and Culture University, we found that in foreign students’ Chinese compositions, they often confuse the using of the words with the meaning of” two “.The paper attempts to summarize the using differences of the words with the meaning of” two ” in syntax, semantics and pragmatics between Ancient Chinese&Modern Chinese, and Chinese&foreign languages from the perspective of diachronic and synchronic by applying the method of combining forms and meanings. And on this basis, the paper also tries to classify the foreign students’ errors in the use of the words with the meaning of ” two “, analyze the reasons for these errors and finally develop appropriate teaching strategies.The paper is divided into five parts:the first part of the introduction gives an overview of the origin, the meaning and value, the research status, and the theoretical approaches of this paper. The second part mainly introduces the histories of the words with the meaning of” two “. The third part, also the focus of the paper, is mainly on the distribution of “er “”Hang “”shuang ” in modern Chinese. The usage of “Er “”liang “”shuang ” is very complex in modern Chinese. From the view of the part of speech,”er” has the nature of the numeral and the adjective,” liang” has the nature of numerals and the quantifiers,”shuang ” has the nature of the adjectives and the attributive words. From the above, we can easily see that it is hard to distinguish the usage of “er ” and ” liang “,” liang” and ” shuang”. Both “liang” and “shuang” have the function of the numeral, but from the view of collocation, different pragmatic context still exist.”Er” can be used in the expression of math, fractions, ordinal numeral.”Liang” can only be used in the expression of the approximate number. both of them can be used in front of the quantifiers, but different categories leads to different choice. Sometimes, they could also appear in the same context with the same meaning but may be different in pragmatic habits or pragmatic stylistics. The meaning of liang” and “shuang” are the same. They can be used to describe things in pairs, so sometimes they could appear in the same context. Such as “liang shou””shuang shou “” Hang yan””shuang yan “, but their grammatical meanings differs from each other:”liang” is a numeral, focusing on measurement,”shuang ” is a quantifier, emphasizing non-single and indicating the meaning of “matched pairs”. The fourth part of the paper is mainly on the classification of the errors in using the words with the meaning of “two” and the summary of the reasons, and the formulation of appropriate teaching strategies. Epilogue part on the above issues are summarized.

W

The Study on the Positions and Roles of China and America in Vietnamese Foreign Strategy in the Post-Cold War Era

On 10/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

China has become the most important pillar in holding the socialism as well as the external force in maintaining its political stability and development for Vietnam since the cold war was over. The communist party of China has been taken example in improving the party governing ability construction by Vietnam. China will play increasingly obvious role in Vietnamese foreign strategy. At the same time, Chinese Economic development model has been used for reference to Vietnam. China has been regarded as the largest potential menace in Vietnamese military security strategy by Vietnam.America has been the”contenders”as well as”partners”in Vietnamese political security strategy since the cold war was over. America has played important role in propelling the Vietnam’s entering to the world Economic system as early as possible and in stimulating the development of Vietnamese economy. Meanwhile, the Investment from America has brought the new opportunity for the development of Vietnamese economy. America has been regarded as the most useful”tool”in the Vietnamese military security strategy by Vietnam.Under the comparative analysis, the author make a conclusion: China plays a more important role than America in Vietnamese political security strategy; it is hard to tell which plays a more important role in Vietnamese economic development strategy, for each has strong points; America plays a more important role than China in Vietnamese military security strategy. Therefore, the core conclusion has been easily known as following: It is difficult to say which plays a more important role in Vietnamese foreign strategy, because each has its own strong points.

W

Compare and Study the South Complex and Presentation of SuTong’s and Carsonmccullers’ Novels

On 07/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Chinese writer Su Tong and American Southern writer CarsonMcCullers are all have a large impact as well-known writers of literature,their creation show a specific “SouthComplex”. Although the south culture between china and America is very different, the geographical cultural sexuality is distinct.They start from the south with that they are familiar and create a number of notable works with the south feature.In this paper, I want to use parallel method, from the impact on regional culture to literature, around SuTong’s “Poppy House” “Wives and Concubines””Pink””Rice”and McCullers'”Heart isa Lonely Hunter””Song of the Sad Café” “There is no pointer to the clock” and other typical text to compare and study.Make a thorough inquiry in south complex and presentation of SuTong and McCullers’novels,and cultural environment in which reflects the cultural phenomenon and cultural issues, in the comparison of the two culture systems, interpretate the two writers on the state of human existence and spiritual dimensions of deep concern and worked tirelessly on the complexity of human torture.Addition to the introduction and epilogue, this article is divided into four chapters: Introduction introduce SuTong’s and Carson McCullers’position in literary history and representative works, summary the current research status of the two writers, clarify the significance of this study. The first chapter explaines the two authors “the South in the world,” construction and characterization, describe profusion of Su Tong’s novel feminine “maple Shue Estate” and “Toon Tree Street” and the decline of isolated features of the southern town in McCullers’novels. Chapter II combines the text of the two writers of the south in the world of a comparative study of the typical characters. Mainly from two fronts:First, SuTong’s and McCullers’novels in the south of women with tragedy.Second, the two writers invariably turn their attention to shaping a lonely soul. Chapter III mainly to explore the south complex and which they choose to express their presentation of similarities and differences. Analysis the novel form of grotesque and “Gothic” style, also includes figures showing the absurdity of emotion. ChapterⅣtaking from childhood experiences, to explore two aspects of regional culture and the presentation of similarities and differences between the south complex motives, thus compare the two writers of the southern culture of emotional complexity of his homeland. Conclusion: Further summary of the south complex cultural background and the formation of the relationship between writers and writers in his works reflect the culture of emotion, and writer on the state of the art of the human spirit contemplation.Su Tong and McCullers from their cultural traditions to absorb nutrients, integrate of concepts and their life experience, south complex will be extracted into their own texts, Perspective from their native land and culture of the south deep thoughts. This article from the local culture on the impact of personality writers proceed, detailed analysis of the composition of the two writers of the south complex elements, and their special feelings to southern homeland, a new perspective to interpret the two different countries but with similar writers the art world, to see different cultures co-exist under the spirit of the plight of the people and the complexity of human nature behind.

W

Comparative Study of Compound Words in Manchu and Mongolian

On 05/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

This article based on the precedence research on modern Mongolian compound word and performed comparative study in Manchu compound words from Manchurian and Mongolian ancient literatures and its word formation, word structure, grammatical features with the modern Mongolian words, and infer the cultural elements such as the Social and historical background and the way of thinking by analyzing the two morphemes in Manchu compound wordsThis paper is consisted of two parts.The first part is based on the previous researches on Mongolian compound words and summarized the grammatical features of Manchurian and Mongolian compound nouns, compound verbs and compound pictographic words and formation method by performing research on the composite semantic relation, the sound assimilation and the category classification in Manchurian and Mongolian words.The second part is summarized its semantic variation and the situation of retention by analyzing the word meaning of Manchurian and Mongolian compound words and conducted further explanations in the impact and change of Manchurian Social and historical background for the language culture and thinking mode of the nation by further comparative studies on the method of modern Mongolian compound words and the structural characteristics.

W

A Comparative Study of Chinese Chivalrymanhood and Western Knightship

On 31/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The thesis makes a comparative study of Chinese chivalrymanhood and western knightship from the perspective of intercultural communication. The aim is to compare the two spirits, study the inner cultural roots and discuss whether modern Chinese and westerners should learn from them.Firstly, the thesis discusses the similarities between Chinese chivalrymanhood and western knightship. It concludes that both chivalrymanhood and knightship show their respect for bravery, generosity and defence for women and children. Secondly, the thesis makes a comparative study of the differences between the two spirits. It concludes that chivalrymanhood takes faithfulness first while knightship values loyalty very much; chivalrymanhood pays attention to reputation, while knightship highly values personal honor; chivalrymanhood believes in justice, while knightship believes in Christianity; besides, chivalrymanhood values friendship with other men very much while knightship takes courtly love seriously. Then, the thesis concludes that the two spirits are important components of Chinese and western cultures and have great influence on Chinese and westerners’ thinking patterns, which in turn affect the intercultural communication.The thesis uses Hofstede’s three culture dimensions, collectivism-individualism, power distance and masculinity-femininity, to analyze the two spirits. It suggests that collectivism is the reason for the altruism of Chinese chivalrymanhood while individualism is the reason for the personal honor of western knightship. Power distance can be divided into two levels: high- power- distance and low- power- distance. Compared with western society, Chinese society belongs to the high- power- distance society, which is the reason why Chinese chivalrymanhood is called the spirit of common people. On the other hand, western society belongs to the low- power- distance society, which is the deep cultural reason why western knightship is the spirit of the upper class. Compared with western societies, masculinity takes the dominant position in Chinese society, which leads to man’s despise of women and their strong value of friendship with other men, while in western society, femininity becomes stronger and knights all pursue courtly love.Meantime, the thesis also has a discussion about modern Chinese chivalrymanhood and western knightship. It suggests that both Chinese chivalrymanhood and western knightship have already been a part of Chinese and western culture, and the two spirits are also influencing Chinese and westerners. As a result, both of modern Chinese and westerners should learn more about the two spirits and respect each other’s culture, customs, religion, living styles and thinking patterns. And only by doing this, people in China and western countries could avoid misunderstanding and conflicts, and finally promote the intercultural communication.

W

A Comparative Study between Wolf Totem and White Fang from the Perspective of Ecocriticism

On 31/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

With the continuous progress of civilization and the rapid expansion of population, pressure on the natural environment has been increasing. Particularly since the Industrial Revolution, human beings have constantly sought to conquer, transform, and exploit nature to meet their own desires for wealth. Both Jiang Rong and Jack London realize that mankind should be responsible in its care for nature, and their novels reflect a thorough thinking on the relationships between humans and nature. This thesis is a comparative study of Wolf Totem by Jiang Rong and White Fang by Jack London from the perspective of ecocriticism and is divided into an introduction, four chapters, and a conclusion.The introduction includes brief background on Jiang Rong’s Wolf Totem–as well as some on Jack London’s White Fang–then an overview of comparative literature and ecological theory, followed by a literature review.Chapter One is an overview of the life experiences and Social backgrounds of Jiang Rong and Jack London, and the influence of which on their writings. Both writers lived in desolate and remote border areas where they have learned about and developed a fascination for wolves. The two writers lived in and were under the influence of “revolutionary” eras. Jiang Rong arrived at the grasslands under the call to go “up to the mountains and down to the countryside”, a slogan during the Cultural Revolution. Likewise, Jack London was tired of life during the late Industrial Revolution and reached the Yukon during the Klondike Gold Rush.Chapter Two focuses on nature writing, which can be seen throughout Wolf Totem and White Fang. Both novels depict the harsh living environment of the wilderness, where life is hard on all living creatures and human and animals must be interdependent on each other. Vibrant ecosystems, the importance of wolves, and the dangers of ecological destruction are significant themes in both works.Chapter Three analyzes the relationship between human and nature, including anthropocentrism and biocentrism. Anthropocentrism is manifested in Wolf Totem from the reclamation of grassland and the slaughter of animals, and in White Fang, from the maltreatment of White Fang. On the contrary, biocentrism is reflected respectively in the two novels from the protection of grassland and animals and in humans caring for White Fang. Jack London and Jiang Rong can be seen to represent two different stages of ecological development. Jack London, advocating the protection of animal life, is on the initial stage, while Jiang Rong, appealing for the protection of the whole ecological system, is on the mature stage.Chapter Four explores civilization and wilderness. Wolf Totem and White Fang criticize civilization–specifically, when human greed is combined with science and technology. Herdsmen without so much desire and high-tech, adhere to their national traditions which contain deep ecology Philosophy.The conclusion summarizes the main ideas of the whole thesis. It points out again the similarities and differences of ecological attitudes in Wolf Totem and White Fang, as well as those of Jiang Rong and Jack London.

Tagged with:  
W

A Comparison of Color Words in Chinese and Thai Followed by an Investigation of Thai University Students’Chinese Color Words Acquisition

On 26/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

This thesis, through the use of comparative study, aims to analyze the formation of the Chinese and Thai color words, their meaning and cultural connotation. This thesis comprises five chapters.The First Chapter is the introduction. It explains the significance of the thesis topic and gives a summary of the previous research on color words both in domestic and overseas contexts, and presents the results achieved.The Second Chapter compares the formation of the Chinese and Thai color words through the understanding of the structure of the Thai and Chinese color words, such as that of independent words and compound words, before analyzing the similarities and differences in their characteristics.The Third Chapter explores the semantic features of the Chinese and Thai color words. The six colors:white, black, red, yellow, blue, green taken from the new HSK4level have been selected for the analysis. They are analyzed in accordance with the actual meaning of the color words, the significance of their Social function and cultural connotation. Such comparisons would reflect the differences in both cultures.The Forth Chapter compares the difference between the Chinese and Thai color words cultural significance using a comparative study from three aspects, namely, the relationship between colors and clothing; the relationship between colors and arts, culture, entertainment and daily life; the relationship between colors and the different Social patterns. By exploring the use of colors as a special cultural symbol, we hope to bring about an in-depth understanding of the cultural differences between the two countries’cultures.The Fifth Chapter, through the conduction of a questionnaire survey, aims at understanding if the Chinese language learners in Thai universities have a good grasp of the Chinese color words, making it a reference for the writer’s research on the Chinese and Thai color words.

W

A Comparative Study of the Old and the New Compulsory Education Curriculum Standard

On 26/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Curriculum standard is the national Basic standards and quality requirements of basiceducation courses, and also is the basis for the Management and evaluation of course.Compulsory Education curriculum standard (experiment draft) has accompanied us throughthe ten years of curriculum reform. The practice of the curriculum reform proved that theconcept and the direction of the reform is correct, the effects of the curriculum reform playingon the Education and the teaching is positive and significant. But the experience also showsthat there is some deficiency and problems in the process of curriculum reform, therefore, thecurriculum standard loading the reform ideas is necessary to make some appropriate revisionand adjustment.In this paper, through the literature method and the comparative method compare the twodrafts of the curriculum standard with the compulsory education curriculum standard(experiment draft) and the compulsory education curriculum standard (revised edition), in theview of Philosophy,sociology, and tries to find the deep reason of regression and beyond,inheritance and development, hoping that it can help perfecting and revising the curriculumstandard in the future.This research mainly compare the two curriculum standards from the Basic conception,curriculum objectives, curriculum content and evaluation dimensions. We can say that thecurriculum reform activates the understanding in some fundamental educational problems,and the understandings getting fully development during the process of curriculum standardrevision. Because the curriculum standard in essence reflects the national expectations ofstudent learning outcomes, but because the curriculum standard is relatively abstract, thisneeds us to deconstruct the contents standard of the curriculum standard, then reorganize andnarrative the teaching goals on the basis of students’ learning, teaching material characteristicsand the requirements on the teaching. At the same time,making deep thinking on the reason ofchange and the adjust of the course standard after ten years of practice to explore the cause ofthe change to adjust, only in this way can we provide the theoretical support to the teachers inthe first line of education for better restructuring and narrates the teaching goals in theteaching practice.The process of developing, designing, establishing, implementing, evaluating, and revisingthe curriculum standard is an iterative process. In general, as the guidance tool of the curriculum setting and teaching Management, the curriculum standard text is making forcurriculum implementation in the later.Although the specific background of time and spaceaffects the results of our efforts in a great extent,and forecasts the longest way we can walk,but the comparative analysis based on the problems and the rational construction on theframework for action, have improved our reflecting ability to the future,and make us see thedirection of continuingly working hard. The curriculum standard needs to implement and testthe value and effectiveness of itself by implementing in the end.