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A Comparative Study on Default Translation in Hongloumeng

On 24/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Translation is a communicative act carried out between two cognitive systems with Relevance Theory (RT) as a guide by means of the medium of language that involves the cognition of the original writer, the translator and the target language reader. According to Zhao Yanchun (2003, 05) default is the filtered information which has no influence on the contextual effect, it is communicative strategy related to cognition in a work creation. Whether adopt default in translation completely depends on the purpose of the translator and the extent of translatability. It demands the translator’s responsibility to reduce the inter-lingual difference through certain strategies. Relevance theory manifests defaults and corresponding translation for it takes communication as a dynamic cognitive process.On the level of textual comparison, the phenomena of default translation take important position and scholars throughout the world make their efforts in this aspect. However, there have been no complete and thorough comparisons between two different English versions of a work.The purpose of this thesis is to explore the following problems by combining RT with comparative study on translating texts: For what purpose default is used in translation? And to what extent the relevance are achieved?Using the concept of “relevance” as an evaluating criterion, this dissertation begins with the introduction of the Basic concepts in RT and the comparative study on default translation in Hongloumeng, with the aim of getting systematic recognition on this problem and comparing the reconstruction strategies of default translation in Hongloumeng. This paper includes five chapters.In the Introduction the author introduces the research achievements on RT inside and outside China, current research gap, originality of this paper as well. Since default basically involves cognitive psychology in communication, and RT is a communicative theory concerning cognition, RT naturally can explain default and its application in literature translation.

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The Comparison of Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu

On 13/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The formation and development of studying Modern Beijing phonemic system play a significant role for us to explore the formation and to regulate the development of common speech of the Chinese language, because we stipulate that common speech of the Chinese language as standard pronunciation.This thesis chooses the Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu which on behalf of Beijing phonemic system between Ming and Qing Dynasties to inspect as an entry. We combine with the predecessors of the research results, and use of historical series method, the internal analysis and voice analysis method to contrast consonants, vowels and tones between Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu meticulously. We use of historical comparative method as a guide, and compare the two phonemic systems with middle ancient Chinese and common speech of the Chinese language. On this basis, we reconstruct the consonants and vowels in the two rhyme diagrams. At the same time,we combine the phonetic facts’ description in Re-settled Classical Phonological Diagram by Sima Guang and Yinfu, in order to discuss the phenomenon of light tone, r-voice and the relationship of mandarin and Beijing phonetics. We hope the conclusion of this thesis can expand the current academic research on this two rhyme diagrams and further deepen our knowledge of developmental characteristics of Beijing phonemic system.

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Comparative Research on the Post-modern Perspective on Curriculum

On 05/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

From the end of the20th century to the early21st century, our scholars mainly discussedthe meaning and its characteristics of the post-modern curriculum. After that we turn into theperiod of critical reflection on the postmodern curriculum reform. According to the paststudies, we focuses on the respective research and few studies are in parallel comparisonbetween several scholars’ curriculum theory. Therefore, this paper explores and analyzes fourinternationally influential postmodern curriculum theory scholars (William F. Doll, Jr.,William F. Pinar, David Smith and Patrick Slattery) theory by comparing their curriculumtheories.This paper adopts the comparative research and theoretical study methods to graduallyanalyze their postmodern curriculum(the analysis of the theory of “intersection” and”complement”),then on the basis of this, to explore the ideas which can be applied to thecurriculum practice, and which can not.This paper is divided into four parts. First of all, we analyzes the intersect parts of thepost-modern curriculum from two aspects of “homeless” way of thinking and value of”individual care”; Secondly, we analyzes the complementary parts from two aspects: visualangle and its breadth, teachers’ view; in the perspective of postmodern curriculum, and basedon the Chinese context, we analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of post-moderncurriculum, thinking about how to integrate our curriculum with their post-modern curriculumtheory from the two perspective—-the absorbing of curriculum implicit value and the applyof explicit method. Finally, to think about the concerns of our curriculum construction fromthe aspects of the traditional culture concept and school Education reform reality.After the analysis and research of the postmodern curriculum theory, we find that theintrinsic value and the external impact of postmodern curriculum theory is not reduced as theimportant emphasis. First, today’s curriculum essence, curriculum contents, curriculum goalsand the relationship between teachers and students are all changing, The rise of life educationindicates that the course is developed as the student-irritated direction. Thus, some of thepostmodern curriculum theory still has the special significance of today’s curriculum. Second,according to our national conditions, we should learn to build our own course. Postmoderncurriculum theory integrates the advantages and disadvantages; we should take the essenceand discard the dross. But what we have to alert is that the advantages of the theory itself are not necessarily suitable for our Education reality. We can think about how to construct ourown course.

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Two Rebellious and Unnecessary Men

On 19/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

As two well-known heroes of world literature, Jia baoyu and EB OHE and are typical and characteristic. Living in different nations with different family origin and Social contexts, at the first glance, Baoyu and EBE OHE belong to different Social group and lack similarity. After explosive research, the author of this dissertation notices astonishing characteristic similarity of them.Generally speaking, the past research focused on the weakness of EBEH OHEH and neglected his rebellious part. On the contrary, most studies on Baoyu only concentrated on his rebellious part but not his “unnecessary parts”. Fortunately comparative literature offers us a broaden vision to analyze this two characters. Affected by various factors, Baoyu and EBEH OHEH exhibit tremendous tendency to be out of orientation, unavoidably they become nothing but “unnecessary man” of this sophisticated society. “To be rebellious” is not only their leading personality but unavoidable fate.’To be rebellious” provides us a new angle to experience EBEH OHEH’s renewal and “to be unnecessary” offers readers a new image of Baoyu from different respect.In a word, they two are tragic heroes of world famous tragedy, their personal tragedy is also the tragedy of their personality and their society. What’s more, their doom are unavoidable, thought well-educated and well-cultivated, they never converge into the main stream of society and become unnecessary. This kind of desertion and dislocation reshaped them neither into peacock or crow, they are neither accepted by the upper society nor the public, so they could do nothing but absorb in unhappiness and melancholy. Though companied by a group of sisters or maids, Baoyu is lonely spiritually; Involved in countless dinner party or dancing party, EBEH OHEH is unhappy and lonely too. So they are always indilemma and conflict which embody in the form of struggle between their inner spiritual world and outer material society. According to the author, the two reflect the problem of their time,even represent the dilemma of our whole human being. From this respect, Baoyu and EBEH OHEH are not longer two literary characters but vivid representatives of our society.

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The Comparative Study for Zhang Cong Zheng and Lee Jae Ma’s Medicine Idea of Preserving Health

On 19/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Since a long time ago, people have made importance of living a long life without disease. In Chinese Medical science, it says “Saint makes treatment before illness rather than after that.”, so there have been a lot of efforts to keep physical balance with the view of preventional heath care. Heat care means to make efforts to prolong life by taking advantage of some ways such as regimen, diet, medication, massage, ascetic, Meditation etc. In Huang Di Nei Jing, it says “The way of wise persons” regimen should keep harmony always regardless of hot and cold weather, between glory and anger, controlling Yang and Yin, just if anyone can avoid devil properly, he gets longevity “, it emphasizes that we can maintain our Health and live a long life through diet and regimen.The concept of Health before the mid-19th century was the health of the body means, after that, the conception of that “a sound minds in a sound body” was added to the mental concept, From the mid 20 century, it had been changed into the idea of enjoying ordinary life such as work, exercise, food, rest, sleep etc. According to the world health charter which announced by World Health Organization (WHO) “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and Social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity。”We can also think that peaceful condition of sprit and body, or its environment nearly has the same meaning of pursuing health care through regimen and diet.In oriental countries, sice ancient time, various kinds of studies for health care such as medicine, acupuncture, massage, and meditation, ascetic had been performed. Zhang Cong Zheng who was representative person for purgationist school among the 4 great persons in Jin and Yuan penod, succeeded to the plutonism by Liu wan Su to use cool medicine many times.He performed unique Medical practice by using the new therapy of sweating and emetic. In case of health care, he made every effort to correct the defect of compensating heat by using dry heat. He also insisted that practice of health begins from diet.He said “Regimen should be controlled by using diet, Medical treatment should be controlled by medicine.” emphasizing that practice of health begins from diet.As devil law caused from heart, glory, angry, sorrow, thought and horror exists adjusting that,the stable heart fire makes spiritual willingness can treats illness. It also achieves got good achievements in depression.The collection of Korean traditional summary had been made by the Dong Yi Bo Gam, written by Heo Jun.After that, Lee Jae Ma created the 4types medical science in which he divided human into 4 types, insisting that every individual should take treatment to the self-character for treatment and physical condition.He boldly escaped from the traditional point of view in which people regarded disease as a struggle between good influence and evil influence, thinking that disease caused from losing balance between internal organs or debility of physique. He applied this idea into health care, saying that there are 5 delights in human life. The first one is longevity, the second one is meditation, the third one is reading, the fourth one is property, the fifth one is contribution to self-society. Among these factors, he emphasized that longevity is the biggest pleasure, others only could be achieved through longevity. He classified human’s physique into great yang, small yang, great yin, small yin to explain that different treatment should be applied to these differences.The traditional Korean medical science has been developed by the combination of the native medicine and the introduced medicine from China. So it has been influenced by Chinese medicine. There are many documents and case record from Chinese medical books quoted in Bing Zheng Lun of Dong Yi Su Sae Bo Won, such as Nei Jing, Shang Han Lun, Huo Ren Shu, Gu Jin Yi Jian, Yi Xue Ru Men. Among those, Huang Di Nei Jing and Shang Han Lun had mainly affected a lot to form the 4 type medical science.Although his theory was originated from Shang Han Lun, Dong Yi Su Sae Bo Won explained human body’s phenomenon with the new opinion, summarizing and compromising each past time medical scientist’s theory. So the traditional Korean medical science among which Dong Yi Bo Gam have had great influence, got inspire from the school’s theory which insisted compensation of warm, ground, Yin etc. But in the field of the idea medical science, it applied different type of treatments to various kinds of physique, receiving great influences from Han Liang and Gong Xie school.The two theorist emphasized hygienism and harmony of characters. It contains comparative values. This thesis is composed of three parts.The first part and second part analyzes the life and theory, regimen of Zhang Cong Zheng and Lee Jae Ma respectively. The third part, based on each person’s regimen, perform comparative study review their idea and regimen.

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A Comparative Study of Three Chinese Versions of the Importance of Being Earnest from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

On 07/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The dual nature of drama as literary art and performing art at once, and the duality of play, namely, readability and performability make drama translation quite different from other forms of literary translation with the dual purpose of stage performance and literary reading, and therefore increase the difficulty in drama translation. In the light of present situation, drama translation is still deficient in systematic and theoretical guidance, and the purpose of translation in the process of drama translation remains to be overlooked.In this thesis, skopos theory of German Functionalist School is applied to a comparative study of three Chinese versions of The Importance of Being Earnest, the representative and well-known play by Oscar Wilde as a great dramatist. The formation and development, theoretical framework, and contributions and limitations of skopos theory are reviewed in the first chapter. Drama, and the history, principles and evaluation of drama translation are overviewed in the second chapter. A comprehensive Introduction to The Importance of Being Earnest is made, and a detailed analysis and comparative study of the three Chinese versions from the perspective of skopos theory in many aspects, such as the comparison of the skopos, translation strategies, translation methods and so on are carried out, and a proposal concerning the problem emerging in the comparative study and deserving further study is put forward in the third chapter.Through the comparative study of the Chinese versions by the three translators from the Mainland of China, Taiwan and Hong Kong respectively under the guidance of skopos theory, this thesis aims to illustrate the decisive influence of the purpose of translation on the three Chinese versions in the process of translation, discuss the applicability of skopos theory to drama translation, and justify that skopos theory is applicable to such kind of literary translation as drama translation and therefore conducive to the translation studies and criticism of drama translation.

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The Comparative Study on Anhui’s Urban Competitiveness

On 02/10/2014, in Management, by rain

With the arrival of the era of knowledge-driven economy and the swift and violentdevelopment of global Economic integration, scholars from various countries are morelikely to study the problem of competition, not only the original competition betweencountries but also the competition between cities. Cities are becoming more and moreimportant in the development of countries and regions. After take into WTO, Themarketability of Chinese economy promotes the Economic growth of cities in China andthe internationalization makes the China will be in invincible position in the internationalcompetition. Therefore researches have being paid on competitiveness in recent years,subject such as Economics, Management are involvedThis issue is regarded as a valuable work in theory.The cities in Anhui Province are function as the growth poles, Which key to the fasterdevelopment of provincial economy and society. Thus, how are the competitiveness thecities have? What is the structure of levels? How about the advantages and disadvantagesof the cities? All these problems should be considered in the process of drawing up theformulate development strategies of city. So the study on urban competitiveness has thesignificant meaning in practice.First, analysis the research background and significance of urban competition,re-recognizes the concept and intension of the urban competitiveness, reviewing the indexmodels. Second, establishes a new urban competitiveness index system of estimationcombining qualitative analysis methods and formative positive analysis methods. Thepaper carries on PCA method to the selected data of index system through the SPSSsoftware and it reaches the city’s competitiveness score and ranking. Analysis the city’scompetitiveness from six aspects including economic strength, industrial structure, the roleof government, service facilities, scientific and technological strength, the degree ofopening up. Finally, at the basis of the synthetic evaluation, combing the advantage anddisadvantage analysis of urban development of Anhui, paper propose the strategy how topromote the competitiveness of Anhui cities.

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Comparative Study of Tertiary Industry among Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong

On 24/09/2013, in Trade, by rain

China’s economy have been maintaining rapid and stable development since China reformand opening up. It is obvious that Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong are very important toChina’s economy as three main engines of Economic development. Currently China is in thestage from industrial society develop to post-industry society. Because the three provincesare in the same stage, so they have the same major background. However, they each havetheir own specialty according to their economy and industrial policy. This paper will doresearch and compare the whole service sector and their branches on the basis of lateststatistical yearbook data, input-output table data and Economic census data to find out theirsimilarity and individuality and offer advices for the tertiary industry development ofGuangdong Province.Firstly, this paper mainly analysis the Basic information about the development of tertiaryindustry of the three provinces. Then this paper wills analysis the input and output of tertiaryindustry and their departments. And last, the paper will do the comparative study about therelative efficiency of the three provinces.Our study shows that the tertiary industry of Beijing, Shanghai and Guangdong are atdifferent stages. The workers who work for tertiary industry of Beijing have the advantagesthat they have Education background and the title of a technical post. However, the workerswho are in Guangdong are better in technical ability; Tertiary industries in Beijing andShanghai are mostly extroversive and Guangdong’s are introversive; from the perspective ofrelevance, we can get that tertiary industry in Beijing are Final Demand Industry, Shanghaithe Intermediate Inputs Industry, and Guangdong the Final Demand Industry Basic Industry;From the angle of effect of Industry, we can find that Shanghai has the great influence andresponse, Guangdong has the least. The tertiary industry of the three is the same at both ends,differences in the middle on the relative efficiency of the industry.At last, I want to give my advice for the development of the tertiary industry on the basis ofour Guangdong province: Firstly we should harmonize with the Second Industry andstrengthen the driving power of two engines. Secondly, we should optimize the structure ofthe employee of tertiary industry and enhance their quality. Thirdly, we should increase thePCDI and enlarge the market of tertiary industry. Fourthly, accelerate the development ofindustry which has the high efficiency of input and output and finally we should cut downthe Investment of industry which has most state-owned Economic and make the process of state-owned economic marketization speed up.

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Comparative Study Between2008SNA and1993SNA

On 24/09/2013, in Management, by rain

Since the1993SNA issued, a series of great changes have taken place during theglobal economy, especially in the global financial crisis of2008,which exposed manyproblems that objectively required system of national accounts to change, update andimprove accordingly. The United Nations Committee of Statistics formulated2008SNA,based on the revision of1993SNA,in order to make SNA keep pace with thetimes,reflect the Economic environment changes in a comprehensive,objective andaccurate way,and adapt to the needs of Economic development.The change produceprofound effect on China’s system of national accounts,urging us to think and studythe series of updates.This study is based on China’s system of national accounts. First of all,through thediscussion of2008SNA change background, reasons, and designing ideas,find thedevelopment model and trajectory of SNA. And then,from the comparison of basiccategories,concepts and definitions involved, rise to a variety of classificationstandard of comparison in SNA. Next study series indexes that reflecting theoperation of national economy further between2008SNA and1993SNA, analyze itssubstantive definitions and operational definitions of the boundary changes, as well asthe specific changes in the concrete calculation method. Finally, on the basiscomparison between2008SNA and1993SNA, find out the revision of revelatorytheory which can improving, enhancing china’s system of national accounts,makingchina’s system of national accounts more theoretical and practical application value.

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The Comparative Study on Real Estate Market of Jinan City and Qingdao City

On 24/09/2013, in Management, by rain

The real estate industry can stimulate Economic growth effectively, so it is veryimportant to government revenue. However, due to real estate market started too lateand the development time was short of real estate in China, the relevant laws andregulations are not perfect, the real estate market is not mature. Rapid house pricegrowth rate, the price earnings ratio is too high, the real estate market supply anddemand imbalance are factors affected healthy and sustainable development ofChina’s real estate market. Therefore, researching real estate market of China toprovide a response is necessary to promote the healthy development of the realestate market.As economically strong province and populated province of China, the realestate market of Shandong province is representative. Since the implementation ofthe housing reform policy in 1998, the real estate market laws and regulationscontinue to be improved, the real estate market of Shandong province has madegreat progress. From the development of Shandong province, Jinan and Qingdao aretwo representative cities. Qingdao city is the eastern coastal city of Shandongprovince, which opened earlier, with the superior location and beautiful environment,the development of the real estate market started earlier and has coastalcharacteristic. Jinan city, as the capital city, transportation and cultural center, thepolitical center, has a better political and regulatory environment in developing realestate market. Jinan city is an old city the development process of the real estatemarket can be a microcosm of the old town real estate market development process.At the same time, Jinan city and Qingdao city are the two highest cities in economicdevelopment of Shandong province, and they have a high level development of thereal estate market, to research the real estate market of the two cities can provide thetheory of countermeasures to develop the real estate market of the lower level.In the writing process, first described the research background, significance,research status, and research methods, and then explained the real estate markettheory, focusing on the theory of supply and demand and non-equilibrium ofregional development. Secondly, described the development environment of real estate market in two cities and then analyzed the comprehensive level of the realestate market of Jinan city and Qingdao city, the analysis showed that lower prices inJinan city, lower price earnings ratio, the strong real estate demand, lower levels ofeconomic development but at the same time the urban disposable income high. Butthe house price, the price earnings ratio, the level of Economic development, are allhigher in Qingdao city, the price earnings ratio has become a constraining factor ofthe Qingdao city real estate market healthy development. According to the priceearnings ratio as defined to calculate the price earnings ratio of Qingdao city in 2007it up to13.508, far exceeding international standards, again, constructed thecomprehensive development level evaluation system of the real estate market. Basedon the China Real Estate Statistics Yearbook, Shandong Statistical Yearbook relevantdata, combined principal component analysis and SWOT analysis to researchJinan city and Qingdao city real estate market development level, The resultsshowed that: the level of real estate market development of Qingdao city is higher in2001-2009, but there are some negative factors on the real estate market in Qingdaocity, such as the financing form of real estate Investment is single; The 2001-2009composite scores of Jinan city and Qingdao city real estate market are volatilityincreased, indicating that the real estate market of the two cities are good prospectsfor development. Finally, adopted the results of principal component analysis andSWOT analysis to put forward the targeted proposed to promote the real estatemarket development of Jinan city and Qingdao city.