Conflict and Convergence

On 08/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Saul Bellow is considered as the most essential novelist after William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway in the present America. His works contain abundant Social contents and profound psychological thoughts. He has received American National Book Awards for three times and Pulitzer Prizes once. In 1976, he has received Novel Price in Literature for”understanding the modern culture with the human nature and refined analysis”. As a representative Jewish American novelist, Bellow’s thoughts and works have combined the conflict and convergence of the Jewish culture and the main American culture, and have shown the complex cultural origin and change of himself and the nation of Jew.The deepest value of the novelist and one’s works is the cultural connotation. This thesis attempts to analyze Saul Bellow and his creation from the perspective of cross-cultural investigation of the comparative literature, and further explain the cultural connotation of Bellow and his creation so as to comprehend his thoughts and creation more deeply and comprehensively. Around the theme of”cultural conflict and convergence”, this thesis is divided into three parts. The first part makes a general introduction to the conflict and convergence of the Jewish culture and the main American culture”WASP”, and points out that the communication of the two cultures has directly affect Bellow’s cultural identity and creation. The second part mainly analyses the two-side cultural identity and style of Bellow. The third part analyses the conflict and convergence of the Jewish culture and the main American culture through a concrete text. This part discusses this point from three aspects. As first, it discusses”cultural conflict”. The floating destiny, the cultural distance, the perplexed identity and the pursuing of oneself have made the Jewish people become the marginal men of the American culture. Secondly, this part discusses”cultural convergence”. The weakening of the Jewish identity of the characters in this novel has shown the cultural change. Thirdly, this part explores the potential Jewish spirit in this novel and discusses the issue of seeking the cultural roots.The main characters of Bellow’s novels are mainly Jewish American middle class intellectuals in the American society. His novels concern the contradiction of human being and the society and the moral crisis in the highly developed capitalism era, and then further explore the western and human civilization, values and significance of human being. The study of the cultural connotation of Bellow and his works has provided some implications. In the constant development of poly-culture, people should consider how to deal with the conflict and convergence of different cultures and pursue a cross-cultural understanding.


The Effect of Directness in Communication, in an International Team, on Advice Giving and Taking Process

On 10/09/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

Nowadays, most of the important decisions are not made alone. People areinteracting with each other, giving and receiving recommendations, in order to maketimely and well-considered decisions. Moreover, due to the globalization which hasgathered momentum during the last decades, great deals of political or economicissues are now discussed by multicultural persons. However, when people withdifferent cultural background are making decisions together, divergences incommunication become clearly significant.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of communicationstyles, in an international team, on decision making choice and behavior. Based onthe literature review, we first built an accurate conceptual model and formulatedhypotheses. The independent variables were communication formulation (positivedirect, negative indirect and positive interrogative indirect) and communication way(text, voice, video), and the dependent variables represented objective and subjectivedecision-making measurements. Chinese-American cross-cultural team was studied inthis research. A Computer-mediated3x3experiment was conducted with72Chinesestudents as decision makers and2American students as advisors. Basic descriptivestatistics, ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests were used for testing the hypotheses.The results confirmed expectations that Chinese as decision makers weremore willing to change their decision and ranked higher their perceived influencewhen the advice was formulated using a positive direct formulation, and when it wasconveyed using video. We also found evidence that indirect communicationformulations had less effect on the decision makers’ perceived influence when theinformation was conveyed using text messages. Finally, it also came out that positivecommunication formulations had a stronger impact on trust when the communicationway used to provide the advice was based on a listening way (voice or video).


A Study of Human Resource Management Conflicts in Sino-US Joint Ventures

On 03/09/2013, in Management, by rain

With the acceleration of globalization, the Economic communication andcooperation between China and foreign countries are more and more frequent. Therapid growth of China s economy is attracting more and more foreign companies andinvestment, among which American multinationals undoubtedly take the lead. SinceChina and the U.S. officially established diplomatic relations, their cooperation invarious fields has shown a good momentum of development. Joint Ventures are wherecapital, technology and Management from both sides merge, but also where thecultural differences from both sides conflict. Due to great differences betweenChinese and American cultures, HR managers will face the problems brought up bycultural differences. HRM contains a series of procedures such as HR recruitment,interview, selection, training, developing, and appraisal. These procedures play animportant role in Management of joint ventures and business activities. So it s urgentto improve culture communication and manage the cultural conflicts in HRM.This paper focuses on HRM of Sino-American joint ventures and adopts therelated theories of cross-cultural Management. It analyzes the cultural problems in HRmanagement. The first part of the paper is an introduction which is composed of thepurpose, scope, and method of the study and the organization of the thesis. Chaptertwo is a literature review of previous studies on cross-cultural human resourcesmanagement. Chapter three discusses Chinese and American cultural differences andHRM characteristics. Chapter four investigates into the forms and causes of HRMdifferences in Sino-US joint ventures. Management of cultural conflicts is discussedin chapter five. Chapter six is the part of case analysis; one case is analyzed in detailin this part. Part seven give a conclusion and limitations of the paper.


Study of Cross-Culture Motivation Mechanism about Human Resource

On 07/08/2012, in Economics papers, by rain

【Abstract】 With the growing integration of the world economy, the international Management of Enterprise has already become an unavoidable tendency. The utilization of the global resources, especially the Human Resources has become the guarantee that keeps each Enterprise successful. How to motivate effectively the talent from different cultures and bring their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity into play, has become an important question that the administrators of every country or organization need to consider carefully. This thesis summed up the motivation theories systematically from the viewpoint of Cross-Cultural communication and dialogue. And with reference to the motivation mechanism of U.S.A. and Japan, under the guide of Hofstede’s national culture Four-Dimension, this thesis aims to provide valuable suggestion and reference for the Chinese enterprises in setting up effective talent’s motivation mechanism. The whole thesis is divided into four parts:First, Cross-Culture motivation mechanism research: A key factor in global talent war. Era calls for talent, talent advance the cause. In the era of globalization, countries and organizations are fighting fiercely for talent as rare resources. So how to motivate talent from different cultures is becoming a very important and urgent question. The establishment of Cross-Culture motivation mechanism is being more and more concerned by people.Second, Cross-Culture motivation theories and the main modes. The Basic aim of the motivation theories research lie in developing people’s latent energy to the maximum extent, and creating more material wealth and spiritual wealth, thus realizing the goal of organization. According to emphasis of study,the motivation theories can be divided into two types: Content theories and Process theories. Since the subject and object of motivation are both human, hypothesis of human nature decides the mode of motivation.Third, the Four-Dimension of national culture in studying Cross-Culture motivation mechanism. The influences of cultural factors on motivation are omni-directional and exist through the whole process. The culture of different country (or the nationality) influences the motivation theories and practices enormously. The ideas of culture, especially understanding of and faith in human nature, will influence the forming and operations of motivation mechanism deeply. However the culture is profound and difficult to percept, it is very difficult to measure. In this situation, Dutch Professor Hofstede, created the theory of Four-Dimension of national culture and made the initiative contribution.Fourth, reference and innovation: Exploring the motivation mechanism Characteristic of China in practice. In the Era of Economic globalization, U.S.A. and Japanese adhere to their own cultural characteristics, forming their own talent motivation mechanism with its own advantages. The thought patterns between East and West are different, so motivation mechanism Characteristic of China should be built on Chinese culture, thought and history, adhering to and making advantage of the roots. At the same time we should refer to and absorb the motivation theories and motivation mechanisms of other cultures, so that a motivation mechanism of talent Characteristic of China can be created.


Research on Cross-culture Team Management of Internationalizing Enterprises

On 03/07/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 Cross-culture team Management is widely noticed and emphasized in the international academe. It is an important factor that impact innovation ability, competition ability and continuous development of enterprises.After China join the WTO, more and more enterprises expand to the international market gradually. Accompany with the internationalization of the enterprises and the change of the operation processes, cross-culture teams are created with multinational employee. But new change generate new problem. How to encourage the employee from different country effectively? How to create an approximately unified culture throughout the team? How to create an efficient, orderable and peaceful organization atmosphere? These are new challenges and problems that enterprises must face with and urgent to resolve. So it is necessary to make a systemic and deep research on the cross-culture team Management for internationalizing enterprises.The thesis will take Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., briefly called Huawei, a famous domestic enterprises which is on the way of internationalization, as a suitable example to analyze and research cross-culture team management with methods of material collection, investigation questionnaire and interview. The thesis firstly analyze the reason that more and more enterprises expand to the international market, and analyze the impact on the traditional team management idea. Furthermore, theoretically research the behavior and cause of culture conflict, analyze countermeasure, so as to generalize instructional ideas, principle and methods of cross-culture team management.During analysis and research, the thesis take the cross-department team management which happens in Huawei process innovation of Integrated Product Development ( IPD) as background, use investigation questionnaire to collect data and experience of latest five years, analyze the effect, deeply understand the cross-culture team management during internationalizing through generalization. Then, the thesis make a conclusion that a totally new enterprises culture is the ultimately answer to resolve the problems of cross-culture <WP=6>team management. At last, the thesis elucidates the application and value of the research on cross-culture team management from three sides: HR. management, project management and information security.In the later development and manage practice, Chinese enterprises will still face with different conflict and challenge, while cross-culture team management will greatly impulse the enterprises to realize continuously international development. At the same time, Huawei and its management experience will bring useful reference to other internationalizing enterprises.


Research on Foreign Capital Enterprises’ Cross-culture Management Communication

On 19/06/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 It’s very complicated that we communicate effective information. It’s a great issue that how to transfer information effectively and timely to the final aim and if we encounter the different organizations’ culture background and in the important period of innovation, communication is more difficult. This thesis starts from Management communication’s Basic theory and then introduces a foreign capital Enterprise——Wrigley Chewing Gum Company Limited. It studies Wrigley’s managementcommunication system and strategy when the Enterprise is facing the momentouschange ——consolidation. During the process of consolidation, it gives somesuggestions to the key problems such as how to carry through effective interaction between communication subject and object. Wrigley absorbs two excellent foreign capital enterprises’ cross-culture Management communication experience to deal with the problems during the process of consolidation. This thesis aims at to provide the cross-culture Management communication strategy during the special period, to enhance the enterprise’s cross-culture communication efficiency and to perfect its management communication system.


The Cross-culture Study of Global Brand

On 14/06/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 In 1990s, Multinational Companies came into an era of global brands competition. Brand turns into the most obvious competition form. At the same time multinational companies came into a time of cross-culture Management. With the deep development of global brands, more and more companies find that the most difficulty in brand globalization is different cultures. Cultural becomes the most important factor in brand communication. So how to globalize brand under different culture is an important problem for multinational companies, which is also a valuable theory problem to study.So far most theory studies related ignored the background of cross-culture. Based on existing research, this study focused on the Basic characteristics of national culture tries to build a series cross-cultural strategies for global brands through the methods of case study and comparative study. And at the same time, put forward some suggestions to Chinese companies in brand globalization.The whole study is around the relationship of brand and culture. At first, the study point out that the culture affects every level of the brand. The culture is the most important factor of brand building, which affects brand all-around.Secondly, with the definition of brand globalization concept; the research clarifies the deep reasons for the cross-culture problem of brand globalization. At the same time use the Hofstede national culture model to analyze the strategy of brand globalization. With case study and comparative analysis, the research point out that the multinational companies need to adapt brand enter-way, advertising, public relations and network communication to cross-cultural situation and local consumer’s demands.In the end, the study brings forward some suggestions to Chinese companies in brand globalization, with the study of Chinese global brand current situation.Because of lacking related study information and first-hand data, there are some shortages in this study. Hope can do more research about this study in the future.

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A Focus on Human Resource Integration in Cross-border M&A

On 10/06/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 Cross-border M&A is very popular in the world in recent years. The amount and the value of Cross-border M&A are always in a high level. People not only focus on the amount of the M&A, but also the quality of the M&A. Whether cross-border M&A can achieve anticipation decides on the Management integration after M&A. Human resource integration is a vital aspect in the Management integration. By human resource integration, the manager can optimize the human resource, activate the employee’s enthusiasm, and do contribution to the new company.This paper is composed of four parts. Chapter one is exordium, it mainly describes the writing background, recent research progeny and the purpose of this paper;Chapter two summarizes the theory of Cross-border M&A and human resource. On one hand, it analyses the concept of Cross-border M&A, reviews the history of Cross-border M&A, prospects the development of Cross-border M&A; On the other hand, it analyses the concept of human resource integration. It points out the importance of human resource integration in Cross-border M&A.Chapter three mainly describes the problem of human resource integration in Cross-border M&A in recent years, analyses the reason of the problem.Chapter four discusses how to integrate the human resource by analyzing the process of integration. Firstly;it describes the successful factor of human resource integration in Cross-border M&A. Secondly;it divides the whole process into two steps. The first step is integration preparation in pre-merge and acquisition, the company should build up integration group and draw integration plan; the second step is putting the integration into practice, the article explains in deploying the human resource, training and developing and adjusting reward system.The last part concludes and emphasizes the main viewpoints.


Will the Corporate Culture Surmount National Culture?

On 09/06/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 This article consists of “theoretical examination” and “a proof study”. For Chapter 2″cross-cultural Management theory”, I examine a theory from each genre to be related to the cross-cultural Management that has been developed in conventional international business administration and clarify it about a background of switch of the theory.In this chapter, I begin with a definition of traditional international business administration and review a fact and the theory that have been discovered through positioning of cross-cultural management theory to occupy it in it and a study of a multinational management theory and explain multinational of a company in international management and evolution of a management system. And I clarify that the aim that the multinational Enterprise which passed through some stages should finally aim at is trans-national model.Furthermore, I explain that there are need, it which take in culture as an important element of management again at companies various organizations besides a country without I begin it from a definition of culture and preach it and wake up how a general idea of culture is related to these for a theory, and I hit it if it runs multinational and do not consider culture and a saying element, and going.The conventional study that has been pushed forward by a culture theory point of view explains that a point of view whether you tie it not being met a request of time now, the staff of the background that is how different while I am different, andacceptance affirms a difference not a point of view to deal again of country culture who invited the global times to is necessary afterwards although the contribution is big. On that occasion, as well as results of research of a comparison study every country about company management and many culture comparison, I point out a study of Hofstede and Trompenaars which are an authority of a cross-cultural study and the result and the problems. And I assume that a viewpoint secondary, to arrest country culture meets it by world situation of the present age after having introduced a wider cross-cultural study attracting attention recently and introduce the latest result.I consider it about the present conditions of the Japan company where it has been said to that I stand in comparison with a European and American company for dozens of years, and globalization is late with Chapter 3. On that occasion I give an outline about manufacturing industry, service trade, the nucleus a medium and small-sized business and recommend “transformer National type” “Transcultural type” now as a problem of the Japanese multinational Enterprise where is seen in and the direction that I should aim at.I will generalize Part 1. If I do a Bartlett and Ghoshal, Adler, the cross-cultural management theory that I insisted on of Magoshi with a base and apply the international management theory that I analyzed to here to management of a Japanese-company in China, I can put up the following proposition.A multinational Enterprise should aim at the model that is transformer National of world intention. Therefore I utilize own mother country culture of the judgment that the staff who came from different culture is fair as useful management resources, and an effective result is provided in the whole group company. An area and flexible correspondence for a change of the times are included to be able to warp.A thing harmonizing the various staffs having a different background is culture of the company where the they staff is deep and can sympathize with concerned. Therefore fairness doctrine is gone through, and I am not discriminated by a difference of mother country culture, and personality as the company where all staffs can approve of even if, in addition, they have a background of country culture to bedifferent in them is shown.Chapter 4 “example investigation” is analysis as a result of example investigation that I went for three Japanese-companies in 2005. Question content of investigation is based on the ideal model that new development and a Japanese-company of the cross-cultural management theory that I already arranged by problem submission should have, and it is set. I asked three multinational enterprises which represented Japan in the Chengdu city for cooperation how globalization progressed in the Japanese-multinational enterprise where I came to carry today when globalization advanced, a role of Chinese globalization on. It was enforced in Europe by Magoshi that investigation of similar content is a chairperson of a Japanese cross-cultural study society, but it is the place that is interesting whether a result to be similar as expected in China which was snowbound with “a curtain of bamboo” till now is confirmed. China is incorporated in a global frame now, and that transformation of country culture advances is observed, but global management technique comes to even Japanese a living-in-inside multinational enterprise to a stage to pass and attracts attention whether it “is it till the superior corporate culture that a global company has exceeds country culture anymore”.It is the last, chapter and, based on findings, deals with a difference of country culture in state of things as a company and shows the method that should utilize it as effective management resources. I emphasize that effective synergy effect and agreement are provided by letting it seep to every corner in a company what kind of corporate culture I should get to gather up a more multi-national employee.


International Marketing of Cross-culture Communication

On 05/05/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 This dissertation presents an exploratory study of Chinese brand globalization (CBG) among foreigners in China .CBG consists two perspectives: on one hand, Chinese brand globalization in foreign marketing; on the other hand, Chinese brand globalization in domestic marketing. With China entry into WTO and progress, more and more foreigners will come to China for tour, business, study, or sports etc.The cross communication will therefore be more colorful. As the number of foreigners who buy houses and settle down in China increase,”walk-in” guest and “community ” will be gradually come into being in big main cities. Hence, in some certain foreign communities, people will have the similar consuming behavior due to their same background and custom, which easily builds up the brand community. This dissertation will take Xiamen, one of the five China Special Economic Zone as a Case, and further study how the Chinese Brand globalization in domestic marketing and how the communication strategy will be put forward during the brand globalization in Xiamen ?As a professor Roell Sophie pointed out in Financial Times, Most Mainland Chinese brands are still local or regional ones: they lack the resources to compete with the international giants. Take the case of Zhengguanghe, the Shanghai soft drinks group, which rejected joint ventures with Coca-Cola and sought to defend its established territory. The result: tumbling market share and rising debts.The case is not simply this, what we should do is to design a suitable mode for the development of these groups of Foreigners, not only in Xiamen.This would be a question.

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