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Effects of Main Cultivation Measures on Helicoverpa Armigera in Cotton Field

On 11/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) is one of the main insect pests of the cotton production in Xinjiang province. In recent years, cultivation way of cotton has had the very big change in Xinjiang, and the occurrence and damage of Heliothis avmigera are becoming seriously, which is restricting the cotton production. Exploring the relationship between the occurrence and hazards of Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner) with the local cotton cultivation measures and puting forward a reasonable and effective control strategy has a very important practical significance to cotton production in XinjiangIn this paper, we studied the effects of various cotton irrigation methods, different amount of nitrogen application, different pharmaceutical control of different cotton varieties and autumn plowing winter irrigation on Helicoverpa armigera by indoor and field experiments, the main results are as follows:fluence of different irrigation ways to growth and harm of Heliothis avmigera (Hübner): Net interior inoculating insect pest tests showed that,when compared with furrow irrigation, the number of cotton bollworm eggs layed on cotton plants of irrigation field was 3.76 times than that of furrow field, cotton bollworm eggs hatching increased 45.13%, larval survival was higher, the rate of buds and bolls enchanced 35.30%, the rate of pupae was 6.09 times more than that in furrow irrigationInfluence of chemical control to the growth and harm of Heliothis avmigera(Hübner):by adopting the method of inoculation and breeding,the effects of the different of chemical control medicament,mepiquat chloride (PIX) and Paclobutrazol(PP333) on development of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)and the damage to cotton plant were studyied. Comparing to CK, the number of cotton bollworm eggs layed on cotton plants decreased 29.34% by spraying chemical control medicament; HatchIing of cotton bollworm eggs was delayed and eggs hatchability was decreased 18.17%~36.36% by using medicament;the duration of larva development was shorten 0.1~1.7d; death rate was increased 2.0%~28.6%; the duration of pupae development was delayed 0.3~3.0d.There was different effects of PIX and PP333 on cotton bellworm in different development phases.The restrain action of PP333 on hatch of cotton bollworm eggs was better than PIX, but the effects of PIX on larval growth and oviposition preference were stronger than PP333. There was difference in effects of PIX and PP333 on damage of cotton bellworm, but the damage of lower instar larva was lightened.Influence of different nitrogen ferlization levels to development of Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner): Field and room experiments were conducted to assess the effects of nitrogen ferlization levels (75,225,375 5kg/hm2) on development of cotton bollworm. Inoculating and breeding results showed that the number of eggs of cotton bellworm is lowest in cotton field ferlizated 225kg·hm-2 . It was not big that effects of amount of nitrogen ferlization on survival rate of early-instar larvae, with amount of nitrogen ferlization on increased, survival rate of later-instar larvae of cotton bollworm have had a upward trend, However, in all the larval stages, in the middle level of nitrogen, the survival rate and pupation rate of the cotton bollworm fed are lowest; the development duration of larvae and pupae increased with the nitrogen to extend, General of the results, midium level of nitrogen ferlization was more conducive to the integrated control of cotton bollworm.Influence of different varieties of cotton to Helicoverpa armigera development and the damage : In Shihezi region ,12 local cotton varieties resistance to bollworm was conducted a comprehensive evaluation by indoor and outdoor experiments, The reselt showed that the Biaoza A1 and Xingpaotai1 was resistant varieties, Xinluzao 36, Xinluzao 33 and Xinluzao 21 were for the susceptible varieties, medium resistant cotton varieties, resistance to the cotton bollworm of Zhongmian 42 had consistent performance indoor and outdoor, damaged was relatively.Impact of autumn plowing winter irrigation to cotton bollworm overwintering: The results showed that Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner) pupae overwintering mortality rate was 90.0~92.5% in the land winter irrigated autumn plowed , in the land plowed, mortality rate was 70.8~75.0%, in the land irrigated it was 80.0~84.6%, plots of non-cultivated non-irrigated was 50.0~70.4%

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Along with the development of society in China, NGO gradually play a…

On 08/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Along with the development of society in China, NGO gradually play an important role in public services. Under the circumstances, local NGO in ethnic minority areas have been emerged. China’s ethnic minority areas are mostly in political and geographical edge. They have different language and culture and religion from mainstream society. Because the modern countries have secular and utilitarian nature, the ethnic minority areas are easily to become the place where gathered conflicts of modernization and development. These areas are also easily to appear ecological and Social and political problems. In order to deal with the difficulties, the local ethnic elite established local NGO by themselves. Compared with other NGO, local NGO often rooted in their own homeland. Though a relative unknown for the mainstream society and public media, they greatly help the area to solve Social problems, and show the enlightment to mainstream society.Three river sources of West China, which located in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau hinterland and the south of Qinghai province, is the chment area of the Yangtze river, the Yellow river and the Lancang river. Thus, the local ecological environment is very fragile and sensitive. In July2011, entrusted by “the research on the social organization providing public service pattern in ethnic minority areas” project, author get acquainted with the Snowland Great Rivers Environmental Protection Association (hereinafter referred to as Snowland Association), and take the Association as the investigation target community of the degree thesis.Tibetan play the leading role in Snowland Association. It committed to protect and propagandize the natural environment and traditional ecological culture in Qinghai-Tibet plateau. And it also focus on the sustainable development of the people and nature in this area. Because of the unique background of geography and culture in Three river sources, the projects of the Association all reflects the unique idea of Tibetan culture and Tibetan Buddhism. What’s more, this even can affect the Association how to choice their own road. All these Show the unique vitality when the minorities combined with the local ecological resources.In the macroscopic background of the modern Economic development leading to increasingly tense relationship between the people and resources, the author recognize that the Association is typical as one of the local NGOs in ethnic minority areas of China. On one hand, it shows the wisdom and ability of local people who using the local knowledge and traditional culture method to solve the problems concerning the development of themselves. On the other hand, it also reflects the dilemma of ecological protection and social Management which the minority NGO and country government are facing together. Meanwhile, it also put forward the important issues and prompt the bright future to the ecological, social, cultural and political civilization construction and the “change development way, innovate social governance” of China.Therefore, this paper discusses the function of local residents and culture of minorities in the local development and ecological Environmental protection through recording the ethnography and analyzing project cases of association, and then states the degradation of ecological environment in ethnic minority areas is closely related to the weakening of the minority rights. All these clarify the inevitability, necessity, legitimacy and urgency of taking minorities as developing subject in their own areas. At the same time, this paper demonstrates that in order to vindicate cultural ecological environment in ethnic minority areas and avoid the game dilemma of the local natural ecological environment and ethnic relations which caused by government unilateral behaviors, the contemporary national relations of China should follow the path of which “the government should keep consultation and constitutionalism with all nationalities, and honor promise and credit to shop national unity together.”This thesis is divided into six chapters.Chapter one introduces the origin and significance of this research. Through the multi-angle and different aspects of description and analysis to this Association, the thesis hopes to expand the scope of research on NGO of the minority regions, interpret how the local NGO work as a bridge between the local people and the government, prompt the necessity of cooperative development of all nationalities and local autonomy of minorities, then provide reference for the other NGO.Chapter two respectively summarizes the localization of NGO, the evolution of developing subject, and the game theory from the difficulty to cooperation.Chapter three introduces lots of aspects about the Association, which including development history, work program and personnel structure. Then it mainly describes the coadjutant, petty loan and Conservation Steward Program of the association. All these Project modes are worth using for reference.Chapter four studies the Association cases in four aspects, which contains cultural background, local subjects, nationality trust and Management way, standing on the different angles of the outside and local people. And then it put forward:the relationship between cultural diversity and ecological diversity is mutual causal; the local people should be taken as developing subject and this identity should get the institutional guarantee; nationality trust is necessary and important; rational management has its limitation.Chapter five illustrates the Association’s current dilemma from the outside and the Association itself, which including modernization, communication and fund dilemma. In some degree, these difficulties can represent other NGO’s dilemma in minority nationality regions,chapter six, with the introspectional discussion, the paper presents bat country and mainstream society should improve the occasion, promote the reciprocal cooperation between the local NGO and village government on the basis of minority culture and rights and interests, and let they play main role in administration of local society together. In addition, mutual trust between the government and the local people is the primary condition to achieve mutual benefit, reciprocity and win-win goals, so as to solve game trouble.China is a multi-ethnic unity country.The development of China can’t happen if without the development of ethnic minorities. The development and prosperity of status, rights, interests and culture of the minorities are the precondition of the development of the Chinese culture and national rejuvenation. Referencing to background of which the society call reform in today’s China, the country should enrich the system of regional national autonomy constantly, promote the change of lent mode, recognize and uphold the minorities’ dvelopment view.

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The Research of Network Prose in the View of New Media

On 08/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

China is the country of prose. In the whole history of Chinese literature since the twentieth Century, the essay obtain rapid development from The May Forth Movement to the90’s. It is considered the important component in Chinese contemporary literature. Prose as a literary style and age have very close relations, if the creation of prose in the perspective of mass media, we can clearly see the relationship between media and literature. The human history of printing、network and other five media revolution, will lead to different forms of prose. From this dimension of view, The medium is no longer a simple material carrier of prose propagation, From the research framework of “media–literature”, it has already become the important dimensions of the prose itself. This point in the press, TV prose prose body has been confirmed.By the90’s, the rapid popularization and development of Computer network not only influenced the Social culture, promote the chang of information disseminatione, the literary ecology and pattern also have been deconstructioned and reconstructioned. From the perspective of “literature field” to interpretation, the network media directly influe the literary production mechanism, multiple influe the production of literary. Network prose, which is based on network media as the carrier of the new concept, the new media forms influencing and changing the creation space、communication space、aesthetic paradigm and critical reading mode, etc……As a kind of free style style, it will become the new milepost in the prose development history.The article analysis the creation mechanism of prose on the basis of the theory of media. This article holds that the network media propagation characteristics on the network’s influence in many aspects. For example, the concept and definition of the prose; writer’s freedom; the plurality of transmission about prose; the reconstruction of aesthetic paradigm in Newtwork prose; change of reading mode;as well as the literary value、Social value and cultural value of network, etc…Of course, network prose has many limitations, such as the lack of subject, the disenchantment and digestion of literature, subversion of Poetic (even become language carnival or pure word games). Directly lead to the vulgarization, serious homogenization of prose works.However, network prose is the fourth creative climax afterwards sixty time, seventy time, at the beginning of the early80’s and90’s afterwords. Through the analysis and grasp of theoretical. I believe that the network prose will be more free attitude into people’s research and study areas in the near future, and has become an important component in prose history.

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Development of Discrimination Related HIV/AIDS Scale for Health Work

On 28/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective: To develop discrimination related HIV/AIDS scale for Health work, as an instrument of measurement in the next related study.Methods: The samples consisted of 700 Health works from 10 different Medical care institution in Gejiu city Yunnan province, include four city Medical care institution, four country medical care institution, and two special medical care institution; there are 552 female and 146 male, mean age is 35.4, they profession are 39.7% doctor and 49.5% nurse; Based on the definiens of discrimination and the seven field they are considered have discrimination related HIV/AIDS by UNAIDS, we developed the content framework; Exploratory factor analytic approaches were used to develop the infra-structure of the scale. The reliability analysis included the Cronbach’s a, split-half reliability. The validity analysis included content, construct, and difference validity.Results: (1) The DR-HIV/AIDS- consists of 104 items. (2) Exploratory principal component analysis of the items identified that the scale had four factors, explaining 60.700% of the total variance respectively. Four factors were labeled as follows: F1: admitting, F2: dread, F3: isolation, F4: cue. (3) The Cronbach’s a coefficient and split-half ranged from 0.7214 to 0.8222, 0.6478 to 0.8356, 0.8354 and 0.8564 respectively for the total scale. (4) The differentiate validity analysis show that the scores of total scale have statistic significance among different institute, sex, Education level, profession and work age, but age is not.Conclusions: (1) Factor analyses studies showed the structure of the DR-HIV/AIDS is pretty reasonable. (2) Psychometic properties analyses showed that the DR-HIV/AIDS achieved good to excellent levels of internal consistency, content, and construct.

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Development and Evaluation of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Subscale in Spleen and Stomach Disease PRO Scale (SSDPRO-IBS)

On 27/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVE:The Spleen and Stomach disease PRO scale(SSD-PRO) is a reliable and valid disease-specific instrument, which is used for measuring the Traditional Chinese medicine curative effect. Based on it, this study was going to develop the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) subscale in Spleen and Stomach disease PRO scale(SSDPRO-IBS), and then evaluate it.METHODS:According to the structured group methods of instrument development, the instrument with Chinese cultural background was developed, and evaluated by analyzing the data from 200 IBS patients. By applying 5 kinds of nonparametric statistical methods, which include factor analysis, stepwise regression, discriminant analysis, ANOVA analysis, expert’s judgment for the items weightiness and Crobach’s a coefficient,42 items were kept to form a formal scale.RESULTS:The SSDPRO-IBS scale include 4 domains with 8 facets in it. The correlation coefficient between the subtotal of odd and that of even item was 0.950; the correlation coefficients for each domain were 0.767,0.873,0.767 and 0.505. The Crobach’s a of the whole scale was 0.949, when each domain were 0.942,0.873,0.766,0.591.The result of Correlation analysis shows that, except the enviroment domain, each domain was correlated to the whole scale (r>0.6). and in physiology dimension, each item was correlated to it’s own facet and it’s own domain except the items of “pain eased after stool”, “felt dizzy”, “normal times of stool”. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the CFI of the scale was 0.8 and of 4 domains were 0.967,0.966,0.957 and 0.973 respectively, the results of IRT showed that all items didn’t have uniform DIF and non-uniform DIF. The t-test showed that the SSDPRO-IBS scale was able to reflect the difference between healthy people and patients (P<0.01)CONCLUSION:The SSDPRO-IBS subscale is a reliable and valid disease-specific instrument.

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Development and Utilization of Nderground Space Nanchang Benefit Analysis

On 23/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

As the Nanchang speeding up ” large Investment, large construction, big development” the strategy, city development will enter a new era, will inevitably lead to all kinds of city problems also correspondingly generated, wherein a particularly sharp city city space problem is serious shortage of capacity. Therefore, the underground space as a kind of important resource development, is one of the effective ways to solve the city, but also improve the city Social function, realize the city sustainable development inevitable trend. In this paper, drawing on domestic brother city underground space development and utilization on the basis of experience, combined with the current situation investigation and Research on the problems in the development of Nanchang underground space, a comprehensive systematic analysis of the development and utilization of underground space in the city all kinds of benefit, emphasis is put forward the Nanchang underground space development and utilization of the overall layout and the main countermeasures. I hope this article made some useful exploration to Nanchang, the Economic and Social development plays a certain reference significance.

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A Research on the Deng Xiao Ping’ Strategy Thought of Continuous Development

On 22/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Deng Xiaoping’s strategy thought of Continuous Development is an integrated developing point of view concerning economy, society, culture and natural environment, which is a kind of macroscopically thinking upon the correspond and whole process of Chinese socialism modernization, based on the realistic and general knowledge of the situation of China, when environment problems are becoming important tasks of the development. It shows Deng Xiaoping’s round and profound grasping on the consistency between the development of economy and society and the protection of environment.This article discuses Deng Xiaoping’s strategy thought of Continuous Development on the three aspects: Population, Resource and Environment. Then, analyze its generality, dialecticality and practicality as the Basic character.Deng Xiaoping’s strategy thought of Continuous Development also shows the universal principles of Marxism Philosophy, such as the harmonic and eternal developing of human being and Nature, the generality of human production, the theory of contradiction, the theory of practice and the theory of The People.Deng Xiaoping’s strategy thought of Continuous Development should be carried out in the Great Western Development. According to the practice of western provinces and cities, this article insists that the continuous development in the great western should and must stress on key aspects, cure on phenomenon and essence, stand on today and keep an eye on future. Regional critical working points are the mending in Huangtu altiplano, the controlling of the earth-rocking-and-deserting in the southwestern, and the scientific development with effective protection of the gas resource in the desert of Takalarmagan. Five concrete working points are to change the thought of Economic development, to develop in the industry of environment protection, to develop in the industry of defense science, to innovate in out-dated systems, and to alter the Economic increase pattern for the resource-typed cities.Finally, this article analyzes the practice of continuous development in Shaanxi province, points out that the pressure and difficulty, with some advice given.

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On Mao Zedong Thought development course for necessaryresearch,help…

On 20/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

On Mao Zedong Thought development course for necessaryresearch,help us to further grasp and use the Mao Zedong Thought,accelerate the innovation of theory, advance China ‘s process of Marx.This article is to criticize dogmatism as main line, in order to researchthe formation and development of Mao Zedong Thought.First, elaborate the overview of dogmatism, and introduce theharm of dogmatism, dogmatism seriously hinder The Marx Doctrine’s dissemination and development in China, delay The Marx Doctrineof history in China, hinder Chinese revolution develops, influence theconstruction of the party. Analyse the dogmatism to Chineserevolution ‘s harm, performance is the military adventurism. The rootcauses of dogmatism is historical root, Social root,understanding rootand external causes.Second, along the masterstroke of criticizing dogmatism,detailed explorate the formation and development of Mao ZedongThought’s specific process, and from the angle of dogmatism, analysethe performance of Mao Zedong old age’s mistakes. First introduceMao Zedong Thought of scientific concept, and Mao ZedongThought history of formation and development stage, Mao ZedongThought connotation. Next through the analysis of Mao Zedong ‘swritings, discuss the relationship of Mao Zedong criticizingdogmatism and the formation and development of Mao ZedongThought。” Oppose Book Worship” is the logic starting point of MaoZedong criticizing dogmatism, is the initial mark of Mao ZedongThought formation. Mao Zedong station in philosophical height criticism dogmatism in” On Practice” and” On Contradiction”, at thesame time, deeply elaborate the Basic principle of The Marx Doctrineof dialectical materialism, establish Mao Zedong Thought theoryfoundation, indicate Mao Zedong Thought have already formed. TheMao Zedong Thought development is through comprehensivecriticizing dogmatism by Mao Zedong in the rectification movementof Yanan. And analyse the reasons of the Mao Zedong makedogmatism error in the period of socialist construction, the reason isMao Zedong in thought have great fantasy, and this kind of fantasymake Mao Zedong in dogmatism more and more deep.Last, summary of the Mao Zedong criticize dogmatism’sexperience and lessons and to our historical enlightenment. Thecombination of theory and practice is the Basic experience, surveyresearch is the best method of overcome dogmatism, and haveutopian thought is easy to make dogmatism mistake. To ourEnlightenment is The Marx Doctrine is scientific theory, is ourfundamental guiding ideology, at any time, under any circumstanceswe must firmly on The Marx Doctrine of faith,it is also thefundamental requirement of promoting The Marx Doctrine in China.The Marx Doctrine is not a dogma, is developmenting and livingscience, emancipate, realistic, keeping pace with the times are thebasic principles of creatively advance The Marx Doctrine in China.

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Development of Reference Material of Praseodymium Neodymium Oxide

On 16/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

According to the chemical composition of the XB/T206-2007 of praseodymium neodymium oxide, and the existing production processing, the experimental conditions were identified, and a serial of reference materials of praseodymium neodymium oxide were obtained. The serial of praseodymium neodymium oxide reference materials were divided into three ones according to different contents of chemical composition. Twelve units with rich experience were commissioned to analyze the standard samples using the provided methods. When choosing analysis methods, we adopted not only standard method and the long-term applicational analysis method, but also new technology, which has been developed in recent years. Collecting the analysis data from twelve units, after the uniformity testing qualified, making the Dioxn, the Glen-Tacobs, the Cochran, and the Shapiro-wilk testing, the standard values and uncertainty of the standard samples were obtained.The novelty research from Inner Mongolia Science and Technology Information Institute showed that there was no reference materials of praseodymium neodymium oxide currently in our country, so these reference materials were fresh. With the use of some companies and testing organizations, it was proved that the composition of the reference materials covering the available range of praseodymium neodymium oxide applications, and their uniformities and stabilities were well. They could be used as standard materials to analyze other similar type of products, and they also could be used to contrast analytical results of similar products and test relevant analysis methods and the performance of instruments.

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The Influence of Modern Science and Technology on Leisure

On 11/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The development of science and technology makes leisure become one of topics today. Nowadays, leisure has been a new lifestyle for people, and it has closely connected with the lives and development of people. This new lifestyle guides us return the nature of healthy balance and the states of being natural and harmonious, in which people returns the nature of mankind and makes life more meaningful.The development of leisure is connected with the improvement of science and technology. The signal breakout in science and technology provides great motive for production, in which physical body of people is unprecedentedly liberated. The rapid development of modern science and technology replaces and enhances people’s intelligence, and creates the new century of people’s intellectual liberation. Therefore, the leisure ideal of people comes true. Meanwhile, modern science and technology pushes leisure to a new realm. The development of modern science and technology makes the public become leisure subject and makes leisure subject form the idea of value of self-realization; emotion, experience and entertainment widely permeated the leisure object; meanwhile, the demands of leisure subject are gradually increased, the level of leisure is gradually improved, the leisure style is in the state of being diversifying, personal and sustained. The history indicates that the development of science and technology is the most direct motive of leisure development.To construct healthy, civilized and scientific modern leisure lifestyle is the advanced form and method of developing Social productive forces, and is the unneglectful field of promoting the view of scientific development, and the major content of modern construction. How to enrich people’s leisure time will directly influence the overall improvement of society, and will influence whether people can comprehensively and healthily develop themselves.