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The Guidance of Marxism Ecological Economy to the Development of Low-carbon Economy

On 15/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Climate warming is a ecological environment problem that faced by both indeveloped country and in developing country.It is the first task to transformeconomic structure,suit well Economic development pattern so as to keep economyhealth and sustainable development and reducing the climate warming.As weknow,low-carbon economy is a kind of development pattern,that is low energyconsumption,low let out and low pollution. Nowdays,we need to improve theutilization ratio of energy and set up the structure of cleaning use energy,and it isalso the most important way of the innovation of technology and system.Theecological enviroment of the human living is more and more serious,so scholars athome and abroad are very attation to find way from Marx`s ecological econmicsthought,especially the harmony between man and nature.Marx ecological economicsthought not only solve today`s ecological environment problem in China and all overthe world,because of industrialization,urbanization,but be helpful for Chinesescholars to discuss the development of low-carbon economy as well.At the sametime,it is also the solution to today`s developed and developing countries due tolabor and brings people alienation state disorders and mentality disorders.This paper takes marx ecological economy thought as the breakthrough point.In the first part,it is about the contemporary value of marx ecological economicthought. Takes Marx`s ecological Economic thought as the interview, the disscusionof people,society and nature is the essence of the relationship between economicdevelopment and the protection of ecological enviroment.The second part is aboutthe theoretical guidance of Marx ecological economic thought to the low-carboneconomy. In the third part,it is about the countermeasures of promoting ourcountry`s low-carbon economy development.

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Research on Third-Party Logistics Service Development Based on Multi-subjects Angle

On 13/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

As the development of Economic globalization, the competition is becoming more and more fiercely in the market. Logistics service demand of Enterprise is increasing as well as the fierce competition among the third-party logistics, if the third-party logistics Enterprise wants to grow and win the market in the fierce competition, they must to improve their logistics services ability and create their own core competitive advantage.This paper mainly studies the third party logistics enterprise how to develop their business to create its own core competitiveness, on the basis of introducing the thought of Multi-subjects participation, and points out that the logistics service development process from three main influencing factors. They are the third-party logistics enterprise itself, the customer and competitor. Then through using the analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation theory to create the model of the research on third-party logistics service development based on Multi-subjects angle. Solved the third party logistics enterprise how to develop its own service problems and enhanced their logistics service ability, and also plays an important role in improve the market competitiveness of enterprises in the logistics. The innovation of this paper lie in the introduction the thought of Multi-subjects participation, through study the multi-subjects influence factors in service development and construct the model. This paper solved the difficult problems in the business development of the third-party logistics and helped they find the direction and method of its business development.

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[Objective] There are large number of Traditional Chinese Medicine c…

On 12/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

[Objective] There are large number of Traditional Chinese Medicine clinics in Beijing, having their own characteristics in operation and Management, these Chinese medicine clinics located in the urban core and suburban and rural areas in Beijing, supplying the society with Chinese medicine services together with Chinese medicine hospitals, clinics and other large and medium-sized Chinese Medical institution. There are both famous aged traditional Chinese medicine doctor and Ordinary TCM doctor; The Medical range concludes both Chinese Internal Medicine, but also acupuncture, massage, orthopedics and traumatology, etc; the Economic situation of the patients are both high-level consumers, and low-income people; patients from both Some local residents, but also the floating population; the form of ownership is private clinics, stock cooperative, but also shares in the company.In this study, through survey research, make a more comprehensive grasp of the development status of Chinese medicine clinics in three counties, facing the internal environment and external market and policy environment, summarize experiences, identify problems, offer proposals to promote the Chinese medicine clinics to have the Health and long-term development.[Method] This study made a survey research about the status and problems of the Chinese medicine clinics in Xuanwu, Xicheng, Chaoyang three districts in Beijing, the major informants are Chinese medicine Clinic operators and Health administrators of related district. In results analysis combined the quantitative and qualitative data analysis, not only describe the situation, more deeply analyze the root causes the current situation.[Conclusions] This study found through survey research that, the area of Chinese Medicine Clinic in three counties of Beijing are generally higher than the requirement in “Basic standards of Medical institutions”; the service object has a broader coverage; have not form a reasonable echelon personnel, mostly elderly TCM doctor, youth The second, middle-aged at least, appear a “two big middle small ” situation.The main service projects are medical therapy, acupuncture, massage, cupping, bone setting and scraping, the average of Chinese medicine each Chinese medicine clinics use are 3.7 species; 61.9% of the Chinese medicine clinics carry out telephone reserving service.This study attempts to use “clinical time efficiently’ to study the Chinese medicine clinics,by comparison, the “clinical time efficiently” of traditional Chinese medicine clinic are higher than hospitals; in Health status, the Chinese medicine clinic are general good; in the privacy of patients, half of the Chinese medicine clinic separate treatment clinic environment, but there are Basic not clear patient privacy protection system; in the form of ownership, main the individual and joint stock-based; in operating conditions, the cost of clinic per time in the investigated Chinese medicine clinic is 142.381 yuan, daily average attendance is about 22, staff wages and rent of hydropower is the two largest of clinic expenses, taxes fees in most Chinese medicine clinics is not the proportion of total expenditure.This study divided Chinese medicine clinics in accordance with three dimensions of the core competitiveness of Chinese medicine clinics:Service winning type, Curative effect of winning and Convenience winning type. Chinese medicine clinics patient population is very stable, clinic operators are mostly consciously or unconsciously used patients relationship Management strategies to protect their own groups of patients.Strictly access for examination and approval limit the number of Chinese medicine clinics, medical insurance policies excluded the Chinese medicine clinics and brought great difficulties to the part of the clinic, But Chinese medicine clinics run by corporate still exists operating pressure. Doctor’s multi-sited licensed system can enhance the flexibility of flow of talent, but the specific implementation still requires the related systems gradually adjust and coordination.[Suggestions] This study put forward development proposals in aspects of Chinese medicine clinics Management and health administration management.The clinic management proposals include:providing value-added services, keep patients loyal(optimize service processes, to protect patient privacy and strengthen management of patients); identifying critical patients, expand communication channels; strengthen personnel training, promoting sustainable development; optimize treatment environment, reflects Chinese characteristics establish two-way referral, set up the development platform; carry out horizontal exchange, to create the overall brand.The health administration management proposals include:Accelerate the development of health planning, and guide the development of Chinese medicine clinics; to actively implement the doctor’s multi-sited licensed, encourage the rational flow; level authentication information public, to guide selection of patients for medical treatment; pilot covered by medical insurance, give full play to industry self-regulation, to enhance supervision and management; to strengthen regulation of illegal clinics,to protect the legitimate rights and interests clinics.

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On Deng Xiaoping’s Thought of Spiritual Impetus

On 12/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Development is an eternal theme about the human existence and progress, so development is a new topic forever. Each period, there has the different context and content of development in this period,and previous experience and lessons learned from the development offer the references of content and guidelines of method for the latter period. From the overall process of development of human society , the Social development is a process of the double variation of material and spiritual life, so when we emphasize the Basic role of material life, we also need to reflect、examine and explore the Social development from the spiritual level. This paper studies Deng Xiaoping’s thought of spiritual impetus through several aspects as the historical origins, the Basic connotation, the main contents, the great functions and the practical ways and so on.Firstly, through reviewing Marx、Engels and Lenin、Mao Zedong’s thought of spiritual impetus, integrating Deng Xiaoping’s expatiation on the spiritual impetus, we argue that Deng Xiaoping’s spiritual impetus is the subject spirit of one period, a firm belief and ideal of Marxism, and use these firm beliefs and ideals to unite and cohere the people,for making them to strive, and turn the emotion, will, beliefs, ideals etc into the object of human society in practice, to impel the Social development soundly and rapidly. Its main contents are: belief of Marxism、pursuit of socialism、the sentiment of patriotism and spirit collectivism.Secondly, Deng Xiaoping paid great attention to and emphasized repeatedly the spiritual impetus’s important role in the socialist modernized construction and the social development all his life,and he focused mainly on the spiritual impetus’s great role in these several aspects of the construction of spiritual civilization、the material civilization and the social harmony.Finally, in the new period、new environment and new era of the reform and opening up and socialist modernized construction, Deng Xiaoping argued that how to maintain, develop and enhance the spiritual impetus was important particularly. Summed up, Deng Xiaoping argued to keep、develop and improve the practical ways of spiritual impetus we need to: insist the four cardinal principles; study the history and politics; insist the center of Economic construction; deepen reform and opening up.

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Rural Urbanization Development Research of BeiAn

On 12/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Rural urbanization development research of BeiAnThe rural urbanization is an important mark of our society’s developing towards modern civilization, a significant carrier and propeller of the industrialization and modernization, and an inevitable law for the development of productivity. Speeding up the pace of the rural urbanization is significant to the full development of our society and economy, and to the effective resolution of the problems facing our agriculture, rural areas and farmers.BeiAn is a mountainous and less-developed area. Since China’s reform and opening to the outside world, the rural urbanization in BeiAn has developed quickly and taken elementary shape, and laid a good foundation for the modernization of the agriculture and rural economy. But generally speaking, the rural urbanization in BeiAn is still in a low level:the infrastructure is old; the guiding strength of the centre cities is weak; the development among cities and towns is uneven; the towns are small; and the cities and towns can not bring their gathering and scale effect into full play. And now it is the main task for BeiAn to take the chance of constructing the Economic zone on the west side of the Straits to speed up its rural urbanization process, so as to catch up with other well-developed cities and towns and to develop BeiAn’s economy rapidly, healthily and harmoniously. By analyzing the general rule of rural urbanization, exploring the four practice models of our country’s rural urbanization, and using the theories of growth pole in Regional Economics, the thesis mainly analyzes the history, current situation and problems, and then puts forward the development model and solutions to the rural urbanization in BeiAn, so as to make the society and economy in BeiAn develop well and rapidly.This thesis is composed of six chapters:The first chapter the introduction. Mainly introduces the background and significance of the urbanization research at home and abroad, the urbanization construction, this paper reviewed the research research ideas, content, method. The second chapter presents the general theory of rural urbanization of rural urbanization includes:the definition and features of urbanization, the world, the general rule of rural urbanization and the dynamic mechanism. The third chapter of rural urbanization at home and abroad to our country experience enlightenment. Chapter4BeiAn analysis the current situation of rural urbanization. First introduced the general situation BeiAn area, and then analyzes the BeiAn rural urbanization process and characteristics, and then BeiAn area of the problems existing in the construction of the urbanization and its causes are analyzed. Chapter5analysis the influence BeiAn rural urbanization development factors; Chapter6is the conclusion.

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A Research on the Development of the Construction of Key Disciplines in Medical Universities and of the Model of Management

On 07/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Discipline is the foundation of the development of universities, the cradle of talents and the base of scientific research. As a significant standard for evaluating the managing capability of universities, key discipline represents the academic strength and level of universities together with their advantages and features. Medical universities undertake the important responsibility of educating talents in Medical science, lifting the healthy standard of the people and promoting the advancement of medical science. A good work in the construction of key discipline in medical universities has an important and far-reaching significance in activating the development of the whole academic strength of all the disciplines and pushing forward the development of the comprehensive capabilities of universities. So that the solid foundation for the Education of medical talents with high quality, the creation of advanced innovative achievements and the provision of high-level Health care service can be laid.In this research, large amount of referential materials, documents from the government and the departments of the headquarters and the research achievements of the predecessors have been consulted and they have played avery important role in successfully progressing the research. In recent years, the construction of disciplines has been paid much attention by the government and all the universities. Especially with the carrying out of the “221 Project” and “985 Project”, the construction of key disciplines has become an important measure in accomplishing the strategy of “developing the country with science and Education”. Therefore, many experts and scholars have explored from different angles deeply into all the subjects concerning the construction of key disciplines: its significance and role, principles and aims, content and methods, problems and countermeasures, evaluation and assessment and the intra- and inter-relationships. They have achieved much success and experience. The main aim of this research is to provide certain consulting reference for the department who is in charge of the construction and for the construction itself in the process of constructing, decision making and managing through the study of the important elements of effecting the construction of key disciplines in medical institutions of higher education and the study of the Management model of it. The main contents of this research is the following: (1) the establishment of the framework and Basic content of the construction of key disciplines;(2) the establishment of the framework and the Basic content of the Management model of the key disciplines.The major researching methods are as the following: firstly, through the method of literature review and consultative lecture with experts, the important elements affecting the construction of key disciplines in medical institutions of higher education and the general framework and connotation of its Management model have been proposed primarily; secondly, a second symposium of experts has been held to gather their suggestions and opinions of the result in the first stage. After a thorough revision the important elements and the framework and content of the management model are established. On the basis of it, the method of experts’ consultation has been adopted. Twenty-five leaders and experts who are undertaking or used toundertake the management of the construction of disciplines and experts who are or used to be the leader of the academic researches have been chosen to hold the first round of experts’ symposium. Altogether 21 valid feedback forms have been collected after the first session of consultation. According to the suggestions of the experts, the revision was made. Then second round of experts’ symposium was held and another 21 valid feedback forms have been collected and partial revision has been made according to the experts’ suggestions. From the results of the experts’ symposium, we find that after two rounds of experts’ consultation except the revision of some specific phrases

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The Development of Charles Dickens’ View on Humanity -As Seen in the Magnum Opus of His Three Literary Stages

On 07/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Charles Dickens is among the most outstanding novelists of the 19th century in England with a remarkable productivity of works. Focusing on different aspects of Victorian England, these works are characterized by the author’s criticism of the bourgeois society, the advocacy of his moral values and a probe into the depth of human nature.This thesis tries to explore Dickens’probe into human nature, to explore the development and formation of his view on humanity. To achieve this purpose, three works, which are considered as Dickens’most autobiographical novels, are selected to be analyzed. And these works, Oliver Twist, David Copperfield and Great Expectations, are produced at three different stages in Dickens’writing career.During the span covering 30 years of writing from his instant success in 1837 to his sudden pass-away in 1870, Dickens’view on humanity had undergone a changing with three stages: in the first stage, he is prematurely optimistic about human nature; in the second stage, he falls into perplexity and confusion about human nature and works painfully to find the truth; and in the final stage, a comparatively mature humanity view comes into being. With his unrelenting criticism of the distorted and ugly bourgeois society, Dickens fosters a fervent aspiration for the return of pure and nice humanity.In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this thesis is composed of three chapters.The introduction is a summary of previous studies on Dickens and his works. Also, this part clarifies the method and purpose of this study.The first chapter demonstrates Dickens’prematurely optimistic view on humanity in his early writing career by analyzing Oliver Twist. The first section of this chapter describes Oliver’s unique orphan image and his distinguished humanity as the hero of the novel. Oliver is born and fostered in a brutal and inhuman workhouse and receives neither proper Education nor any rightful moral guidance from anyone near him. But he just stays pure even when he is trapped in the ugliest thieves’den. The second section contains an analysis of many perfect bourgeois characters in the novel and various ideal moral concepts they represent, only to prove that this superhuman humanity Dickens bestows on Oliver can only be a fantasy in Victorian England, a time in which class-consciousness is deeply rooted in people’s mind and the worship for money thrives. The third section presents an analytical thinking about the good and nice humanity that lies in the ugly thieves’den headed by Fagin, accentuating Dickens’great but immature belief that good humanity can survive extreme adversity.The second chapter brings forth Dickens’loss in his optimism and discusses his confusion about human nature by analyzing David Copperfield, the magnum opus of the second period of his writing career. The first section of this chapter focuses on David’s hearty confession on his confusion about familial affection, love and friendship. This actually elucidates the author’s own suspicion about the alleged existence of good humanity. In other words, David, the hero in the novel, has become the spokesman for the author himself in uttering his own sense of confusion and loss. The second section of this chapter diverts to focus on various forms of humanity that are simply hard to ascertain in different novelistic characters. With a disclosure of the duplicity seen in the many characters and the illusions they create, Dickens points out furthermore his own confusion as for what a real humanity should be.The third chapter goes further to explore the last stage of Dickens’development in his view on humanity, taking the most outstanding work in the later period of his writing, Great Expectations, as the target of analysis. A close reading of this masterpiece illuminates that Dickens achieves a much more mature stance on humanity. While still fostering a fervent dream and praise for good and nice humanity, he now achieves a deeper and thorough awareness of the status quo in the bourgeois society. This consequently leads to his fierce criticism and debunking of all sorts of distorted humanity. The first section of this chapter reveals the purity-corruption process of Pip’s humanity, and probes the reasons that bring about such deterioration. This process illustrates Dickens’severe criticism on the loss of humanity caused by the decadent bourgeois society and reflects his doubt about the existence of pure humanity. This kind of criticism is furthermore manifested in the second section, in which those distorted Humanities are analyzed. The author of this thesis here points out two main factors that lead to human nature distortion– patriarchal value and insatiable material hunger. By penetrating into the depth of human nature, Dickens, in his last stage of writing, further delivers to the readers his denouncement of bourgeois humanity. The third section makes an analysis of final return of true humanity in Pip, which better illustrates Dickens’dream and life-long effort for pure humanity.Last comes the concluding part of this thesis. This part of the study summarizes Dickens’demonstration of human nature in his three novels and draws the following conclusion: Dickens’view on humanity takes on a developing course that coincides with the three stages of his writing career–from innocent optimism on humanity to extreme confusion about himself and the society as well, and then come to form his exclusive view on humanity. The maturity can be seen in the coexistence of a good-will longing for true and nice humanity with bold and sharp criticism of false bourgeois humanity. It is this great achievement in successfully defining the good humanity and criticizing the false bourgeois humanity that gives prominence to Dickens’writing career, and furthermore establishes his exclusive importance in world literature as a master of critical realism.

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The Important Ideology of “Three Deputations” for Development of View of Historical Materialism

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Making research on Jiang Zemin’s ideology of “three deputations” is very important . It has academic and realistic significant to the development of materialistic view, comprehension of essence of “three deputations”.This paper takes emphasis on the development of “three deputations” on the basis of discussion of scientific connotation of “three deputations” ideology and materialistic view .on the side of discussion of deputation of development demand of advanced productivity, it takes emphasis on studies on sublimation of the theory about productivity and accordance of the communist Party’s predetermination with advanced productivity. on the other side of discussion of “deputation of marching direction of advanced culture “,it studies that advanced culture is drive of mental to promote the society to go ahead. The core is that proletariat master the leadership of culture. In addition, it studies axiology and tendeney of value of proletariat panty deputation the radical interest of the most extensive people. The ending words emphasize that we should build up scientific view of development and right view of achievement in our post.

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An Analysis of Byatt’s Inheritance and Development of Woolf’s Feministic Thinking from Possession

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Generally acknowledged as an important precursor of modern feminist literary criticism, Virginia Woolf has showed her concerns with such issues as female identity and literary creations in many of her works; meanwhile, A.S. Byatt, hailed as “one of the most imaginative and intelligent writers of English today”, has, in her works, attentively concentrated on multiple aspects like female visions, arts and thoughts. Possession:A Romance (1990), as the zenith of Byatt’s literary creations, is filled with the author’s feministic thinking and shows striking parallels with that of Woolf in many aspects like themes, content, characterization, and narration. However, as a woman writer at the end of the20th century and the beginning of the21st century, Byatt has also exhibited many differences with Woolf in those aspects.This thesis tries to make a comparison between the feministic thinking of Woolf and Byatt by juxtaposing several of Woolf’s works and Byatt’s Possession, and probes into Byatt’s inheritance and development of Woolf from four aspects. First, both writers have focused on writing about women’s marginalized existential predicaments in history as well as in reality in their works, while Byatt puts more emphasis on depicting women’s situations in contemporary British academia. Then, both writers have strived to remold the distorted and alienated female images under the influence of the signalized male-dominated visions and discourse, and have established some new images of women. Yet, Byatt has made certain breakthroughs towards those new images characterized by Woolf. What’s more, both writers have actively competed for the rights of women voicing themselves in their creations. Compared with Woolf who has laid more emphasis on calling upon women writers, Byatt has made those diversified female images under her pen become the fictional representation of a larger female group. Lastly, Woolf encourages all women to pursue a writing career boldly and promotes some innovative ideas on women’s writing in some of her works. Directed by those ideas, Woolf is actively engaged in inventing distinctive styles of female language and structure and practicing diversified forms of literature and narrative strategies. Byatt strikes a chord with Woolf in Possession on the concept of androgyny promoted in A Room of One’s Own. At the same time, since Possession is celebrated for its interlaced literature forms and breakage of the narrative limitations in the traditional novels, it demonstrates Byatt’s resonance with Woolf on her promotion of creating distinctive female discourse and narrative mode.Through a detailed analysis of some of Woolf s works and Possession, the thesis has endeavored to further unearth the commonality and continuity of Woolf and Byatt in aspects embracing female thoughts and creations in order to track the historical memory of women’s literary creations.

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Physiological Regulation Mechanisms of the Cooperation of SeNPV and Microplitis Pallidipes Szepligeti on the Spodoptera Exigua

On 05/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Both Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) and Microplitis pallidipes Szepligeti arethe important regulators to the beet armyworm, S. exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) inthe fields, which paly a key role in sustainable control of S. exigua. In this study wetook the dominant species M. pallidipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and SeNPV as objects,and S. exigua as a target. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SeNPV and M.pallidipes on host growth development, immunodepression and physiologicalmetabolism was summarized as follows:1. The infected larvae grow more slowly, prolonged their4th instar duration, and1.8days were delayed than nonparasitized host larvae; the length of body, width ofbody and width of the head capsule all significantly shortened, and the weight of bodysignificantly decreased; the length of body, width of body, width of the head capsuleand the weight of body of all treatment combinations gradually increased with theprolong of the virus inoculation.2. Biochemical mechanism of S. exigua was affected by the combination ofSeNPV and M. Pallidipes. SeNPV affected the synthesis of protein in the hemolymphin which the content of total protein was just1.95mg/ml at first day after virusinoculation, while up to12.17mg/ml at the fifth day after virus inoculation; the proteincontents of the larvae which were firstly infected and then were parasitized, were allhigher than that of CK during the inoculation time except the first day after virusinoculation; the lowest total carbohydrate content in the hemolymph is just0.14mg/mat the first day after the larvae is parasitized, the total carbohydrate contents in thehemolymph for treatments of parasitization after virus inoculation and inoculationafter parasitization, were all lower than CK except the second day after virusinoculation when the total carbohydrate content was slightly higher than CK. The lipidcontents of treatments of parasitization after virus inoculation and inoculation afterparasitization at the first day after virus inoculation were all lower than CK, but thelipid content of treatment of only virus inoculation has no significantly difference than that of CK.3. Through observation of phase contrast microscopy, five types of hemocyteswere determined in the hemolymph of S. exigua larvae, namely Granulocytes,Plasmatocytes, Oenocytoids, Prohemocytes and Coagulocytes. When Sephadex G-50beads were injected into the larvae, they were soon encapsulated by the hemocytes, thecyst rate of later5th instar was93.3%,4th instar was90%, early5th instar was80%.67%of the beads were encapsulated at the1sthours after injection, the cyst rateincreased gradually with the prolong of injection time, up to97%at the9th hours afterinjection.The total hemocytes of the treatment group were increased first and thendecreased and subsequently increased compared with the control. The Number ofGranulocytes and Plasmatocytes involved in immune response have also changed.4. Humoral immunity in S. exigua is affected by the combination of SeNPV and M.pallidipes. The melanization reaction of the host was inhibited in each group. ThePhenoloxidase activity and LSZ activity of the infected group was decreased first andthen increased and subsequently decreased. The Phenoloxidase activity of treatmentsof parasitization after virus inoculation and inoculation after parasitization maintain alower level, which indicated that the Phenoloxidase activity is inhibited. The LSZactivities of treatment of parasitization after virus inoculation were all lower than thatof CK, but slightly higher than that of CK at the4th day after virus inoculation, andthere were significant difference at the2nd and4th day.5. The host protective enzymes were affected by virus inoculation. The value ofSOD activity of the infected larvae was up to the highest1,2.39U/mg, whereasgradually declined at the2nd day after virus inoculation. This indicated that theincrease of O2consumption led to the substantial increase of O2-and HO· in larvaebody, and further led to the obvious increases of SOD activity, so as to removeextensive free radicals. The CAT activity of the infected group was up to the largest16.78U/mg at the1st day after virus inoculation, whereas next gradually decreased.The POD activity of the infected group was significantly higher than that of CK at the1st and2nd day after virus inoculation. This indicated that virus infection led to theincrease of POD activity as well.