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The Inspiration Based on the Research of European Forest Compensation System

On 15/09/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

Forest covers majority of EU territory, which embodies particularly critical ecological valueand agricultural versatility. As an very important part of the CAP, the goal of European foresteco-compensation system is to support the farmers who provide forest ecological goods andservices, to provide protection of the woodland environment, so as to promote the sustainabledevelopment of CAP. It is that studying the experiences of the implementation process will help usto deepen our understanding of forest eco-compensation and will provide us reference for theestablishment and application of the forest eco-compensation systemFirst, this article defines the forest eco-compensation system under the framework of the EUForest Strategy and the EU Forest Action Plan, and analyzes the theory and value through thecomparative study method, as well as include other agri-environmental measures which is relatedto the forest eco-compensation system. Secondly, this article summarized the historical evolutionand the development of the EU forest eco-compensation system, and describes the main content ofthe establishment of the system. At last, this article provides in-depth analysis of the objectives,tasks, and the specific implementation of the EU forest eco-compensation system, and sums up theimpact of forest eco-compensation system for environmental protection and economicdevelopment in the EU.Based on the analysis above, this article summarizes the conclusions. First, the EU forestecological compensation system contains a profound basis of the concept of sustainabledevelopment; Secondly, the EU forest ecological compensation system reflects the high standardof environmental equity and justice; Third, the EU forest ecological compensation system has itsunique mission, goals and implement measures, and make continuous improvement during thedevelopment; Fourth, the EU forest ecological compensation system achieved significant success,effective solution to the problem of economic development and environmental protection game,and promote the European common agricultural and development and implementation of ruraldevelopment policy in overall.Based on the study of the EU forest ecological compensation system, this article sums up therelevant experiences that China should learn from in the process of the establishment of foresteco-compensation system. And this article stresses that China should discuss the reasonable of the foreign policy and regulations as well as the problem in the implementation while learning fromthe advanced experience of foreign countriesFinally, this article indicates that China should fully understand the importance of foresteco-compensation system in the environmental legal system, and inprove the the protection offorest ecological resources, in order to promote effective solution to the problem betweeneconomic development and environmental protection, so as to ensure the true reflection of thevalue of forest eco-system and the versatility of the forest eco-resources.

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Emerging Economies in the Global Economy:China’s and Brazil’s Direct Investment to and from the EU

On 15/09/2013, in International, by rain

This paper describes and analyses the nature and development of the Foreign Direct Investment of the world’s largest emerging economies, China and Brazil, with the European Union. Starting from a description of the shift in the inward and outward global direct investment flows, the paper discusses the determinants of these flows and explains the role of China, including its special administrative region Hong Kong, and Brazil. The paper then analyses in particular the Outward Foreign Investment and its determinants from both economies into the European Union, the world’s largest investor and their respective largest trading partner. Based on a literature review on the determinants of Outward Direct Investment and a description of China’s direct investment activities, Chinese foreign direct investment’s determinants are tested empirically utilizing panel data for the EU27countries from2000to2010by Eurostat. The estimation results suggest that Chinese ODI into the EU is driven by market-seeking factors. The analysis of China’s and Hong Kong’s combined ODI shows that the host country’s absolute size of GDP, trade openness and Chinese exports of services to the respective host country are significantly positively associated with Chinese ODI into the EU15countries. As for the EU12countries, a higher property rights protection and Chinese services exports to the recipient country have been found significantly positively related to Chinese ODI, suggesting an additional strategic asset seeking motive of Chinese investors.Moreover, as a subsequent descriptive analysis shows, Brazilian ODI into the EU has exploded during recent years and is, apart from its investments to Luxembourg, found to be determined by cultural proximity, i.e. focused on Spain and Portugal.

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The European Debt Crisis Reason and Inspires to China

On 06/09/2013, in Finance, by rain

The aim of this report is to propose a breakdown of recent developments in the Eurozone concerning government debt insolvency issues. This is attempted in a way that will offer clear understanding of major dynamics in currently developing situation, main actors taking part as well as the underlying economic policies influencing the decision makers. Since the beginning of2010, the Euro Area faces a severe sovereign debt crisis, now generally known as the Euro Crisis. The ongoing European sovereign debt crisis continues to shake financial markets and the Eurozone. The International Monetary Fund and the European Union (EU) have acted swiftly to diminish panic and uncertainty by providing emergency assistance to Greece, Ireland and Portugal. However, uncertainty remains and queries have arisen over the vigor and effectiveness of multi-lateral institutions like the EU.This report will establish the origins of the crisis, enumerate European and international responses, bring to light possible alternatives to implemented policies, and finally explore the broader implications for Europe, the United States and the rest of the world. Our findings suggest that there is contagion at work within the Euro Area. Specifically, contagion effects generated by negative rating announcements are documented. These results are crucial when it comes to choosing the correct measure and timing of policy intervention.

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Analysis of the EU Carbon Financial Risk Prevention Mechanisms

On 02/09/2013, in Finance, by rain

As global climate problems concerned, more and more carbon financial marketshave been established, and its capacity expands gradually. However, carbon financialrisks are revealed constantly at the same time, and the normal operation ofcarbon-financial market has suffered in the block.EU is currently the world’s largest energy consumer body, the second largestenergy importer, and is also a pioneer in carbon emissions. In2003, the EuropeanCommission announced the establishment of the EU Emissions Trading System (EUETS), and began the formal implementation in2005. The system uses “limitedquota-trade” principle, implement mandatory membership, mandatory emissionreduction, and decentralized governance model, which covering30Europeancountries (including27EU Member States) and about11000major sources ofemissions, is the world’s first multinational “group mode” emissions trading schemeand also a central component of EU climate policy. Through seven years of constantpractice and change, The EU emissions trading system as the core of the EU carboncurrent global financial market has developed into the largest financial markets incarbon, has accumulated a wealth of practical experience in institution building,market operation, and risk control, provide a useful guide and reference for the othercarbon market. China, as the world’s largest carbon emitter, is under increasinginternational political pressure and economic pressure, but the domestic carbonfinance market has just started, the carbon of the financial system has not yet beenfully established. Safeguards is not perfect, and the whole bunch of carbon market isin risk.In this paper, I defined the concepts of carbon market, carbon finance, andcarbon financial market, and then I discussed the formation and classification ofcarbon financial risks. I analysized the institutional basis of EU carbon financialmarket system, EU ETS’s system design, principle and implementation of the system,its trading platform and phishing fraud, market manipulation, VAT fraud, the carbonprice imbalances risk facing by EU carbon financial market system. I analyzed the current EU carbon financial market risks and its risk prevention mechanisms duringthe following three aspects: the risk monitoring, risk control and risk response. Isummarized some risk prevention and control measures such as Separate TradingSystem (CITL), carbon emissions monitoring system, the Carbon Disclosure Project(CDP), national quotas plan (NAP), carbon emissions verification system, carbonfinance system construction, common registration system, the abuse of marketregulation, carbon identification system, the reverse charge VAT, spot OTC markettrading, price flexibility mechanisms, and so on. Finally, based on the former analysisof EU carbon market, this paper combined with the imperfect current market situationof carbon finance for policy system, carbon financial system lag, the lack ofknowledge of the subject transaction, the missing of pricing and other issues, andmade several advices to our own carbon market at the following aspects: to improvethe carbon build financial transaction system, to promote international cooperation incarbon finance markets, to nurture and strengthen the intermediary market riskprevention capacity building, and strengthening personnel training.

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The FDI Flow from EU to China: Development,Dynamic Factors and Strategic Significance

On 08/12/2012, in Finance, by rain

【Abstract】 Compared with International trade of goods and service, FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) connect China and the World economy in a much deeper degree, and has been one of the most important driver for China’s economic development. In this paper, the author tried to analyze the development of the FDI flow from EU to China that began from 1992. After the summary of the characters of EU’s FDI to China, the paper analyzed the main economic determinants that affecting the FDI flow from the aspect of EU, China and the global macro economy respectively. Though there are some disadvantages for China to attract EU’s FDI, there are more advantages in its development. Then, after the analysis of all kinds of effects that EU’s FDI have for China, in the author’s opinion, there are many far-reaching strategic significance for both the macro and micro level of China’s economy, especially when China is in a period that transferring from amount oriented FDI to a better-structure oriented FDI, although the amount of EU’s FDI to China is still small so that the effects are not so obviously now. With such an opinion, this paper then tried to put forward some possibly steps that China should take to get more FDI from EU and absorb the benign effects better so that to accelerate the long-term development of China.

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Study on the Reforms of European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy

On 05/07/2012, in Agriculture, by rain

【Abstract】 As the core of common policies in EU (European Union), the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) has a long history dated back to 1962. During its 40 years of development, the CAP has achieved much toward its original objectives. Most important has been technological revolution that greatly increased production. Ample EU food supplies have been assured However, a lot of problems have been brought out because of the CAP price mechanisms, such as chronic surpluses of agricultural products resulted. Large surpluses of most agricultural products have made CAP a very costly policy. The spending caused by CAP once reached 73% of the total expense of EU in 1980 and still occupied 45% of the total till now, which resulted in a huge burden on EU budget. In addition, the huge export subsidies deepened the international conflicts with other agricultural exporter. In order to reduce the surpluses of agricultural products , ease the pressures on the CAP budget and release the international conflicts, EU has adopted major policy adjustments every 10 years since late 1960s. From 1990s, EU started fundamental reforms on CAP, including Macsharry Reform in 1992 and Agenda 2000, to change its emphasis from price support to direct payment. In 2003, EU adopted a new round of reform, which revises the way of direct payment form coupling to decoupling with output of agricultural products. Emphasizing on EU’s CAP reforms in 1990s, this paper analyzed the reasons, features, theoretic base and impact of the reforms. Based on the above analysis, the paper further gives discussions on the development trend of the new reform.This paper consists of three parts:Firstly, through the introduction of the background of EU and CAP, the paper reviews the forming of EU and CAP, illustrates the target, principle, operation mechanism and achievements of CAP.Secondly, dividing the reforms of CAP according to time sequence of before 1990s, 1990s and after 2000, the paper presents the contents of these reforms, analyzes their reasons, characteristics and major impact Based on these, the trend of future reforms is discussed.Finally, through the analysis of the agricultural support policy in China, the papertries to give some suggestions on the adjustment of agricultural support policy in China.

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Study on Chinese Enterprises’ Responding Measures to EU Anti-Dumping Proceedings

On 22/06/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 EU is an important trade partner of China, According to China’s statistics, the EU became China’s 1st biggest trading partner (surpassing the level of the US and Japan). According to EU statistics, From 1978 to 2004, the Sino-EU trade volume increased over 30-fold, reaching around 135 billion euros. With the expansion of EU, Sino-Euro trade volume will continue to increase. However, China has become a country suffering the most anti-dumping cases from EU in world trade. By the end of September 2004, EU anti-dumping against China has amounted to 107 cases.After Chinese entry into WTO, China will constantly increase its export-volume, especially to EU. It will cause more EU anti-dumping not only because EU policy of trade protectionism but also EU special anti-dumping regime against China, that is China has been labeled a “non-market economy” by EU. This regime was introduced in April 1998 by the European Council with Council Regulation (EC) No 905/98 and gives individual Chinese enterprises the opportunity to claim, on a case-by-case basis, that they operate in market economy conditions in accordance with five specific criteria set by the Commission. In fact, this special regime of EU is still violating the current conditions of China and to the detriment of Chinese enterprises. In an anti-dumping action against Chinese lighters, the European Federation of Lighter Manufacturers that launched the action withdrew its charges shortly after EU officials verified the domestic cost of Chinese lighter-makers. As global economy stagnates, anti-dumping actions are often launched at the request of local companies seeking to reduce pressure from low-priced Chinese imports. The EU local companies will also launched more anti-dumping cases against China. In addition, China agreed to be treated as a non-market economy in dumping cases for another 15 years to gain entry into the WTO. The concession did gave EU a handle to invoke the analogue measure.So it is very important and urgent to study EU anti-dumping law. especially the issue of Non-Market Economy in EU anti-dumping against China and Chinese enterprises” responding measures.The paper starts from the brief overview of EU anti-dumping law and some relevant regulations, and then uses a lot inks to talk about the issue of Non-Market Economy in EU anti-dumping against China and Chinese enterprises’ responding measures (for example. Chinese enterprises firstly endeavor for ME status and then the real individual treatment, and then enterprises endeavor for semi-individual treatment when failing to get FMES, and even study Analogue country rules and suggestions when failing to get semi-individual treatment). The last two parts of the paper are to draw a conclusion and give some other concrete responding measures in the way of case study.

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The Summarization of EU Mollusc Safety Regulations and the Analysis of the Concentrations of PCBs in Mollusc Products and in Sea Water

On 12/06/2012, in Trade, by rain

【Abstract】 In 2001, China joins WTO, this means the effect of the traditional trade barrier will be gradually weakended. It creates a very good opportunity for China to enlarge export of fishery products. But look back the last few years, the development of the export of fishery products isn’t as good as predicted. A new kind of trade barrier–technical trade barrier stands out to be the greatest obstacle in the trade of fishery products. The developed countries take advantage of their science and technology, pose great obstacle to China’s export of fishery products.Mollusc is a very important specie in fishery product. But as mollusc is easier to accumulate poisonous substances in its body, it’s quality is difficult to meet the requirements of some developed countries, such as EU, USA ,Japan and Korea. Compare with other kinds of fishery products, mollusc faces greater difficults.In this article, the author summarizes and analyzes the EU regulations about mollusc in the recent years. These regulations involve many aspects, such as package and tap, code bar and traceability.And, whereas great amount of PCBs in environment, and PCBs is dangerous to human health, and PCBs maybe be used as technical trade barrier to the export of mollusc, the author compares several PCBs detection methods and selects some samples to be detected by using gas chromatography. In the end of the article, the author discusses the way to deal with the technical trade barriers in mollusc trade.

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The Research about the Anti-Dumping to China of EU and the Replying Strategy of Our Country in the New Period

On 10/06/2012, in Trade, by rain

【Abstract】 In the 21 century, the international economy environment has changed tempestuously: The international trade is unprecedented active, strengthening the economy globalization trend further. At the same time, because China has joined the WTO, it will be expanded to China of the wide and depths of the international trade. And it means that the international trade will influence the economy development of our country further. The smooth progress will promote our country’s economy development ,whereas, it will bring on the encumbrance to our country’s economy development.But in these years, as a kind of means of the trade protection, anti-dumping is often used by all countries.It has brought the baffling function to our country’s export and resulted in the great damage to our country’s economy. According to the WTO, from 1979 to now, China has already encountered the anti-dumping inquisitions more than 600 pieces and become the first in the world. Up to now, because of the anti-dumping inquisitions to China, the loss total amount has been over $10,000,000,000 and many persons have been unemployed. Obviously, the trend of the anti-dumping to China doesn’t benefit to our country’s trade development and will strike our country’s economy in the new period.The EU is the first trading partner who put the anti-dumping inquisition to China into practice, and its amount is also the most in the world. Because the EU is the biggest trading partner of our country, the behavior of the anti-dumping inquisition to China will make tremendous influence. On the one hand, the behavior will make the demonstration function in the world and influence our country’s trade with other countries. On the other hand, along with the economy development of our country and the expanding of the EU, the EU will

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Elementary Analysis on EU Banking Merges and Acquisitions

On 07/06/2012, in Finance, by rain

【Abstract】 With the development of financial globalization and integration of economy, a new round of merges and acquisitions(M&A) start up with banks as the principal part of the activities since middle of 1990s. Numbers and dimensions of banks participating in M&A both perpetual increased not only in U.S.A. and Japan but also in the EU. EU specially kept ahead in the world during this global M&A. EU banks M&A began from beginning of 1990s, and reaching the climax in 1998. EU banks M&A processed in particular time background along with course of EU financial globalization. Thus, both EU and members financial authorities tried to accelerate banks M&A through formulating measures and making assistant policies. In addition, during this time, the extension of EU banks M&A were not confined domestic nation, and extending to other countries, which constituted cross-border M&A. In this condition, many large international banks emerged. At the same time, banks consolidated with security company and insurance company, which leaded to the emergence of the conglomerate in EU.With the development of EU banks M&A, EU financial authorities had to face a problem that was how did the financial supervisory authorities supervise banks activities. Under the condition of emergence of large banks, conglomerates and improved relation among banks, it is necessary to reform existing financial supervisory mechanism.So, this paper will discuss the EU banks M&A in above both points. The paper is divided into four chapters. First chapter mainly discuss basis problems about banks M&A comprising background and basis theories of banks M&A. Second chapter dissertates the characteristic of banks M&A and EU banks status quo. In addition, it also refers to the obstacles to further integration. Third chapter is composed of EU and member level financial supervisory reform and the reference for China. Last chapter discusses the banks M&A and impose positive and negative affects on banks.It is necessary to point out that EU we discuss in the paper only comprises intrinsic 15 member states.