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An Analysis of the EU-NATO Strategic Partnership in the 21st Century

On 28/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

European Union(EU) is the biggest and at the same time is the most influential integrated regional organization in the world.The North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) is not only the strongest political and military polity,but also the biggest and most powerful regional military organization.EU and NATO are the two main props of transatlantic relationship,and they are also two main props of the stability of west Europe:NATO provide military security,EU provide Economic basis,they form the stability of the West Europe. NATO and EU have the common interests and different responsibility in the field of antiterrorism,preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction(WMD),civil crisis Management and deploying new equipment.Recent years,after trying to consult with each other,European Union and The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has built up a durable strategic partnership,because the globalization of the safety problem,and also because the appear of the mass terrorism attack after “9-11″,it has became increasingly difficult to separate the two organization.NATO offering “hard” or military power,and the EU offering a “soft” or civil alternative.The process of building the strategic partnership between EU and NATO is difficult.Though EU has great Economic and military power,and NATO is the main prop of European security, they have same member states,the strategic interests of both organization are maintaining the security and stability of the transatlantic area,the process of creating this relationship were influenced by many inner and outer elements,so the developing speed is limited.American elements play very important role in developing the relationship between EU and NATO.The “theory of cooperation and international regime” is an important element of theory of ” After Hegemony Cooperation”.I use this theory to analysis the EU-NATO strategic partnership and all the factors affecting the development of this partnership.In the unharmonious and non-governmental situation of the real society,facing the complicated disputes,actors can only through adjusting policies to reach their aim.The EU-NATO strategic partnership is forming and developing under this situation.In the trend of multi-polar in international society,both EU and NATO should participate in building and keeping international regime positively.Only doing this can make the sound and having important position in international society,and only doing this can help them to get their benefits and needs.The theory of “After Hegemony Cooperation” is in the book “After hegemony: cooperation and discord in the world political economy”,which is written by Robert O. Keohane.One of the most important components is “theory of cooperation and international regime”,tell us the issues about after hegemony maintain and develop issues of international regimes,It has very important in inspiration.In Keohane’s view,this theory is mainly used to talk about the cooperation between countries,but in this essay,I use this theory in explaining the relationship between two international organizations.This essay begins with the foreword.In the forward,I talk about why I choose this topic, the study situations both inner and outside our country,the methods I use in this essay and the creative ideas in it.After that is the main body of the essay.It can be divided into four parts.In the first part,it talks about the establishment and development of EU and NATO strategic partnership,explains the basis,features and extrusive manifestation.In the second part,it analyses the US factors in this strategic partnership. In the third part,it analyses the different ideas about this strategic partnership within Europe,includes the traditional Europe and also Russia,the super nation cross Europe and Asia.In the last part,it explains the issue of cooperation and international regime,and uses it to talk about the strategic partnership between EU and NATO.Then,it concludes that EU and NATO strategic partnership should be machincal.

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A Study on the Integrated Development of the EU Vocational Qualifications

On 09/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With the emerging knowledge economy and accelerative globalization, the enlarged EU stands at a turning point but faces new challenges. Promoting mobility of citizens is considered to be very important in achieving the Lisbon goal of making Europe the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world by 2010. Great efforts were made in the field of EU vocational Education and training (VET) to make the transferring and recognition of EU vocational qualifications (VQs) a reality on the EU level with the member states together. From the perspective of history, there exists an evolution trend of integrated development of EU vocational qualifications. The research, which focuses on the strategies, systems and mechanism of the integrated development of EU VQs, must provide good reference and experience for any other regional organizations and Sovereign States to establish or reform their systems of VET and VQs.The background of the integrated development of EU VQs is analyzed in Chapter I . From the view of Economic development, Social cohesion, need of cooperation of VET and career development of citizens, the whole environment provides an impetus for transferring and recognizing VQs at EU level.The historical process of the integrated development of EU VQs is presented in Chapter II. The trace of the development of EU VET draws a whole picture of a gradual process of transferring and recognizing of EU VQs, and establishment of its integrated development mechanism. This section outlines three main strategies adopted at Community level to remove this obstacle, which focused on Recognition, Comparability and Transparency of qualifications.Chapter III goes deep into the mechanism of integrated development of EU VQs for interpretation. Starting with the core elements, this section pays great attention to the operation process of the mechanism with European Qualification Framework (EQF) for its development platform. Furthermore, some enabling factors for the mechanism are figured out.Chapter IV makes explicit the viewpoint on contemporary significance and points out potential problems of the integrated development of EU VQs. Based on the pervious study, this chapter then speculates on the possible development trend of EU VQs.

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With the development of social partnership, the relationship and rea…

On 11/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With the development of Social partnership, the relationship and reaction of all classes in the society can be changed to be a good regime. In doing so, the society could be enhanced during the relatively stable environment. These methods are always used by the western countries after the WWⅡ, and at the same time, the European Economic Social Committee as the European level institutional forum for the organized civil society’s consultation, representation and information plays the key role to operate the”social partnership”. The employer’s group, the employee’s group and the various interests’group consist of the main body of the EESC which contributes to perfecting the European policies. The EESC pays more attention to the development of the organized civil society, and also enhance itself during the course. The thesis focuses on the specific contents of the social partnership operated by the EESC, and has a keen sight into the operating mechanism. In particular, not only could the functions and role played by the EESC be studied, but also give some favored suggestion to China’s reform and development.The full thesis could be divided into the four parts:The first part of the thesis is the general idea of the European Economic Social Committee. The section begins with the introduction of the background and reason why it set up. Then the great importance is attached to clarifying the framework, respective section’s functions and tasks of the EESC. At the same time, the thesis also introduces the main frameworks, working styles and the functions where they play in the EESC. Through this section we can generally get an idea about the EESC.The second section of the thesis is the consultation procedure and operating mechanism of the EESC, as well as the most important part of the thesis. The functions of the EESC are analyzed at first; then analyze the operating mechanism and the relationship with other organs. With the help of this section, we can draw the conclusion that the EESC plays a particular role in EU and organized civil society. Besides these, the section gives the definite position to the rights and duties of the member of the EESC which may do EESC a favor to function well. The UNICE and the ETUC respective stands for the interests of the employers and employs, and practically the UNICE and the ETUC have close contact with the employer’group and the employs’group. Moreover many members of the EESC come from the UNICE and the ETUC; also the EESC have played an important role in the relationship with the UNICE and the ETUC.The third part is the achievements, problems and future development of the EESC. After analyzing the main achievements such as: building the civil society, boosting the common development and so on; the thesis would study the problems brought by the EESC’s rapid development. For example, occasionally the EESC uses the excuse of the human right to interfere with the domestic affairs of other counties. In the end, the future development of the EESC is emphasized by the thesis and it is a basis for the further development of the EESC. The thesis hopes that the EESC could comply with the promises that it took, also hopes that the EESC keep close contact with all parties concerned and tries its best to build the harmonious Europe hard.The fourth part of the thesis is meaning and enlightenment of European Union social partnership and the EESC. Certainly the EU social partnership and its social dialogue is the necessary selection which realizes the full integration. The EESC is the main carrier to make it true. The EESC has played a key role in the relationship with the organized civil society and NGOs; it could perfect the policies and other rules. In addition, the EESC pays attention to the dialogue between classes, in particular the interests group. Those that we mentioned above could boost the entire development of Europe. Also it could be a good reference to build the harmonious socialist society.

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A Cultural Analysis on Accession of Turkey to EU

On 29/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

EU develops to a maturest national group in the international society now, is playing more and more major role in the international scene. As an emerging modernized country, Turkey started to join the EU from the 1950s. But Turkey is still not the EU member until today. The existed Article on relationship of Turkey and EU mostly speaks generally from the different angle. Even if realize that cultural difference hinders Turkey to join the EU, it has not launched the concrete analysis in view of the culture.As an important branch of international politics theory, constructivism becomes the hot spot of study in recent years. But utility research which puts constructivism to the microscopic in order to analyse concrete questions is little. The purpose of the article is using identity theory to analyse the culture of two behavior bodies.According to the purpose and method, carry on the background of Turkey in this article first, including its westernization and course of joining the EU. Then elaborate Turkey’s political and Economic reform for the EU, proving that political and Economic factors are not the chief obstacle which hinder Turkey to join the EU. Last, analyse their culture with identity theory, then draw a conclusion that difference of culture is the Basic reason. Meanwhile, make a reasonable predict that the special relationship between them will continue. Carrying on the concrete study on the culture by identity theory of constractivism is the new idea.Specifically speaking, this article is mainly composed of the below parts:The first part is the introduction. I will introduce the main topic–the culturebetween Turkey and EU. Then explain the origin and background of this question, significance and present situation of the study, also the frame arrangement of this article.The second part is the course of joining the EU for the Turkey. I will introduce the Basic situation and westernazition of Turkey, and its course of joining the EU, in order to found the base for the following content.The third part is the research on Turkey’s political and economic reform. In this part, first, make sure that there are widespread benefit demand between Turkey and EU, they depend on each other. Then take the Copenhagen’s standard as the reference, elaborate the outcome of Turkey’s political and economical reform. Meanwhile, carry on the contrastive analysis for the case of other Eastern European countries which have joined the EU. Then make a conclusion that it is not the primary factor to hinder Turkey’s entrance.The fourth part is the research on Turkey’s culture. It is also the key part. In this part, first, limit the concept of “culture”. Then lead to the concepts of political and Social culture. Then turn over to the culture of two behavior bodies. On the one hand, elaborate the development process of European civilization and European identity. On the other hand, study the characteristics of Turkey’s Social and political culture. In the final small part, carry on the comparison between two kinds of culture, and use relative opinions and data to confirm it.The fifth or the last part is a conclusion. In this part, I will give some analysis on relationship of Turkey and EU. Simultaneously, point out the theoretical and practical significance of this article.

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Africa is a continent with both problems and opportunities. On the o…

On 03/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Africa is a continent with both problems and opportunities. On the one hand,Africa faces the most urgent task of solving the development problems. Africa’sstability and development is related not only to the fundamental interests of localpeople, but also to the peace and prosperity of the whole world. On the other hand,Africa dominant important geographic position, vast fertile land and rich mineralresources, whose vigor and vitality are increasingly attracting the whole world’sattention. EU and America have provided developing aids to Africa since the end ofWWⅡ. Although both are members of the Western world, EU and U.S. have differentinterest considerations in aiding Africa.After vertical combing the EU and U.S. development assistance to Africa duringthe years after WWⅡ, we could find that EU’s aid has a steady and progressive trendwith the amount and areas of assistance both expanding, and the proportion of the aidto Africa was comparatively bigger than the aid to other continents. All these trendsshow that EU has integrative and balanced interest considerations towards Africa. Incontrary, U.S. development assistance to Africa has twists-and-turns change duringthe years. The amounts of aids had up-and-down fluctuations; the choices of countrieskept being continuously adjusted according to needs. These trends showed U.S. has asingle interest consideration towards Africa, and see Africa as a secondary zone inserving U.S. global strategy.Besides, based on the lateral comparison of EU and U.S.’s aid to Africa inthe beginning of the21st century, we could find that both EU and U.S. put moreattention towards Africa. Behind their similar performances, EU and U.S. havedifferent interest focuses. EU laid particular stress on the Economic value withthe pressures of financial crises and more counties’ participation in Africamarket, while U.S. put more focus on safety value such as anti-terrorists andenergy supply with the shock of “9.11” incident.

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The Inspiration Based on the Research of European Forest Compensation System

On 15/09/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

Forest covers majority of EU territory, which embodies particularly critical ecological valueand Agricultural versatility. As an very important part of the CAP, the goal of European foresteco-compensation system is to support the farmers who provide forest ecological goods andservices, to provide protection of the woodland environment, so as to promote the sustainabledevelopment of CAP. It is that studying the experiences of the implementation process will help usto deepen our understanding of forest eco-compensation and will provide us reference for theestablishment and application of the forest eco-compensation systemFirst, this article defines the forest eco-compensation system under the framework of the EUForest Strategy and the EU Forest Action Plan, and analyzes the theory and value through thecomparative study method, as well as include other agri-Environmental measures which is relatedto the forest eco-compensation system. Secondly, this article summarized the historical evolutionand the development of the EU forest eco-compensation system, and describes the main content ofthe establishment of the system. At last, this article provides in-depth analysis of the objectives,tasks, and the specific implementation of the EU forest eco-compensation system, and sums up theimpact of forest eco-compensation system for Environmental protection and economicdevelopment in the EU.Based on the analysis above, this article summarizes the conclusions. First, the EU forestecological compensation system contains a profound basis of the concept of sustainabledevelopment; Secondly, the EU forest ecological compensation system reflects the high standardof environmental equity and justice; Third, the EU forest ecological compensation system has itsunique mission, goals and implement measures, and make continuous improvement during thedevelopment; Fourth, the EU forest ecological compensation system achieved significant success,effective solution to the problem of Economic development and environmental protection game,and promote the European common Agricultural and development and implementation of ruraldevelopment policy in overall.Based on the study of the EU forest ecological compensation system, this article sums up therelevant experiences that China should learn from in the process of the establishment of foresteco-compensation system. And this article stresses that China should discuss the reasonable of the foreign policy and regulations as well as the problem in the implementation while learning fromthe advanced experience of foreign countriesFinally, this article indicates that China should fully understand the importance of foresteco-compensation system in the environmental legal system, and inprove the the protection offorest ecological resources, in order to promote effective solution to the problem betweeneconomic development and environmental protection, so as to ensure the true reflection of thevalue of forest eco-system and the versatility of the forest eco-resources.

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Emerging Economies in the Global Economy:China’s and Brazil’s Direct Investment to and from the EU

On 15/09/2013, in International, by rain

This paper describes and analyses the nature and development of the Foreign Direct Investment of the world’s largest emerging economies, China and Brazil, with the European Union. Starting from a description of the shift in the inward and outward global direct Investment flows, the paper discusses the determinants of these flows and explains the role of China, including its special administrative region Hong Kong, and Brazil. The paper then analyses in particular the Outward Foreign Investment and its determinants from both economies into the European Union, the world’s largest investor and their respective largest trading partner. Based on a literature review on the determinants of Outward Direct Investment and a description of China’s direct investment activities, Chinese foreign direct investment’s determinants are tested empirically utilizing panel data for the EU27countries from2000to2010by Eurostat. The estimation results suggest that Chinese ODI into the EU is driven by market-seeking factors. The analysis of China’s and Hong Kong’s combined ODI shows that the host country’s absolute size of GDP, trade openness and Chinese exports of services to the respective host country are significantly positively associated with Chinese ODI into the EU15countries. As for the EU12countries, a higher property rights protection and Chinese services exports to the recipient country have been found significantly positively related to Chinese ODI, suggesting an additional strategic asset seeking motive of Chinese investors.Moreover, as a subsequent descriptive analysis shows, Brazilian ODI into the EU has exploded during recent years and is, apart from its investments to Luxembourg, found to be determined by cultural proximity, i.e. focused on Spain and Portugal.

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The European Debt Crisis Reason and Inspires to China

On 06/09/2013, in Finance, by rain

The aim of this report is to propose a breakdown of recent developments in the Eurozone concerning government debt insolvency issues. This is attempted in a way that will offer clear understanding of major dynamics in currently developing situation, main actors taking part as well as the underlying Economic policies influencing the decision makers. Since the beginning of2010, the Euro Area faces a severe sovereign debt crisis, now generally known as the Euro Crisis. The ongoing European sovereign debt crisis continues to shake financial markets and the Eurozone. The International Monetary Fund and the European Union (EU) have acted swiftly to diminish panic and uncertainty by providing emergency assistance to Greece, Ireland and Portugal. However, uncertainty remains and queries have arisen over the vigor and effectiveness of multi-lateral institutions like the EU.This report will establish the origins of the crisis, enumerate European and international responses, bring to light possible alternatives to implemented policies, and finally explore the broader implications for Europe, the United States and the rest of the world. Our findings suggest that there is contagion at work within the Euro Area. Specifically, contagion effects generated by negative rating announcements are documented. These results are crucial when it comes to choosing the correct measure and timing of policy intervention.

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Analysis of the EU Carbon Financial Risk Prevention Mechanisms

On 02/09/2013, in Finance, by rain

As global climate problems concerned, more and more carbon financial marketshave been established, and its capacity expands gradually. However, carbon financialrisks are revealed constantly at the same time, and the normal operation ofcarbon-financial market has suffered in the block.EU is currently the world’s largest energy consumer body, the second largestenergy importer, and is also a pioneer in carbon emissions. In2003, the EuropeanCommission announced the establishment of the EU Emissions Trading System (EUETS), and began the formal implementation in2005. The system uses “limitedquota-trade” principle, implement mandatory membership, mandatory emissionreduction, and decentralized governance model, which covering30Europeancountries (including27EU Member States) and about11000major sources ofemissions, is the world’s first multinational “group mode” emissions trading schemeand also a central component of EU climate policy. Through seven years of constantpractice and change, The EU emissions trading system as the core of the EU carboncurrent global financial market has developed into the largest financial markets incarbon, has accumulated a wealth of practical experience in institution building,market operation, and risk control, provide a useful guide and reference for the othercarbon market. China, as the world’s largest carbon emitter, is under increasinginternational political pressure and Economic pressure, but the domestic carbonfinance market has just started, the carbon of the financial system has not yet beenfully established. Safeguards is not perfect, and the whole bunch of carbon market isin risk.In this paper, I defined the concepts of carbon market, carbon finance, andcarbon financial market, and then I discussed the formation and classification ofcarbon financial risks. I analysized the institutional basis of EU carbon financialmarket system, EU ETS’s system design, principle and implementation of the system,its trading platform and phishing fraud, market manipulation, VAT fraud, the carbonprice imbalances risk facing by EU carbon financial market system. I analyzed the current EU carbon financial market risks and its risk prevention mechanisms duringthe following three aspects: the risk monitoring, risk control and risk response. Isummarized some risk prevention and control measures such as Separate TradingSystem (CITL), carbon emissions monitoring system, the Carbon Disclosure Project(CDP), national quotas plan (NAP), carbon emissions verification system, carbonfinance system construction, common registration system, the abuse of marketregulation, carbon identification system, the reverse charge VAT, spot OTC markettrading, price flexibility mechanisms, and so on. Finally, based on the former analysisof EU carbon market, this paper combined with the imperfect current market situationof carbon finance for policy system, carbon financial system lag, the lack ofknowledge of the subject transaction, the missing of pricing and other issues, andmade several advices to our own carbon market at the following aspects: to improvethe carbon build financial transaction system, to promote international cooperation incarbon finance markets, to nurture and strengthen the intermediary market riskprevention capacity building, and strengthening personnel training.

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The FDI Flow from EU to China: Development,Dynamic Factors and Strategic Significance

On 08/12/2012, in Finance, by rain

【Abstract】 Compared with International trade of goods and service, FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) connect China and the World economy in a much deeper degree, and has been one of the most important driver for China’s Economic development. In this paper, the author tried to analyze the development of the FDI flow from EU to China that began from 1992. After the summary of the characters of EU’s FDI to China, the paper analyzed the main Economic determinants that affecting the FDI flow from the aspect of EU, China and the global macro economy respectively. Though there are some disadvantages for China to attract EU’s FDI, there are more advantages in its development. Then, after the analysis of all kinds of effects that EU’s FDI have for China, in the author’s opinion, there are many far-reaching strategic significance for both the macro and micro level of China’s economy, especially when China is in a period that transferring from amount oriented FDI to a better-structure oriented FDI, although the amount of EU’s FDI to China is still small so that the effects are not so obviously now. With such an opinion, this paper then tried to put forward some possibly steps that China should take to get more FDI from EU and absorb the benign effects better so that to accelerate the long-term development of China.

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