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Research on Evaluation System of Low-carbon City’s Innovation Capacity

On 26/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

In the background of global warming and energy crisis, it has become a majortrend in development of the world economy to develop low-carbon economy with lowenergy consumption, low emissions and low pollution. However, the key ofimproving the level of low-carbon Economic development and accelerating the speedof the low-carbon city construction lies in the upgrading of the city’s innovationcapacity, as well as scientific and effective evaluation of low-carbon city’s innovationcapacity. But there is no high-acceptance index system combined with “low carbon”and city’s innovation capacity. Therefor, it need urgently to build a scientific andreasonable low-carbon city’s innovation capacity evaluation system. Based on theliterature combination, this paper used SPSS, SD and other software, combined withANP method, carried out the research as follows:1. Content definition. On the basis of a theoretical exploration of the innovationcapacity of low-carbon city, this paper defined the concept of low-carbon city’sinnovation capacity, and clarifies the dimension of the innovation capacity oflow-carbon city.2. Index system construction. In this study, determined influence factors ofinnovation ability of low-carbon city by literature combination and the results of tworounds of questionnaires, and on this basis, used SPSS17.0statistical software forcluster analysis, then concised first-level indexes and built the index system oflow-carbon city’s innovation capacity which including six first-level indexes(knowledge innovation capability, technological innovation capability, institutionalinnovation capabilities, industrial innovation capabilities, service innovationcapabilities and the innovation environment) and25secondary indexes.3. Indicator weights given. Combined with ANP method and SD software, givenweights for the various indicators of low-carbon city’s innovation capacity indexsystem, then made the index system into the operational level from the theoreticallevel. 4. Empirical analysis. This paper took the domestic four low-carbon pilot cities:Tianjin, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Xiamen for example, and did a more comprehensive,detailed evaluation and comparison for the four cities’ innovation capacity at thegeneral level, first-level index and secondary index.According to the evaluation and analysis of the domestic low-carbon city’sinnovation capacity, found out the “short board” in the process of promotinglow-carbon cities’ innovation capacity, and proposed the ascending countermeasuresof low-carbon cities’ innovation capacity from system, technology and environmentagainst the key influence factors.

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A Research on Evaluation Index System of Innovative City and the Application in Nanjing

On 14/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Economic development processes of all countries in the world have shown that when a country or a region’s per-capita GDP reached 2,000 to 4,000 US dollars, their Economic development should enter the innovation-oriented stage. In 2006, President Hu Jintao clearly pointed out at the National Science and Technology Conference that China’s science and technology development goal in future 15 years was to build an innovation-oriented country in 2020, which can make science and technology as a powerful support of our economic and Social development. Since then, Chinese cities have plotted out the idea for building innovative cities, and started the practice of construction.This paper mainly studied the evaluation index system of innovative city. It defined the Basic concept of innovation and innovative city at the beginning of research. Based on survey of the relevant research on innovation system theory, the ingredient and characteristics of city innovation system’s main body was analyzed. By comparing constructing practice of innovative cities at home and abroad, the author analyzed the Basic features of innovative city. After the research of factors which influenced construction of innovative city was clear, innovative city evaluation index system was built and the weight of each index was calculated by using the basic principles of AHP and by consulting experts’advice. So evaluation model was established. Finally, this paper selected 13 cities including Nanjing which was the evaluate objective as a sample set for application of the evaluation index system. The evaluation model was used to calculate score of each city’s construction, and a comprehensive ranking of these cities was given from the score. According to Nanjing’s real situation and it’s gap with the advanced cities, the author put forward corresponding suggestions and countermeasures for Nanjing’s innovative city construction.This article designed a more scientific and accurate evaluation index system to conduct objective evaluation and dynamic monitoring of the construction process of innovative city. Through the application of evaluation index system, it can reflect specific problems in construction so as to provide reference and backing to governments at all levels and relevant departments to formulate innovative city development plans and strategic goals and help the smooth implementation of construction objectives.

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Soil Quality Evaluation in the Urban-Rural Marginal Area

On 10/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The urban-rural marginal area is a connection belt and transition zone between the city construction district and the immense rural, which characteristics is neither similar with the typical city nor with the rural. The urban-rural marginal area is a special belt in which urbanization, industrialization and agri-intensivism happen most drastically in our country. As a result of the numerous importation of Agricultural pollutants, garbage and industrial wastes, the urban-rural marginal area has became a combination which have the high concentration of land use and the high intensity of soil quality succession. A series of problems happen, such as the level of soil fertility decline, soil Environmental quality deteriorates, and soil ecosystem functions weaken. All of these constrain the Economic development of urban and rural and the steadily improving of human Health in China.In the paper, taken Xiema town of Chongqing City as a case, the distribution and classification evaluation of fertility indicators and Environmental indicators are first analyzed. Then, the membership evaluation of soil fertility quality and Environmental quality is carried out. Finally, the soil synthesize evaluation is conducted. Conclusions as the following are drawn:1. The level distribution pattern of soil fertility in the urban-rural marginal area is not obvious, with the different changes of the physical and chemical indicators. This is influenced by the complicated land use, farming systems, crops and matrix. The profile distribution pattern of soil fertility in the urban-rural marginal area is obvious. The soil pH and total phosphorus is increased with deeper soil depth, otherwise the soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium is reduced with deeper soil depth, The profile distribution pattern of total potassium is not obvious.2. According to the soil physical and chemical classification indicators, the bulk density is tighter, the clay content is low. In accordance with the classification indicators of soil nutrients, the soil organic matter content which is in and below III level accounts 74.47 percent, the overall level of organic matter is beside the middle. The soil total N content which is in and overhead III level accounts 98.73 percent, the overall level of total N is high. The soil total P content which is in and below III level accounts 98.73 percent, the overall level of total P is low. The available P varies severely; the higher and lower value accounts a certain proportion. The overall level of available K is beside the middle.3. In accordance with national environmental standards for II level, the single-factor pollution index of Cd is at the level of mildly contaminated, the single-factor pollution index of Cu is at the level of safety. The ration of Cd pollution degree in heavy pollution, moderate pollution and light pollution are respectively 17, 19.1, and 31.9 percent. The ration of Cu in light pollution degree is 19.15 percent, and the others are in the safety degree. According to Chongqing heavy metal background value, the index of potential ecological hazard4.Taken organic matter, total N, available N, total P, available P,, total K, available K pH, clay content, bulk density for the evaluation indicators, the soil fertility quality is evaluated with Fuzzy mathematics and Gray system methods. The results are both very good correlation. Compared the results of the two methods, the index of Fuzzy mathematics has the better resolution than the index of Gray system. The indicators more relevant for the Soil fertility index are available K, available P, available N, soil organic matter, pH. These should be given priority in selection of indicators for soil fertility evaluation5. Taken the total Cd and Cu as indicators, the soil environmental quality is evaluated with Gianni Merlo index method. Gudging from the soil environmental quality index, 73.4 percent of the soil samples have been contaminated. The soil of urban-rural marginal area has been seriously polluted.6. Based on the soil fertility quality evaluation environmental quality evaluation, the soil quality composite evaluation is conducted. Judging from the soil quality composite index, the soil quality in urban-rural Marginal Area is below the middle level. This is a combined result of soil productivity degradation and soil pollution.

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Research on Characteristics of Soil Nutrients and Microbial Activity of the Slope Land-Mulberry System of Purple Soil in Three Gorges Reservoir Area

On 06/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With continued growth of population,increasing demand for food and gradually increasing intensity of resource,which leads to Agricultural non-point source pollution increasing year by year. Currently,Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has caused soil and water pollution on a global scale. The situation of Agricultural nonpoint source pollution n China is extremely serious.There are three main sources,namely,fertilizer,livestock manure and pesticides. In addition,the amount of production and application of pesticides in the world are the largest,and existing irrational,excessive usage of them among this phenomenon,not the effective use of pesticides in soil,water and long-term accumulation. Pesticides which are not effective utilized in soil accumulate long-term in water,increasing soil environment and water quality deterioration in rivers and lakes. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has its unique characteristics,so it becomes one of the world’s toughest Environmental pollution problems. Therefore,to explore effective prevention and control measures to curb agricultural nonpoint source pollution,soil fertility,soil and water conservation,reduce Environmental pollution and ecological destruction have important theoretical and practical significance. Slope-mulberry system as a kind of hedgerow can Mechanical fence block, absorb and reduce soil erosion in the system to improve the environment (improve soil erosion resistance,cover,reduce the slope,etc.). It can not only be well maintained water and soil in slope,but also significantly reduce the agricultural non-point source pollutants on soil and water hazards.In this study,taking slope purple soil in hilly area of Three Gorges reservoir area and upstream as an example,taking slope-Mulberry system as a kind of agricultural nonpoint source pollution control slope complex ecological agricultural techniques from the perspective of the basin. The experiment consisted of five treatments, which were CT treatment (crops were planted along transverse slopes), T1treatment (crops were planted along transverse slopes with mulberry trees on upper-slope and lower-slopes), T2treatment (crops were planted along transverse slope with mulberry trees on upper-slope, middle-slope and lower-slope); T3treatment (crops was planted along transverse slope with mulberry trees on middle-slope and the four sides of the slope); T4treatment (crops was planted along transverse slope with mulberry trees on four sides of the slope). This paper system,quantitative study in controlling N,P effect of agricultural nonpoint source pollution,the number of microbial biomass and activity,and complex evaluate the effects of Mulberry-Economic slope systems-soil quality,provide a scientific basis for the promotion of pollution optimization technology on controlling regional agricultural nonpoint source,and provide important theoretical and practical significance in watershed protection of the water environment security,promote Economic region-Environmental development. Study achieved the following results:1In the season of mustard,intermittent,cora,as temperature,humidity,mulberry with growing,crop type and other factors,soil nitrogen content and the season was significantly positively related,and soil total potassium content and the season was significantly negative related. In the treatment of T1,T2,T3,T4,soil phosphorus,potassium content and the treatment was a significant positive correlation; nitrogen content and the treatment was a significant positive correlation. In addition,the correlation analyses were done between all the nutrients,nitrogen and potassium was a significant positive correlation,the total nitrogen content in soil,soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus content was significantly positive correlation,nitrogen content in soil and soil total K content was significantly negatively correlated,soil pH and soil available phosphorus was a significant negative correlation. Comprehensive obtained in four different treatments,there were a great influence on soil nitrogen content,appeared significant correlation; secondly,the impact on soil available phosphorus and potassium content was great,there were significantly correlated. Besides,other soil nutrients of each slope-Mulberry systems treatment were not very different,and there were not significant relationships.2Among all the treatments,the most obvious effect of run-off were T3and T4. T1and T2treatments’intercepted effects were not obvious because of issues such as mulberry growing. Each treatment has great impact on the nutrients of run-off,especially nitrogen content of run-off,which showed a significant negative correlation means that each process has effectively blocked the flow of water carried soil nutrients,and protect soil nutrient accumulation. However,each treatment has little effect on the number of microbial biomass,moreover,the bacteria and treatment showed a significant negative correlation,which makes the test designed inconsistent with the experimental results obtained. This result is an objective test or testing process was an accidental phenomenon,which worth further study to be demonstrated. In addition,crop nutrient absorption of each treatment was not very different,and treatments did not show correlation.3After the evaluation of Economic output and soil quality,we can conclude that T3treatment,from the economic point of view,reached the highest value per mu for3863.21Yuan/mu,T1was the second by reaching3599.08Yuan/mu and T2and T4reached the lowest economic benefits,namely3575.96Yuan/mu and3465.55Yuan/mu. While From the evaluation of soil nutrients comprehensive index,we can conclude that the soil quality of T4was optimal with IQI0.657; followed by T1with IQI0.624; then followed by T3treatment with IQI0.590and T2had the lowest IQI,only0.430. From the angel of Economic and ecological benefits of each treatment,economic output and soil quality of T1was in the processing level; T2was manifested not dominant; T3economic output was optimal,but the soil quality was only better than that of treatment T2; while with the lowest economic output,T4had the optimal soil quality. For the balance of economic output and soil quality,we agree that T1treatment is the best opts.In summary,the optimization of scientific and rational evaluation of slope-Mulberry system,to improve its ecological,economic,comprehensive benefits could not only control agricultural non-point source pollution,but also could increase the productivity of land,and be good for local production. Meanwhile,theory of the underlying technology associated with the type and spatial structure of mulberry,Management techniques on slopes has a great impact on Mulberry systems. In particular,depending on different factors as the terrain slope,soil depth,combined with meteorological data,how to rational design of mulberry with correlation between Basic researches techniques with spacing should be further strengthened.

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This paper researches the employment situation and influencing facto…

On 02/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

This paper researches the employment situation and influencing factors in China recent years according to more than seven thousand copies of the survey results analysis.we designed the questionnaire and issued 8,000, and there were 7,773 valid questionnaires, then we had initial treatment results of the investigation. After that, we established three types of evaluation to measure indicators of employment, including the indicators of whether the person employed, salary level and employment time horizon. Through the linked list table and variance analysis of its influencing factors showed that the biggest factor of the level of employment is the length of employment, followed by the birthplace; the biggest factor of payment level is Education, followed by the professional prospects; the most important factor of time levels of employment is Education, followed by job positions.we researched this professional employment situation of different fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the evaluation results based on the employment situation in the professional ranks, found that the employment situation of agriculture and forestry professional best, followed by Economics, Engineering classes, Management classes, and ranked last in employment is Normal.we analysed the factors of the employment level based on the different levels of regional Economic development. It is shown that there are different salary levels and work development levels with different levels of regional Economic development, which is the highest salary levels in the Pearl River Delta, the Central Plains region of the lowest salary levels, Liao South of the highest levels of work development, and in Xuzhou the level of urban development of the work group of the lowest.some suggestions policies are recommended, including continue graduate school, choice of employment and other aspects of recommendations.

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A Study on Clinical Pathway for Its Effect of Improving Medical Service and Controlling Medical Costs

On 31/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Background:with the application of update Medical devices and special Drugs and the people’s continuously improving requirements of the Medical service quality in recent years, the Health costs increase rapidly. According to the data of Ministry of Health of China, the average growth rate of total Health costs reached 13.5% from 1995 to 2004 annual, much higher than the growth rates of the GDP、government revenue and national income. And the residents accounted for more than 50% of the total costs[4].Excessive growth of Medical costs is a problem for all of the countries, which the developed countries generally use Diagnosis Relatived Groups (DRGs) to control effectively. The United States created DRGs-PPS(Diagnosis Relatived Groups and Prospective Payment System) firstly in 1976. The HCFA (Health Care Financing Administration) published the DRGs codes firstly in 1983. the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Australia, Germany and other developed countries have introduced DRGs and modified to suit the needs of their own countries[1].However, “regional differences” in different hospitals effected the createment and the costs of the same disease after the implementation of DRGs.But the authority costs were lack of. Therefore, the Boston New England Medical Center Hospital (NEMC) selected some diseases in DRGs, established clear diagnosis and treatment norms, used health care plans according to the schedule during hospitalization, which could reduce the average days in hospital and medical costs and achieve the desired effect. The model was called clinical pathway(CP), which could achieve the continuous quality improvement (CQI),save resources and launch into single-disease quality Management.CP has been paid universal attention to in Europe and Asia. The United States, Britain, Australia, Singapore, Japan, Taiwan of China have applied it, which effectively reduced the average days in hospital.controlled the medical costs, improved the patient’s satisfaction and the hospitals’efficiency.The [2009] 111 document of the Ministry of Health of China issued eight clinical pathways. More than 100 CPs of the medicine, surgery, gynecology, pediatrics and other disciplines have been issued and required to pilot since then.The Phenomenons of relaxing Indications for admission, moving up the diagnosis, etc may appear because of selecting patients and treatment. CP also may limit the medical thinking and innovating, demand more cooperation between departments, etc. Therefore, the evaluation of CP can improve the managementThe hospital in the study is a medium general hospital, Civilization Unit, with 436 beds, more than 250 Senior medical staffs, more than 50 millions outpatients and 1.1 millions Inpatients annual,5 key medical specialties. CP has been applied in 12 diseases of 10 specialties since September 2009.Purpose:With the implementation of clinical pathway in the hospital, we compare the medical services, cost and efficiency, identify the Advantages and disadvantages, discover the difficulties, evaluate the effects, reference on the experience, Propose feasible suggestions. Methods:Combining with expert advice, individual interviews, questionnaires, literature analysis, we collect the Information of the whole hospital from September 2004 to August 2010 and the bills, medical records and satisfaction questionnaires of 1479 cases (339 cases of senile cataract) of 12 diseases in CP Management from the Function departments to get the data of medical services, medical cost, medical efficiency to do longitudinal and horizontal studies to evaluate the effect of CP. Different statistic methods including retrospective analysis, individual interviews, expert consulation, satisfaction questionnaires, stata software, excel software, general descriptive statistics, T-test, etc were used to assess the effect of CP.Results:After the implementation of clinical pathway,1. Medical services:the brand appeared.the patients of implemented diseases was 33.48%,18.80% more than the data of last year, the Predictive value respectively, and the scales were higher than the whole hospital’s level. The male ratio was 7.97%,8.92% higher than the data of last year, the Predictive value respectively in surgical departments, and the scales were higher than the whole hospital’s level. The average age was 1.40%,1.67% less than the data of last year, the Predictive value respectively, while the whole hospital’s scales were 1.18% more than the data of last year, 0.18% less than the Predictive value, the days in hospital were reduced, which of senile cataract were 15.42%,5.60%less than the last year, the Predictive value respectively, and the scales were higher than the whole hospital’s level (major in the the young and males). Medical quality improved continuely, the cure and improvement rate was 2.69%,3.20% more than the last year, the Predictive value respectively, while the whole hospital’s level fell.The satisfaction of Senile cataract patients improved from 98.56 of 2008 to 99.70 of 2009, and there were the significant statistical difference (P<0.05). The income of Ophthalmology staff was 20.32%,7.96% more than the last year, the Predictive value respectively. The satisfaction of the doctor s and nurses increased significantly.2. Medical costs:the costs of surgical departments were only 3.70%,1.11% more than the data of last year, the Predictive value respectively, while the whole hospital’s scales were 13.17%. The costs in ophthalmic were 2.39%,5.86% less than the last year, the Predictive value respectively. Drug costs of inpatients were 6.33%,14.74% less than the data of last year, the Predictive value respectively. The net income was 7.68%,3.43% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively. For the Senile cataract patients, the numbers of examination induced, especially in the elder and female. The average hospital costs were less 7.47%,8.14%than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively especially in the young and males. The ratios of surgical material costs were 27.13%,30.76% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively,because of the expensive IOLs for the Medical Safety.3. Medical efficiency:the growth rates of total assets and assets per bed increased. In surgical department, the costs per bed were 9.87%,4.66% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively. In Non-surgical department, the costs per bed were 14.74%,1.79% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively, while the whole hospital’s scales were 19.82%,3.51% respectively. The bed occupancy rates of ophthalmology were 11.44%,3.18% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively. The outpatients per staff were 19.63%,11.00% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively.The bed days per staff were 5.97%,6.98% more than the data of the last year, the Predictive value respectively.4. Study of variance:The senile cataract patients with the positive variance were younger, less days in hospital, higher female ratios, more bed costs per day, higer checking costs ratios and lower cure and improvement rates. The senile cataract patients with the negative variance were elder, more days in hospital, higher female ratios, less bed costs per day, higer checking costs ratios and cure and improvement rates. Conclusion:Although the CP may cause the selection for patients and treatments and it’s difficult to control the variance, the CP can Enhance the brand, raise the satisfaction, reduce the days in hospital, promote Reasonable use of drugs and examinations, control the medical costs effectively and improve the quality and efficiency of medical services continuously.

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The Evaluation of Baoji Rural Remote Education Project

On 30/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

To realize the leap-forward of the rural elementary schooling in Mid-west China, the State launched the Rural Modern Remote Education Project in Middle and Primary Schools, in which the State and the local government jointly invested¥10billion, the largest amount of Investment to the elementary schooling since 1949. The project aims to mutually share between the urban and the rural areas the educational resources, and to improve the quality of the rural schooling. The practice of the project will affect profoundly every fields of the rural Education; nevertheless there exist difficulties and problems in fulfilling the project.This paper investigates systematically the status quo of the project through library research, questionnaire and interviews, probes into the major problems and elements through data analysis and proposes some suggestions to improve the rural remote Education. The project provides a plat for improving the quality of the rural education, but during fulfilling the project, new questions come with the lack of the teaching resources, the technique in teacher education, and the guarantee system that follows. Departing from the perspective of the college teachers, the paper builds a bridge between college teachers and the Middle and Primary School teachers to provide the reference to the students’as future teachers. Combining with qualitative study and quantitative study, the paper gives some suggestions in constructing the resource of Baoji rural remote schooling, teacher training, media utilization and the sustainable development of the project.

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The Evaluation of Lu Xun’s Image by Thai Intellectuals

On 23/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Lu Xun has been considered as the great writer of world for long time ago. Also LuXun has influenced in many countries around the world, especially in the field of literatureand culture of the East Asian countries. However, for Thai society, Lu Xun’s writing hasn’tgot too much attention at home and abroad. In1952Lu Xun’s The True Story of Ah Q hasbeen first time issued on literary letter magazine in Thai version. And then it has beentranslated into Thai languages for many times. Nowadays, The True Story of Ah Q Thaiversion has collected for a total of seven versions which issued by Decha Bunchachai,A Ittipol, Chang Sae-Tang, Aniwat, Manij Jianbanzhongkit, Apiwat and Beijing ForeignLanguage Teaching and Research press. It can be found that in since the1950s Lu Xun’swriting have continued translate it until now. This situation makes people get the questionthat if the novel of Lu Xun has not make any sense to Thailand, so it would not have beenissued into many Thai translated versions. Thus, it means that in fact Lu Xun has moreinfluence for Thai people, especially for Thailand intellectuals. For the writer’s understandingthrough this research, Thai intellectuals can separate into two types which are publicintellectuals and academic intellectuals. They are main importance as communicators,translators, promoters, researchers, critics and readers for the works and thinking of Lu Xun.Therefore, this research uses the words of (criticism articles, books, surveys) which carriedout by Thai intellectuals; to research about the mind of Lu Xun’s image. In order to reflect theinfluence of Lu Xun’s works in Thailand within different generations, different positions thatmake Thai people accept his writing into different ways.The point of this research paper is based on summary of Lu Xun’s works acceptationby Thai intellectuals which use of the information arrangement and evaluation. For theresearch, we are mainly used the data combing method, text reading, and doingquestionnaires. Since the1930s, the issue of Lu Xun’s works and Thai intellectualsacceptance have used the way of introduction and evaluation about the history of Thaipolitics. In addition, the writer used the reading articles and criticisms by Thai intellectualsand Lu Xun’s other related writing to evaluate and give the keyword for Thai intellectuals’attitudes toward Lu Xun. At the same time, the writer also do the questionnaires by Thaistudents as the main survey for a better understanding of Lu Xun’s image in the eyes ofacademic intellectuals. The research paper is divided into three parts. The first part is the summary of Thaipeople’s acceptances on Lu Xun’s works by historical time. The second part is to give thedefinition of “Knowledge Person” and “Intellectuals”, after that it reviews the relationshipbetween intellectuals for society and academic intellectuals, and their attitudes toward LuXun. Finally in the third part, is to survey Lu Xun’s image in the classroom, to analyse theideas of those intellectuals toward Lu Xun’s works after studying his works.The writer has read the Thai intellectuals’ writing which show out that theiracceptance of Lu Xun come from the mind and history. After that, we summarize the LuXun’s image from Thai intellectuals. The writer expects that this paper can help to add morenew view point for the research society of Lu Xun both in Thailand and China. Moreover itmakes the interested readers in Lu Xun could understand about Thai intellectuals which comefrom different generations and different types, how they write about Lu Xun and the causes.Moreover, it helps to learn about Thai-China Cultural exchange too.

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Zhengyang Lake Landscape Project Schedule Management Plan Evaluation and Optimization

On 15/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

As the mother river of Weifang city of Shandong Province, there are many relics alongthe Bailang River. From the perspective of overall city planning, a college town whichincludes five colleges is planned at the northern slope of Fuyan Mountain, one of the originsof Bailang River. Shandong Vocational College of Science and Technology is the first to settlein. The construction of the new campus is a complex project among which the ZhengyangLake is a specific cultural landscape project. The schedule Management of the project plays animportant role in the realization of the whole process.This paper takes the project schedule plan as the research objective and analyzed thecurrent situation and problems that encountered in the project schedule plan with the help ofbar chart, method of vanguard line and S curving method. It also made correspondingoptimizing research on the basis of analysis and evaluation of the landscape project. Based onthe theory of schedule control, the earned value method is applied in the implementation ofthe project, and a comprehensive evaluation is made from the aspect of schedule performancemanagement to realize the dynamic control to the whole project. Based on the content ofproject construction plan, the thesis optimized the schedule monitoring plan on the projecttask, construction method and plan, construction schedule plan, organization andtechnological measures as well as the security and pollution-protection. A scientific andreasonable construction schedule and effective administering measures are also been make toensure the smooth implementation of the whole project as well as the timeliness and qualityof the target of Zhengyang Lake project.

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Preliminary Evaluation of Acute Toxicity and Immunotoxicity Induced by Coal Flotation Reagent

On 09/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

1. BackgroundFlotation technology is the most effective way for fine slime selection, which is also one of the most important means among clean coal technologies. Coal flotation reagents have been widely used both in China and other countries all around the world. During the past 100 years, the theories and technologies of coal flotation have been developed by leaps and bounds. At the same time, new floating reagents have been invented one after another. However, many of the current flotation reagents testing focus only on the needs of flotation effect, without considering the Health impact the coal flotation on occupational workers.The immune system plays an important role in the maintenance of individual Health. Destruction of the immune system can lead to potentially far-reaching impact on health. The immune system may be more sensitive to xenobiotics, Indeed, in some instances, the immune system has been shown to be compromised in the absence of observed toxicity in other organ systems. Decreased immunocompetence (immunosuppression) may result in repeated, more severe, or prolonged infections as well as the development of cancer. Immunoenhancement may lead to immune-mediated diseases such as hypersensitivity responses or autoimmune disease. Therefore, it is very important to understand the impact of xenobiotics on the immune system.Due to the lack of scientific research evidence related to the relationship between occupational exposure to coal flotation and the impact of population health, the potential occupational hazards of coal flotation reagents have not aroused the attention to the relevant departments. Certainly, no occupational health standards have been formulated.2. ObjectivesThe present studies were carried out to explore the acute toxicity and immunotoxicity induced by coal flotation reagents, with a view to provide a basis for further study.3. Methods3.1 Acute Toxicity Testing Four batches of Kunming mice were obtained for four different samples of coal flotation reagents respectively, each batch of 40, a total of 160. Each batch of animals was randomly divided into five groups, solvent control group (negative control group) and four experiment groups (coal flotation reagent treated groups). Each group contained 8 animals. Mice were administrated by gavage at doses of 0 g / kg, 10.0 g / kg, 4.16 g / kg, 1.73 g / kg, 0.72 g / kg, 0.30 g / kg. Foods were given immediately after the exposure, and signs of poisoning and death were observed for a total of 14 days. LD50 were calculated in the end of experiment duration.3.2 Immunotoxicity Screening Balb/c mice were weighed, numbered, and then randomly divided into four groups which were solvent control group (negative control group) as well as low, medium and high dose group(coal flotation reagent treated groups). Each of the groups contained 12 animals. Mice were administrated by gavage at doses of 0 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg for 28 days. In the 28th days, body weight and some organ like liver, kidney, thymus, spleen weight were measured and recorded. Half of each spleen was used for histopathological evaluation, another half was prepared as spleen single cell suspensions, which were utilized in T/B lymphocyte proliferation test and nature killer cell assay. The data statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.0 software.4. Results4.1 Acute Toxicity Testing LD50 of the four samples were calculated as 6.451341 g/kg、3.730032 g/kg、8.032024 g/kg、15.50065 g/kg。According to the Chinese hazard classification standards for occupational toxicants(GB 5044-85), sample #1、#3 and #4 should be classified intoⅣcategory(mild hazard),and sample #2 should be classified intoⅢcategory(moderate hazard)。4.2 Immunotoxicity Screening Compared to the solvent control group, thymus body weight ratio in high dose group decreased significantly (P<0.01), while no significant changes were observed in spleen body weight ratio among the groups. Spleen sinus congestion was observed in high dose group and medium group at histopathological level. T lymphocyte proliferation activity in high dose group and medium dose group decreased significantly (P<0.01), while B lymphocyte proliferation activity increased significantly (P<0.01). NK cell activity in high dose group and low dose group decreased significantly (P<0.01), while no such change was observed in medium dose group.5. Conclusions According to the acute toxicity tests, the coal flotation reagents can be considered as low toxicity, with mild or moderate hazard. However, coal flotation reagents could lead to immunotoxicity in Balb/c mice, which is worth attention.6. Innovations The present studies were the fist to explore acute toxicity and immunotoxicity induced by coal flotation reagents, which provide some Basic data for further investigations.