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Measurement and Evaluation of Rural Labor Force Transfer’s Degree

On 19/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

This paper is an empirical analysis concerning measuring, caculating rural labor force transfer’s degree and evaluating different degree’s influence on Agricultural production. Its meaning lies in by researching rural labor force transfer’s degree and influence on agriculture development and related policy, making the current research on rural labor force transfer complementary, and providing a new way of thinking for related sections to publish and adopt policies.Main contents:By looking up domestic and international studies on rural labor force transfer or agriculture development, grasp the process about this kind of research. Confirm the scope of rural labor force, define the transfer of rural labor force and analyze the type of rural labor, the type of transfer, the motive of transfer, the way and the approach of transfer. By elaborating the evidence to cross the degree of rural labor force transfer and the type of it, confirm structural and synthesized methods to judge the degree, and establish the model on the quantity to measure and calculate the degree of rural labor force transfer from the angle of optimizing labor force allocation and the angle of allocating labor force according to the experience of traditional agriculture production. Based on the methods, the model and the investigating information, firstly measure the degree of the observed village’s labor force transfer, and then compare and evaluate different transfer’s degree influences on Agricultural production. And at the end of the paper put forward my pertinent suggestion.Conclusions:1. In the community of village whose labor force transfer degree is high, firstly it shows a structural excess of transfer and then the quantitative excess of transfer. Such as the labor force transfer of the 6 teams in Wanhe village, considering the quantity from the angle of optimizing the allocation of labor force, the degree of the second team and the third team both are deficiency transfer, the degree of the first and the fourth teams both are relatively moderate transfer, while the degree of the fifth and the sixth teams both are close to absolutely moderate transfer. From the angle of allocating labor force according to the experience of traditional agriculture production, the degree of the second and the third teams both are relatively moderate transfer, the degree of the fourth one is also relatively moderative transfer, the degree of the first and sixth ones both are slightly excessive transfer but the sixth one is close to medium-excessed transfer, while the degree of the fifth one is medium-excessed transfer. But in the structure, all teams shows the degree of young and adult labor force , male ones and the ones having high level of Education are excessive transfer.2. The degree of rural labor force transfer in the six teams is different between the seeding&harvest period and spare time. For the team who has long history and is close to absolutely moderate or slightly excessive transfer from the angle of optimizing labor force allocation, its transfer degree doesn’t change too much between the two period, and even it even appears that the quantitative transfer degree during the seeding&harvest period is higher than the spare time, eg. the ones of the sixth and fifth teams in our study community. But for the team who only has short history, deficiency or relatively moderate transfer from the angle of optimizing labor force allocation, its transfer degree changes obviously. Its transfer degree during spare period is much higher than seeding & harvest period, eg. the ones of the first, second, third and fourth teams.3. The degree of rural labor force transfer measured from the angle of optimizing labor force allocation is lower than the angle of allocating labor force according to the experience of the traditional agriculture production. So there is much more surplus labor force in agriculture in the quantity to allocate. The main reason of it is that the two angles represent two different ways of allocating labor force and arranging the agriculture production. The biggest difference between them is that the first way just arranges one kind of production during the overlapping period while the last one arranges much more.4. Once the degree of the labor force transfer attains certain critical level, the higher transfer degree, the more disadvantageous influence to agriculture production. The concrete performances are that the planting acreage of cropper, per unit production of staple cropper with large demand in labor force and the hog’s scale in the peasant family will become smaller as the transfer degree becomes higher. Such as among the higher degree teams first, sixth and fifth, the acreage, per unit production and the hog’s scale in the fifth team whose degree is highest are obviously lower than team sixth, and the sixth one is distinctly lower than the first. But among other three teams’ comparison, these three items all have irregular changes.5. Different aspects of agriculture production influenced by the labor force degree don’t change at the same direction in the meantime. In the aspect of land use, the planting acreage of crop basically becomes smaller as the labor force transfer degree becomes higher, eg. except the one of team 3 is lower than team 4 while the third team’s degree is lower than team 4 , all of other teams’ repeat planting index’s order is totally opposite to the transfer degree’s. In the aspect of the scale of hog to raise, it would become smaller as the labor force transfer degree becomes higher in fifth, sixth and fourth teams which transfer degree is quite high. In the aspect of per unit output of cropper, among these three high transfer degree teams: fifth, sixth and fourth ones, rice, wheat and rape output become smaller as labor force degree becomes higher; but the corn output among the fifth, sixth and third teams is totally reversed.6. Among the teams with different kinds of transfer degree, the difference of influence of agriculture infrastructure construction is very small. As a whole, since the right of using land allocated to the family, no matter large scale or small size agriculture infrastructure construction in the village are both lag. And because of the characteristic that the agriculture infrastructure construction is public or quasi-public product, the situation of agri-infrastructure construction are basically kept at the same level among the teams with different kinds of transfer degree. But the transfer pricks up the difficulty to developing agri-infrastructure construction.Countermeasure suggestion:1. Establish measuring the transfer degree of rural labor force and early-warning system to observe the change process of the degree and send the results to related sections and leaders to help them make timely decision and take aimed measurement. The system not only can be set up by government department separately, and also can be established by government department and researching institution or college together.2. Establish the training system to help the agriculture labor improve their integrate ability and the agriculture production skill. The system should aim at all the agriculture labor force. The main content should be about the knowledge and the skill of agri-production and how to make business. There are two ways to set up the system: one way is to set up it separately, the other is to add some programs on agriculture production and making business. Thus, the local government can choose one from the two ways according to its finance, nature resource and human resource condition.3. Establish multi-benefit cooperation workmanship, and explore new way to utilize the land. On the basis of obeying the law of land use, make mutual-aid and cooperation among peasant household. The government can guide the household to be engaged in agriculture production by the way of mutual-aid and cooperation Management which can help the transfer of the right to use land and get more efficiency utilization for the land.4. Guide and support the labor force who gets back from city to engage agriculture production and to be the leader. Government should give them necessary guide and support. The guide should be based on the principle of self-mind, independence and freedom, take pay off as aim, help them choose the items which are in favor of developing agriculture production, suitable for region specialty and market demand, and set up system which can keep away risk and let them manage, suffer risk and take profit all by themselves. At the same time, government should also give necessary policy and financial support.5. Research and apply the technique on agriculture which can save labor force, helping to partly relieve the shortage contradiction of the labor in agri-production. The research should be tightly fixed attention on the characteristics of current agriculture production, be based on the principle of small invest, low cost, simple to apply and having obvious effect and combine the experience with the scientific and technological achievement. The application should adopt all kinds of means and approaches at the principle of self-mind, independence and making people center. And feed back the problems and good advice timely. Form positive interaction among researchers, transmitters and users.6. Combine all kinds of ways to satisfy the labor force demands for agriculture foundation construction. According to the labor force transfer character, we can arrange foundation construction at the peak period when the labor force come back home. For these large-scale foundation construction, we can plan to finish it in different stages. And we can use many kinds of means and approaches to persuade and encourage these who are out back home to take part in the construction. For some rich regions can also replace the labor force with funds to make the construction.Originality:1.The angle of view of the research is original. Considering different influences on agri-development among different rural labor force transfer degree, research systematically the methods to measure the transfer degree, and compare and evaluate the influences on agri-production caused by different degree in the observation. This is very different from formed study concerning the effect of labor force transfer.2. The method of research is special. Not only from the angle of allocating labor force according to the experience of traditional agriculture production measure the quantity of labor force for the agriculture production, but also from the angle of optimizing the allocation of labor force. The two angles represent two different ways of allocating labor force and arranging the agriculture production. And find that the last one can dig more rural surplus labor forces.

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Analysis and Evaluation on Reporting and Disposal of the Public Health Emergency Incidents in Shandong Province from 2006-2007

On 18/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Objectives:To analyze the 102 public Health emergency incidents in Shandong Province in the last two years with the epidemiological and statistical analysis methods,understand their epidemiological characteristics,establish the evaluation form of the public Health emergency incidents reporting and disposal,and evaluate the public health emergency incidents reporting and disposal;make comprehensive evaluation on the disposal quality of public health emergency incidents of infectious disease and poisoning,find the problems in the public health emergency incidents reporting and disposal.And then,find an effective way to solve the issues.In order to do the prevention and control work of public health emergency incidents better in the future and improve the ability of the public health emergency incidents reporting and disposal.Objects and Method:The 102 public health emergency incidents that happened in Shandong Province from the zero o’ clock of 1-Jan-2006 to the 24 o’ clock of 31-Dec-2007 were used as study objects for data analysis and evaluation.In reference to the data on state and provincial regulations,in the form of questionnaires,after selection of the views of experts through repeated seeking their advices (Delphi),the evaluation form of the public health emergency incidents of poisoning category reporting and disposal and the evaluation form of the public health emergency incidents of infectious disease category and eva]uate the public health emergency incidents reporting and disposalTOPSIS method was used comprehensive evaluation on the disposal quality of public health emergency incidents of infectious disease and poisoning in the cities.Main Results:(1)Basic background.A total of 6,142 cases were reported with 29 deaths in the 102 emergencies,and there were 5,752 cases with 15 deaths in 78 emergencies in 2006 and 390 cases with 14 deaths in 24 emergencies in 2007 respectively.76(74.51%) communicable diseases outbreaks had 5 760 cases with 4 deaths that accounted for 94.72%of total cases and 13.79%of total deaths, and 10 non-occupational carbon monoxide poisoning incidents had 143 cases with 5 deaths.There were 5 303 cases without death in 66 emergencies that occurred in kindergartens,primary schools and high schools.(2)Case evaluation.Among the province’s 25 public health emergencies of poisoning category,4 were evaluated as the superior grade,accounting for 16.00%;8,the good grade, accounting for 32.00%;2,the medium grade,accounting for 8.00%; 11,the poor grade,accounting for 44.00%.Among the province’ s 10 public health emergency incidents of Class A and B infectious diseases and diseases of unknown causes, 1,was evaluated as the superior grade,accounting for 10.00%, 3,the good grade,accounting for 30.00%,2,the medium grade, accounting for 20.00%,4,the poor grade,accounting for 40.00%;Among the 50 public health emergencies of Class C infectious diseases,8 were evaluated as the superior grade, accounting for 16.00%,14,the good grade,accounting for 28.00%, 17,the medium grade,accounting for 34.00%,11,the poor grade, accounting for 22.00%;17 other infectious diseases(nonnotified infectious diseases)were public health emergencies of chickenpox outbreaks,among them none was evaluated as the superior grade,2,the good grade,accounting for 11.76%,5,the medium grade,accounting for 29.41%,10,the poor grade,accounting for 58.82%.(3)Comprehensive evaluation on public health emergency report disposal in cities with districts.25 public health emergencies of poisoning category were distributed in 11 cities, with the city as a unit,using TOPSIS,comprehensive evaluation was made on public health emergencies of poisoning category report and disposal,Zaozhuang,Weihai,Laiwu were ranked the top three in C,value(index value and relatively close to the ideal solution degree),showing that the three cities were higher in comprehensive evaluation on public health emergencies of poisoning category report and disposal.All 77 public health emergencies of infectious disease category(including 1 public health emergencies of unknown causes disease)were distributed in 13 cities,with the city as a unit, using TOPSIS,comprehensive evaluation was made on public health emergencies of infectious disease category report and disposal, Liaocheng,Weihai,Tai’ an were ranked the top three in C,value (index value and relatively close to the ideal solution degree), showing that the three cities were higher in comprehensive evaluation on public health emergencies of infectious disease category report and disposal.Conclusions:1.The outbreaks of infectious disease in primary and high schools are the major public health emergency incidents.2.The evaluation form of the public health emergency incidents can reflect the Basic condition of the public health emergency incident reporting and disposal.3.TOPSIS method can be used to make comprehensive evaluation on the public health emergency incident reporting and disposal in different districts and cities.

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Classroom Activities Design for Teaching Experiencing Chinese Middle School Students’ book1in Thailand

On 17/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Classroom Activity Design has always been an essential part in the whole teaching process, which is also considered as a way for students to learn and master the teaching target in their class. This thesis is going to demonstrate some practical activities based on the textbook of Experiencing Chinese (Book One) as well as the principles of lively and interesting; communicative and practical; task-based and object-based. Furthermore, those activities’steps come with the communicative teaching strategy, which hints me a lot in teaching Chinese as a foreign language. After those activity design plans, you will also read myself-evaluation about each individual activity, mainly of which are about communicative activities between teacher and students or students and students with the aim of apply Chinese language into classroom in the maximum. Those communicative activities are organized by the form of role play, context conversation, games and so on, offering ways for teachers in how to capture students’ attention and how to teach more effectively.

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In recent years, IT professional education is prosperous and the emp…

On 17/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

In recent years, IT professional Education is prosperous and the employment rate is very good, but graduate students majoring in the Computer is difficult to find suitable jobs after they have graduated from colleges, which sounds the alarm for the professional Education in colleges. This research is based on the ordinary colleges and universities to set up a Computer model of professional competence of teachers, providing a direction for the Computer departments to recruit and train teachers.The study adopts the documentary analysis and the open questionnaire survey. It lists the competency features of computer teachers, requests the expert group to assess the list to gain competency checklist items for the computer teachers in colleges, and makes the competency feature checklist. Based on the competency checklist as a questionnaire, it tests the computer teachers, students, and senior IT persons, carries out pre-test results on the mean term and exploratory factor analysis, and cuts out inappropriate features before the formal competency testing.Subsequently, a formal test of the survey are carried out on reliability, validity, content, diversity and other aspects, proves the credibility and effectiveness of the survey, and demonstrates the coincidence between the computer teachers competency items and research objects of different status. Based on the results and competency indicators, this study summarizes a total of 29 qualified items in the competency model for computer teachers in colleges, including the eventual establishment of a capability to access information, the research ability, the achievement orientation, innovation, initiative, teamwork, influence, training others, caring for students, fairness, love of education, editing capabilities of 5000 standardized codes, project experiences or corporate training experiences, professional knowledge, foreign languages, serious, flexibility, inductive thinking, deductive thinking, self-confidence, communication skills, leadership ability, interpersonal skills, learning ability, acute observation skills, teaching monitoring capabilities, courseware production capacity, and sense of responsibility characteristicsFinally, based on the model, we make the “competency evaluation questionnaire for computer teachers in colleges”, survey the computer professional competence of teachers from several colleges in southern Hunan ordinary and universities conducted Force Survey, and gain the result that the competence of the computer teachers is quite good, but is far from the ideal model, and needs to be enhanced. The analysis demonstrates that the gender and the academic background in general do not have much impact on the professional competence of computer teachers, but the actual project development experiences, the professional title, and the length of teaching are critical to the overall impact of the overall competency, which provides a good reference for recruiting and training teachers in the computer departments in colleges.

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The Evaluation Research on Provincial Cities’ Intellectual Property Competitiveness in Henan

On 16/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

At present, Chinese Economic development is the gradual evolution of the economicform of intellectual property, intellectual property has become a competitive national andregional socio-Economic development of the inexhaustible power and protection. December2008,”Intellectual Property Strategy Outline of Henan Province” promulgated the outline ofthe sixth part of an explicit proposal to strengthen the enforcement of intellectual property andevaluation of implementation of the strategy, the competitiveness of the local intellectualproperty rights of intellectual property strategy implementation and evaluation as an importantevaluation aspects of intellectual property rights of local and regional competitive advantageto enhance the competitiveness of a significant role in promoting improved.This paper studies theory of comparative advantage and competitive advantage, and thetheory of regional competitiveness, etc., from the resources and ability to integrate theperspective of the competitiveness of the local intellectual property rights are defined, that is,to intellectual property creation, protection, possession, conversion, and operation ofknowledge ability of property rights to intellectual property resources through organicproduce to be used from the whole story, the realization of regional resources and capabilitieswithin the optimal intellectual property portfolio and to maximize the benefits of capacity.Development of Henan Province in the analysis on the basis of intellectual property,combined with competitive factors and results-oriented competition index selection method,AHP building evaluation system; use of trial in2007evaluating the data, corrected for indexsystem to determine the final evaluation indicators and evaluation models; reference to thecompetitiveness of Henan Province, the local intellectual property questionnaire and thecompetitiveness of Henan Province, where the information matrix of intellectual property,collecting data all over the city in2010, drawn by the end of the evaluation system in2010intellectual property around the City, Henan Province, the competitiveness of evaluation results.Evaluation results obtained in this study, intellectual property rights under provincialjurisdiction in the competitiveness ranking, while intellectual property rights under provincialjurisdiction to reflect the competitive strengths and weaknesses, help clear focus around theintellectual property, to enhance its intellectual competitiveness in the decision making.

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The Research to Assess Training Effect of Workforce Training Programs of the China Disease Prevention Project Financed by the World Bank (Immunization Planning Part)

On 09/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective The China Disease Prevention Project financed by the World Bank (Immunization Planning Part) started in 1996, and is planned to finish in 2003. Yunnan, Guizhou, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, Guangxi, Gansu, Xinjiang, Shanxi, Hubei, are the ten project provinces. The goal of the project is to reduce infant mortality rate and disability rate through strengthening, development of immunization planning capacity and professional skills of staff responsible for Health promotion in ten poor provinces, The project (immunization program part) is divided into four parts, i.e. cold chain system, workforce training, administration and surveillance, and Health propaganda and mobilization. Among them, workforce training is the core part. Its aim is: through the establishment of work study training system, to improve their professional technical skill and practical operation abilities for the immunization program staffs, especially the staff at grass level, and also strengthen the practical ability in organizing the training programs in provinces, regions and counties, as well as establish the sustainable local capacity to deliver in-service training in each province by project. In order to summarize the experiences and lessons in workforce training programs in the project thoroughly, and to evaluate the effectiveness objectively, and to meet project stakeholders’ requests, we conducted evaluation to assess impact of workforce training. 1 from Oct 1st to Oct 25th. The evaluation questions are to:1) Assess to what extent the project objectives have been achieved;2) Evaluate the changes in quality, quantities, contents and performancecontributed by workforce training;3) Summarize the experiences gained from workforce training;4) Summarize the lessons from workforce training, and identify their main causes.Subjects The subjects of this study were the trainees and project managers from this program who are eligible to be sampled from ten provinces including YunNan, GuiZhou, HeNan, HeBei, ShanXi, Guang Xi, GanSu, Xinjiang, ShanXi, HuBei. This study investigated trainees and took back effective questionnaires. The reply rate is 94.8%.Methods The research methods include both quantitative research and qualitative research (Focus Group). In quantitative research, according to the Social Economic development level, which is good middle and poor, three counties in each province were selected, and then three villages selected in each township. Consequently, the samples are 270 villages, 90 townships, and 30 counties in 10 project provinces. Questionnaire was administrated among the above samples. Furthermore two counties in Shanxi, and Hebei were sampled respectively. And then in each of the two counties, a township was selected, contents of research focused on (1) implementation of training program (2) impact of project training (3) The impact of the training program on workers’ performance (4) Evaluation of effects of project personnel training ? (5) The contribution of personnel training to the project objectives (a comparison: Before and after the implementation of the project). For those collected quantity data, first, we checked and verified the reliability and completeness of the data, then we used EPI 6.12 software to enter the data twice by designated persons, and finally used SAS software for data Management and analysis. For qualitative data, we assign the designated persons to conduct data processing, and analyzing the data.Results According to the questionnaires from four province, and qualitative investigation in Hebei and Shanxi, we got the results as following. Until Oct, 2002,the accumulated number of immunization program staff who completed training at various levels was 397492 person weeks, accumulated training expenditure was 63243585 Yunnan, basically implemented the training plans in the four provinces. During the project, there were total 8282 training courses (workshops) were held in four provinces, among them the provincial level held 56 training courses (workshops) reg

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A Study on an Evaluation System of Surgical Practice Quality for Five-year Clinical Medicine Students

On 08/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With the continuously intensive development of Medical Education reform, the evaluation on Medical Education is drawing people’s attention. The evaluation of surgical practice quality for five-year clinical medical students, as the foundation and content of evaluation on the five-year education of clinical medicine, obeys the Basic laws and means of evaluation on education of clinical medicine. The progress of educational practice of clinical medicine requires us to pay attention as well as give priority to the evaluation on the education of clinical medicine. The methodology applied in the study includes document comprehensive analysis, specialist consultation, fuzzy mathematics overall assessment, level analysis, student questionnaire investigation and so on. By analyzing the current condition of medical students’clinical practice quality evaluation from both home and abroad and combining with the actual situation acquired from the questionnaire to students, the study is going to research the comprehensive evaluation index system of surgical practice quality for five-year medical students. The study is divided into two parts: Part one: The establishment of the evaluation system of surgical practice quality for five-year clinical medicine education (1) Through the questionnaire investigation to 204 students of the year 2000 who are on clinical practice, problems existed in the process of clinical practice will be analyzed and discussed; (2) Comprehensive evaluation index system of surgical practice quality (Grade 3 evaluation) is to be constructed. Part two: The establishment of the model on the evaluation system of surgical practice quality for five-year clinical medicine education In this part methods of level analysis and specialist consultation are applied to weigh all the essential evaluation factors; and on the basis of the weighing, fuzzy mathematics overall assessment is used to establish mathematic models, which will also be testified followingly to assure that the comprehensive evaluation method constructed taking these three parts as main contents is scientific, efficient and feasible so that it can be employed to the evaluation of surgical practice quality of five-year clinical medical students. By the research of this topic, an evaluation system of surgical practice quality for five-year clinical medicine students (Class 3 evaluation index system) has been initially established, which offers a set of scientific, objective and feasible index system for the evaluation of surgical practice quality of five-year clinical medicine students. Furthermore it plays an active role in promoting the improvement of medical students’surgical practice quality, strengthening the Management of surgical practice quality as well as cultivating qualified medical talents.

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Research on the Ecological Safety Evaluation of Agriculture in Loess Hilly Region

On 04/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Ecological safety is the current hot issue, but also affected the Loess Hills area of sustainable Agricultural development of the important factors. Papers fully absorbed in previous research on the ecological security, based on ecological safety should be within a certain time scale, different levels, different types of ecosystems to maintain their own normal structure and function of human and sustainable development to meet the needs of the state. Stressed agro-ecological safety of Agricultural ecological environment is pollution-free, and not free from the threat of destruction of the state of Health. Stressed agro-ecological safety of Agricultural ecological environment is pollution-free, and not free from the threat of destruction of the state of Health. On domestic and regional ecological security evaluation of the model and framework for a comparative analysis indicator system, AHP concept model with the State-combined Construction of the Loess Plateau ecological security evaluation system. The indicator comprises 16 indicators, Include :the average annual precipitation;≥10°C temperature; The vegetation coverage rate; Soil erosion; Water satisfaction rate; Arable land per capita; per capita food; The natural population growth rate; population density; fertilizer unit load; pesticide load per unit area; per capita agricultural GDP; cent of the total agricultural capital construction Investment ratio; above the middle school population; non-agricultural population ratio; Engel’s coefficient. Cover their own system of the state of nature, and system pressure system response three, This will ensure that the indicator system to choose scientific and completeness. Based on the evaluation of the properties, and the level of domestic and foreign-related standards, the development of regional ecological security evaluation criteria and grading. Respectively AHP and expert scoring for regional ecological security evaluation indicators empowers and using agro-ecological safety level index to characterize the results.Ansai County, and the choice of subjects Baota District, in its analysis of the system, based on agro-ecological security evaluation according to agro-ecological security evaluation grading standards, excellent, good, medium, four standards, the results are : (1) From time series, in 1985, 1990 and 1995 Ansai and pagodas are in the middle of the lower level of security, but security is almost index, These, and the slow development of the then lack of funds and low technological level of a certain relationship As the economy and the development of science and technology, and the state of returning farmland to forest policy implementation Starting in 2000, to develop a good level of the year 2004, So from 2000 onwards these two regional ecological security governance and development is very effective. (2) sequences from the geographical point of view, has been compared in Ansai County, a slightly higher level of security. Ansai County, which has been the system pressure is smaller, This is due to the Tower region has been great population pressure, population density, chemical fertilizer and pesticide load units serious, and the per capita grain shortage This led to pressure for increased recessive factors. Although the system response Baota District and state of the system than Ansai County, but the system pressure as potential factors, more delay and uncertainty, the risk is even higher. Therefore, the Comprehensive Operational come to the evaluation of Ansai County, slightly more than Baota District safety. (3) Although this paper come to the conclusion that the Tower region of Ansai County than just security, but the two have remained a regional level. From the long-term development, the Baota District agro-ecological security will be greater than Ansai County. Along with the development of the commodity economy, the number of local food production will cease and the number of grain per capita is necessarily. Moreover, with the promotion of ecological agriculture, the use of chemical fertilizer and pesticide reduction was relief and other green manure fertilizer substitution; within a certain range of population density will not cause ecological crisis, the population density requirements will not be so strict as in the past. On the Economic front, Baota District’s GDP in 2005 was 12.394 billion yuan. Ansai’GDP in 2005 was 1.366 billion yuan in Economic input capacity on the pagoda was more dominant. So predictable system in a state of good and positive response to the system under the condition that further reduce the time pressure Tower region of the agro-ecological safety will exceed Ansai County.Papers focused on regional research in Baota District Ansai County of the ecological environment of the system, threats Loess Plateau agricultural ecological safety of the main issues are: (1) significant than the rural population, low overall quality of the population; (2) inadequate bearing capacity of the land, low quality land, per capita food shortage; (3) put too much fertilizer, water and soil pollution; (4) inadequate Investment in agriculture; (5) Irrational industrial structure. To address these problems put forward a series of measures and recommendations:(1) to enhance the safety Management of agricultural ecology, the development of eco-industries; (2) vigorously improve the quality of the population; (3) to strengthen agricultural ecological security system; Establish and maintain a stable socio-economic environment for development ;(5) Continuously increase the income of peasants, and promote the building of the ecological sustainable development..

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Research on Electronic Manufacturing Enterprises Supplier Selection and Evalution System

On 03/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With the21st century coming, the world economy has integrated gradually and the marketing environment is more and more difficult. With the success of the operation of the supply chain, Assess supplier capabilities and select suppliers become a great problem attention increasingly by people. For electronic manufacturer, supplier is the source of Enterprise chain, so it has an important influence in the promotion of the core competence. How to select a proper supplier and have shaped long-term strategic cooperation with supplier are the key problem in development of process for electronic manufacturer. Aiming to the current state of electronics firms are meager profit era, the paper researched some aspects about electronics manufacturing Enterprise suppliers selection and evaluation system.The main contents are summarized as follows:First of all, This paper a systematical study about the principal issues of suppliers selection and evaluation. The paper in the original supplier development and selection process, sums up the common used in manufacturing enterprise of the general procedure of the supplier development. And in the supplier evaluation system, each evaluation content to supplier evaluation, and setting a feasible evaluation system, the evaluation of suppliers is more scientific and more comprehensive. Second, the analytical hierarchy process (ahp) to A each evaluation index are measured, and evaluate the results more objective. Improve A relationships with suppliers, in view of the purchasing material is different, the decision of the relationship between the enterprises and suppliers, in view of the different supplier relations, establishing flexible evaluation system. The new evaluation system performance:evaluation content comprehensive, evaluation index quantification, flexibility (through the change of the index of) and continuity. That should be the supplier evaluation index of persistent accumulation. Finally, according to the presented selection of supplier evaluation system of the analytic hierarchy process (ahp) method combined with the actual situation of M for the system application and analyzes analytic hierarchy process in the process of supplier selection and evaluation of the advantages and limitations.The results showed that:Firstly, the electronic manufacturer and supplier should be focused on “intermediate” of a firm’s total revenue. Enterprises and supplier shouldn’t delve too deeply into short-term interests under the long-term stable cooperative relations, they should pay more attention to how to make enterprises access a long-term steadily revenue, should be focused on all the “intermediate”. Secondly, Enterprises and supplier should build up a long-term cooperative relation. Supply chain Management is a collection of coordination and Management model, because the new market economy system makes the competition between enterprises is not the simple meaning between individual competition, but the competition between the whole industry chain. In the supply chain environment, the relationship between the enterprises and suppliers from traditional competitive hostile type into a strategic partner type. This makes enterprise in selecting and evaluating new suppliers, not just through the bidding in the form of the simple assessment of price, quality and delivery to determine a qualified supplier. In the supply chain integration, the enterprise to electronic of supplier evaluation content more comprehensive and more flexible. Thirdly, selection and evaluation supplier requirements should be determined by the corporate’s own characteristics. For different electronic manufacturer, not just through the bidding in the form of the simple assessment of price, quality and delivery to determine a qualified supplier, but the ability to adjust and developing capacity.The purpose of this study is in the new supply chain competition environment, in the enterprise relationships with suppliers changed, selection and assessment of suppliers content and method has also had the big changes. New supplier selection and evaluation method is shown as:the content more comprehensive; Quantitative evaluation index make evaluation content more objective; The evaluation index system of flexibility; For electronic manufacturer supplier evaluations is a continuous process of accumulation, such as introducing stage of the assessment of the quality of supplier, and achieve quality evaluation process management.

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Evaluation of Farmland Fertility and Spatio-temporal Variation of Soil Nutrient in Ning County of Gansu Province

On 03/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The study area is located in Ning County of southeastern Gansu province. We collected data from the second soil survey report conducted in the early 1980s and soil sampling measurement data in 2007, respectively. Based on the above data source, we analysed spatio-temporal variation of topsoil nutrients in croplands and evaluated the cropland fertility of Ning County.The results showed that:(1) Both topsoil SOM and TN increased significantly in those soils such as Alluvial soil, Huangshan soil, Loessal soil and Heilu soil. These were mainly attributed to rapid increasing organic matter return resulted from increasing fertilizer application and crop biomass. However, the mean topsoil SOM and TN concentration in croplands of Grey-cinnamon soil, Huishan Soil and Huimian Soil in 2007 showed a significant decrease trend compared with that in 1984.All of the topsoil SOM, AK and AP displayed moderate spatial heterogeneity, with the value in C/(CO+C) of 0.500,0.500 and 0.516, respectively.(2) The total cultivated land area of Ning County is 86251.3 ha which can be divided into six grades. The area of grade one to grade two is 27295.4 ha, grade three 14732.7 ha, grade four 22037.0 ha, grade five to grade six 22186.1 ha, amounting to 31.6%,17.1%,25.6%,25.7%, respectively.The study will play a positive role in promoting the rational allocation of cultivated land, optimizing farming production structure in Ning County.