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A Study on Mathematics Student Teachers’ Knowledge of Parallelogram

On 28/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge about parallelogram of mathematics student teachers and their expectations and evaluation of the teacher Education curriculum. Comparing mathematics student teachers’ knowledge of parallelogram, the author expected to know how the learning in the university produce an effect on the professional development of mathematics student teachers, and give some suggestions for professional training of pre-service teachers.160 student teachers of freshman year and the forth year from a normal university of Shanghai participated in the questionnaire survey and interview. Using the analytical method of Sarah and others to assess change in student teachers’ knowledge and the framework given by Mohan Chinnappan and Michael J. Lawson to compare the quality of student teachers’knowledge, the author obtained the following results:Ⅰ. The student teachers are short of knowledge of parallelogram at various degree, and student teachers of the forth year solve the problem effectively by consulting books and periodicals. Specific performances are as follows:1. All the student teachers need more content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge about parallelogram.2. In the second interview, student teachers of the forth year have no difficulty in giving examples about the application of parallelogram.3. The numbers of chunks of knowledge of the freshmen increase and the numbers of cross-links decrease, while both numbers of student of the forth year increase.Ⅱ. Student teachers of the forth year have an advantage over the freshmen in understanding of parallelogram, but the advantage is not distinct.1. With some reference material, student teachers of the forth year could make internal connections between the knowledge of parallelogram.2. The concept maps of parallelogram of student teachers show that the student teachers of the forth year have more knowledge of parallelogram than the freshmen.3. There are two elaborate chunks of knowledge about “rhombus” and “rectangle” for all student teachers.Ⅲ. The freshmen want to learn some Basic skills of teacher. The student of the forth year need more instructional practical activities although they are satisfied with the teacher Education curriculum of the normal university.Some suggestions for the curriculum for teacher education of the normal universities and the development of the student teachers are given according to the results of the study. In the end, the deficiencies of the paper have been explained and some subsequent research topics are proposed.

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The Game Analysis in the Process of Enterprises’ Knowledge Conversion

On 19/09/2013, in Management, by rain

In an era of knowledge economy, enterprises’knowledge is one of the important forces to improve competitiveness and to develop sustainability for modern companies, which can also be converted to a vital resource for Economic wealth benefits and reforming. The mankind has entered an era of taking knowledge and technology as a core resource to possess, product and distribute other resources. When Social sector and the academics are asked to answer how reasonable to manage knowledge in enterprises, how to reform and make low-cost system to transfer and share knowledge to the needs of everyone, it arises their attention and hope that there would have some impressive new solutions. This paper focuses on knowledge sharing form the perspective of game theory.First of all, to externalize the tacit knowledge of employees is one of Basic conditions for modern companies to build an internal knowledge base. However, there is such a problem that Prisoner’s Dilemma exists when privates supply public goods. In this paper, we develop a complete information static game model on this problem and analyze the strategic behavior of the risk adverse participators to find out the four solutions of Nash equilibrium. Further, the supply of tacit knowledge on condition of Nash equilibrium is discussed from perspective of individual employees. Simultaneously, the supply of knowledge under Pareto optimality is researched from perspective of overall interest of employees. In these two conditions comparing the individual contribution reaches some kind of relationship.Secondly, we develop a complete information dynamic game model and analyze the strategic behavior of the risk adverse participators to find out the sub game perfect Nash equilibrium from perspective of individual employees. We also offer some managerial recommendations on how to balance individual interest and collective interests in modern companies.Thirdly, this article starts with the knowledge transferring process of establishing knowledge base of industrial alliance members. Under the condition of complete information and oligopolistic market, we have considered the knowledge has the characteristics of substitute, so we use reaction function in Economic field and the method of iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies to find out the solution of Nash equilibrium and the method of game theory to discuss several issues about the corporation and competition of oligarch alliance members. In conclusion, we present a series of related Management apocalypses according to our analysis.This paper studied extensive literatures to find the above problems. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative research methods(game theory, Economics ect.), some impact of factors in the process of knowledge sharing are clarified. We hope to enrich the study of knowledge Management and provide theoretical basis for the decision-makers.

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Research on the Relationship between the Practice and Theory from the Modern Concept of Knowledge

On 10/09/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

The21st century is the era of knowledge economy, bacon once said that”knowledge is power”, the research on knowledge Management in academic andcorporate has caused widespread concern. Scholars and managers constantly study inknowledge Management theory and application field to make knowledge managementtheory and practice very rich.Besides, the research of knowledge Management has itsunique function in explaining the relationship between theory and the practice, thetraditional study in the relationship between theory and practice often are based onphilosophy, many philosophers has made their own research, but the research from theaspect of knowledge is very limited. Theory is systematic knowledge in essence,therefore the study on the relationship between theory and practice is actually therelationship between the knowledge that theory contains and practice. The model ofknowledge fermentation is a kind of model that describe the progress of knowledgesharing, diffusion and innovation.The progress is quite similar to the progress ofanimal fermentation.With the model of knowledge fermentation, this thesis analysisthe relationship between theory and practice and find the inner mechanism that theoryand practice. Japanese scholars Ikujiro Nonaka advance the theory of SECI model,and use it to analysis the transition between implicit knowledge and explicitknowledge. The model has also be applied by other scholars to make intensive study,the paper studies the effect that the practice play in the transformation betweenimplicit knowledge and explicit knowledge the theory contains with the SECI model.We find that the practice is an important way to get implicit knowledge.In addition,this paper puts forward the principle of thinking, and find the way that the practiceaffect with the theory. At last, the paper analysis the history of management theoryand studies the relation between the practice and management theory. Besides, with ananalysis of the reform of the Business Administration of Tianjin University, we findsome relationship between the practice and theory.

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Qualitative Research on the Growth of Personalized Knowledge

On 30/08/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

Michael polanyi first proposed “personal knowledge” in1958, and the conceptsubverts the understanding of objective knowledge in academic community. Based onthe concept of personal knowledge, personalized knowledge is put forward.Knowledge is growing and is inseparable from the individual life, it is the product ofconstruction of individual significance. The mission of the growth of personalizedknowledge is to transform knowledge into wisdom, and to practice the view of theunity of knowledge and practice. The growth of personalized knowledge study is verynecessary and significant to Education, personal development and knowledgeinnovation.Domestic and international research on personalized knowledge are veryinsufficient, and the concept between knowledge, personal knowledge and personalknowledge are confused. The study is prior to descriptive and explanatory research,the study on the growth of personalized knowledge is insufficient.Based on the grounded theory method and purposive sampling, two people inTaiwan were selected to have in-depth interview and a whole-content analysis wasadopted. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo8was used to encode and analyzescripts, construct the related theory of personalized knowledge. The study is reliableand valid, testified by triangulation method, sufficient firsthand data and interpretingmethod.Based on analysis of two typical cases, the growth of personalized knowledge iselaborated, the concept of personal knowledge, personalized knowledge is discussed.The significance and main factors are obtained.The essential significance of the growth of personalized knowledge is to promotethe All-around Human Development, and is reflected in the growing up of a person.The essential significances of the growth of personalized knowledge include characterrefinement, cognitive ability promotion, thinking pattern changing, knowledge accumulation and personal character development. As for the influencing factors ofgrowth of personalized knowledge, two main aspects can be divided: one is theexternal factor; one is the internal factor. The internal factor involves personal interest,self-actualization needs, their own busyness, curiosity and thirst for knowledge andpersonal inner quality. The internal factor involves pressure, opportunity, Education,the key event, important people and interpersonal intercourse.

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Rresearch on Industry Cluster Based on Knowledge Management

On 06/12/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 Today, with the rapid development of knowledge, only depending on acompany’s own knowledge basis to realize the internal increase can not meet the needof competition. On the contrary, acquiring the external knowledge positively andeffectively is more significant for the company to face the complex marketing andtechnology environment increasingly. During knowledge economy times, companiesare clustered not only for static clustering effect such as sharing equipment, saving thecosting of trade and transportation, but also for clustering Economic effect, which helpthe innovation and propagation of technology and knowledge. In other words,companies cluster not for saving costing but for acquiring the message of technologyand marketing more conveniently and tracing the message about development oftechnology and market and then innovate continually during the contract andcommunication with the company in the same field or relative. Knowledge Management is a completely new area. Consequently, fewresearchers have been put into the realm about the KM in industrial cluster. Afterconsulting a great many references, the author elaborates the definition of cluster anddiffers it from other relative authorities, analyzes the knowledge in cluster fromphilosophy, Management, sociology and analyzes the feature, advantage, theory,method of knowledge innovation and sharing. afterwards, the author puts forward theferment model to explain the process of knowledge sharing and knowledge innovationand then uses this model to explain the bicycle cluster in Tianjin. The author sincerelybelieves that this theory can be of great benefit to the practice of industrial cluster forgovernment and company.

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Knowledge Management Based on a Project

On 18/11/2012, in Agriculture, by rain

【Abstract】 The dissertation is about “KM (Knowledge Management)”. Its study object, The PSB Project, is a roadbuilding and drainage project. By analyzing the common laws of Project Management at first, using existing Knowledge Management theory combining the PSB’s practical thing, the objective of this study is that we will find out the available and practical method to establish the Knowledge Management system (Touching on Human-Resource Management System, Technology Management System, Business Process Reengineering, Management Information System) based on circumstances of project, through which we could improve Project Management, speed up the decreasing of cost, improve efficiency of an Enterprise or a team, and build up competition advantage, assistance decision.

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A Thought of Knowledge-Based Economy and Sustainable Development

On 18/11/2012, in Economics papers, by rain

【Abstract】 It is common hope of all the world people to realize sustainable development, but it is also a important question that we must solve how to achieve the sustainable development. Advent of knowledge-based economy no doubt brings mankind new hope that man will realize the sustainable development at last. Because knowledge-based economy is the sustained economy in essence, it provides strong power for the sustainable development and it is the fundamental way to realize the sustainable development.Knowledge-based economy is the Economic formation based on the production, distribution and utilization of knowledge and information, it takes intellectual resources and invisible assets for primary elements, not dependent on such rare natural resources as land and oil. It integrates science with technology, which reflects scientific knowledge of man and nature. Knowledge-based economy utilizes natural resources rationally when it develops economy, in the meantime, knowledge economy exploits new resources to replace rare natural resources. So knowledge economy has some main features as follows: knowledge-based economy is the information economy; knowledge-based economy is the intellectual economy; knowledge-based economy is the intensive economy; knowledge-based economy is the innovative economy and knowledge-based economy is the sustained economy with harmonious relation between man and nature.Sustainable development, as a new idea and strategy of development, seeks to realize harmonious development among economy, society and nature, not only promote increase of economy, also protect such natural resources as atmosphere, water, land and forest which are necessary for mankind to live, not only meet contemporary people’s demands, also pose no threat against descendants’survival. For this reason, it puts emphasis on limited development, it requires that Economic development should be within the limits of bearing capacity of resources and environment, within the limits of not impairing the future development. It attempts to Shift from the former conflict relation between man and nature to the harmonious relation in concept of value, to change from Previous single aim with increase of economy to now multiple aims with harmonious development among economy, society and nature in concept of development. Therefore, sustainable development is a great revolution in terms of concept of development.Sustainable development should be China’s strategic choice to realize our country’s modernization construction. This is because that there are shortage of recourse in our country, the average per capita amount of resources is much lower than that of the world’s level, many natural resources won’t meet the future needs to develop economy. Obviously it is absolutely impossible for us to achieve industrialization at the expense of resources and environment in our country. Only way is to go to the road of the sustainable development by impelling progresses of science and technology, controlling birth rate and protecting environment, this is decided by special conditions of resources and environment in china.Knowledge-based economy and Sustainable development have inherent interfusions, and they can be reflected as follows. Knowledge-based economy incarnates the idea of harmonious development of subject and object, and it is the core of the sustainable development; knowledge-based economy reflects the dialectical innovation of human mode of thinking, and sustainable development is a outcome of human innovation; knowledge-based economy promotes Social justice, and justice is a fundamental aim of the sustainable development; knowledge-based economy integrates natural science with Social science, and it is the intrinsic requirement of the sustainable development; knowledge-based economy shows the thought of respecting man, and sustainable developmentregards man as the nucleus.Knowledge-based economy is the fundamental way to realize the sustainable development, for knowledge-based economy has important functions as follows. Knowledge-base

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The Firm Boundary Research on Ability, Knowledge and Management

On 13/11/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 Following the coming of the era of knowledgeable economy in 21st century, Management will be subjected to a grim challenge, especially the diversification and complication of the firm forms, which makes it important to manage the firm boundary. The point that the relation between the firm and the market is absolute oppose has not give reasonable explanation to the forms of some firm in reality, so we must change angle of view to think about it .Firstly, the enterprises have adjusted the managing strategy from aimlessly expanding their managing area to focusing on few industries ,because they have realized the importance of the firm boundary from the teaching of the aimless multi-industry expanding, it is called a refocusing strategy .Then the current merges between the firms are the more collated horizontal integration not the less collated vertical. Most enterprises only focus their core business and transfer the less collated business with the core business to other enterprises. The traditional viewpoint of the strategy theory cannot sufficiently explain this phenomenon, so it becomes more important to retreat the firm boundary. Finally the boundary between firm and market become even dim. There are some organizations such as the strategic alliance, the virtual organization. The point that the relation between the firm and the market is absolute oppose has not give reasonable explanation to the forms of some firm in reality, so we must change angle of view to think about it.The exchange cost theory is deficient in studying the firm boundary, such as its research only on view of the interior element, so this paper will generally analyze the firm boundary from three angles of view such as ability, knowledge and Management on the basis of the theoretical bases of most of newly results in modern science (e.g. exchange cost theory, knowledge theory and producing and managing theory).Firstly it will analyze the firm boundary from the ability which is the character inessence. But the ability is a great abstract concept, and then what is its backside? Then itwill study the firm boundary from the knowledge, but both the ability and the knowledge origin from the production and the management.It thinks the district between the Enterprise and the market has no clear and definite boundary, point out the Enterprise containing its upper limit with lower limit, at that both namely are the misty of Enterprise and market.On the view of ability, the lower limit of the firm boundary is consisting of the core ability of the firm; the upper limit of the firm boundary is determined by the way of acquiring the accessorial ability. On the view of knowledge, the core of the firm must be controlled by the firm itself, which is determined by the relation between ability and knowledge and the knowledge operational mechanism. The controller of the dim range between the firm and the market is determined the complemented ability. On the view of management, the firm boundary is determined by the element which the core ability and the core knowledge bring from.

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The Theoretical and Methodological Research of Knowledge Value Measurement

On 01/09/2012, in Economics papers, by rain

【Abstract】 Through analyzing, thoroughly and specifically, the formation mechanism of knowledge value, the classification of knowledge and knowledge value, the theory and method of knowledge value measurement, this paper researched how to measure the knowledge with the attribute of goods, and designed the measure indexes and measure models, in order to set up a set of scientific and operational measure method of knowledge value, to make knowledge value theory more rich. it is the theoretical foundation of the theoretical research of the knowledge goods price and knowledge capitalization, the foundation of the remuneration research of knowledge capital and intellectual, making great contribution for the development of knowledge Economics.Knowledge is people’s knowledge of subjective and objective world, which exists in human brain, books and other material carriers in the form of experience and theory. The measurement of knowledge value is a piece of research of knowledge value with the attribute of goods, including the measurement indexes, and the measurement models. Knowledge goods are used for exchanging, which is the product of human mental labor and manual labor in the practice. Knowledge goods have value both in exchange and in use. There are two forms of knowledge goods, material knowledge products and intellectual services.The classification of knowledge. According to having the attribute of goods or not, knowledge can be divided in the knowledge which is not goods and knowledge goods. Knowledge is invisible, which can’t exist in society until it is carried on something. To measure the value of knowledge properly, according to the carrier, we divide knowledge goods into two forms. One is knowledge in human brain, and the other is knowledge on material carriers. The first kind of knowledge can be called of human capital, which is highly individualized, existing in the brains of skilled worker’s and knowledge transmitters. This sort of knowledge can be recognized through media or putting it into practice, such as experience and know-how. The second kind of knowledge is taken on material carrier, and can be divided into two forms: replaceable carrier knowledge and unreplaceable carrier knowledge. The former exists in a certain special form regulated by the society, such as patent <WP=113>technology, and trademark. The latter is stored in those material machines and scientific instruments, which are manufactured on great R&D, such as the Computer, Hi-Tech laboratory apparatus. The knowledge integrates with the material carrier .The production of knowledge is random, complicated and original. The factors of the production of knowledge include human resource, equipment and capital, etc., among them the human resource and capital are the most important factors. The production of knowledge includes the discovery of knowledge, the accumulation of knowledge and the creation of knowledge. The spread of knowledge is the assigning process of the knowledge. Knowledge may spread through Education, technology trade, the electron and culture. The phases of the spread are knowledge production, knowledge encoding and knowledge spread. The application of knowledge is influenced both by subjective factor and objective factor. This paper has analyzed the application course of human capital and technological products.The value of knowledge has two meaning: First, knowledge is the concentration of producers’ mental labor and the manual labor, namely value; Second, knowledge products have the function of meeting people’s needs, and it is approved by people, that is use value. Knowledge realizes its value just in the procession of satisfying people’s demand. However, the exchange value is determined together by the value and the use value of the knowledge product.The composition of knowledge value. Knowledge value is created by human labor and labor material together. Knowledge value is composed of living labor value, carrier value and shifting value. Living labor value includes intellectual labor value and physical labor value.

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The Research of Human Resource Development Management in High Technology Enterprise

On 24/08/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 With the accelerating pace for the global economization and more and more keen competitiveness around the world, the importance of human resources Management is more and more paid attention to by enterprises everywhere in the world. China is no reception to that. But in many Chinese enterprises, the human resources Management at the present stage is not defined scientifically or correctly. It’s still using the old mode of personnel management in the past. This makes the human resources management stay on the technical layer and its role has not been development yet.The rapid grow of science and technology makes the requirement on raw materials, lobar, capital, space and time is getting less and less. Therefore, in the new factors that create value, knowledge is regarded the most important resource. This is especially true with high-tech enterprises. Compared with traditional enterprises, high-tech enterprises take a clear feature: knowledge, substituting the financial capital and in-kind materials, has become the first factor of Investment. But as intangible asset, knowledge cannot exist or play any role all by itself. It takes the form of employee capacity and will be transferred into Enterprise value through the employees.The core concept for modern Enterprise management is knowledge management. In other words, actually it is human resources management. It’s human resources that can take an initiative role. Through their creative work, they will turn the experience and skills, which they possess in the form of non-coded knowledge, then combined with the fixed assets and financial capital of the enterprises, into great value to the enterprises. Therefore, they are the direct generator of Enterprise value. But, with the employees as a highly flexible asset with knowledge, the subjective features of the employees add to the complexity and difficulty for the enterprise management.The knowledge-based employees have the features of innovation, diligence, independence, confidence and frankness. These features make the human resourcesmanagement “a two-edged sword”. If the management is successful, not only the core competitiveness of the enterprise will be enhanced and the strategy of the enterprise will be implemented smoothly, but also, the development of the enterprise will be promoted and thus more value will be produced by the enterprise. On the contrary, if the management is failed, there will be lack of cohesive force in the enterprise, which results talents leaving the enterprise and the core competitiveness of the enterprise will be lost. Eventually, the enterprise will be washed away by the market. Under the current circumstances, the law and regulations to safeguard the enterprise capacity are not complete. The talents are taken away by other enterprise that offers them higher salary or they will job-hop to those better enterprise. The loss of pillars in the enterprise will cause damage to the enterprise or even put the enterprise into very difficult position. So how to make the employees play fully their role and make knowledge into enterprise value, is the most important task for human resources management.From the angle of exploiting the staff’s ability, this article regards abstractly the enterprise as the special group of the staff’s capacity and ability. And at the same time it also think the function of the human resource management is to provide sufficient capacity resource for the realization and development of the enterprise strategies. The substance of the human resource management of the high technology enterprise is the exploitation and management of the enterprise capacity store. As a result, based on the exploitation of the staff, this article clarifies the model of the human resource management system (HRMS), that is the exploiting type of HRMS. The word exploitation includes two different meanings: one is to make well use of present capacity of the staff; the other is to exploit further the staffs potential capacity. Because the enterprise is the group of the human reso

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