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The Preliminary Revision and Application of the Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire and the Developing Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire

On 15/05/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective1.To translate and report the psychometric characteristics of a self-report measure of practice, attitudes and knowledge/skills towards evidence-based practice (EBPQ); and of a tool for assessing a range of factors influencing the development of evidence-based practice(EBP) among clinical nurses(DEBPQ).2. To describe clinical nurses’ practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills associated with evidence-based practice, and its related affected factors so as to provide a theoretical basis for the EBP training initiatives.Methods1. Brislin translation procedure was employed to translate the EBPQ questionnaire and the DEBPQ questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis(EFA) was used to develop the intra-structure of the questionnaire and confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) verified the factor structure of a set of observed variables. The reliability analyis included the test-retest reliability, Cronbach’sa coefficient, split-half reliability. The validity analysis included content validity, construct validity.2. A cross-sectional survey using the Chinese version of the Evidence-based practice Questionnaire (EBPQ) and the Developing Evidence-Based Practice questionnaire (DEBPQ) was conducted from July 2009 to December 2009. A toal of 1621 nurses who worked at 12 GradeⅢhospitals in Hunan province were included by multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method. Their Knowledge/skills, attitudes and pratice and its related affected factors on Evidence-based nursing were tested. All data were input into SPSS 13.0 software for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, t test, F test, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were employed.Results 1. Through item analysis and exploratory factor analysis, a 24-item Chinese version of EBPQ was developed, including 3 dimensions (Knowledge, Attitude and Belief, Behavior), and DEBPQ comprised 6 dimensions grouping 48 items.2. Reliability verification:(1) The test-retest reliability coefficients for the EBPQ questionnaire and dimensions were 0.86 and 0.78 to 0.88, respectively. The test-retest reliability coefficients for the DEBPQ questionnaire and dimensions were 0.89 and 0.65 to 0.90, respectively. (2) The split-half reliability coeffient for EBPQ dimensions ranged from 0.74 to 0.89, and 0.97 for the total questionnaire. The split-half reliability coeffient for DEBPQ dimensions was 0.65 to 0.87, and 0.94 for the total questionnaire. (3) The Cronbach’s a coefficients for the EBPQ questionnaire and dimensions were 0.94, and 0.79 to 0.94, respectively. The Cronbach’s a coefficients for the DEBPQ questionnaire and dimensions were 0.93, and 0.73 to 0.91, respectively. (4) The correlation coefficient of EBPQ between each item and dimensions were 0.59~0.81, the correlation coefficient between dimensions were 0.50~0.67, and the correlation coeffcient between dimensions and total questionnaire was 0.72~0.94, while DEBPQ were 0.53~0.86,0.18~0.48,0.64~0.81 respectively.3. Validity verification:(1) The content validity index of EBPQ and DEBPQ were 0.83 and 0.88 respectively. (2) Structure validity:For EBPQ, first-order three factors were extracted using EFA, which accounted for 58.25% of the accumulated variance; second-order one factor were extracted which accounted for 71.75%. CFA was carried out to assess the measurement of factor structure of the questionnaire, the results showed that the first-order 3 factor model fit indices and second-order 1 factor model fit indices were at or close to the reference value. For DEBPQ, sub-level factor analysis was used, and 4 dimensions of DEBPQ was revised into 6 dimensions, the accumulated variance at all levels were 47.58%,42.03%,68.71%,62.80%, separately. In the second-order factor analysis, the variance contribution rate was 46.88%. The result of the first-order factor analysis showed thatχ2/df was greater than 5.0, RMSEA(0.07) in the acceptable range, PNFI(0.71) and PCFI (0.76) were greater than 0.50, NFI(0.76)、TLI(0.79)、CFI(0.80)、IFI(0.80)、RFI (0.75) were all less than 0.90. The result of the second-order factor analysis showed that RMSEA (0.07), PNFI (0.72), PCFI (0.75) were in the acceptable range, the rest of model fit indices were not up to psychometric standard.4. The average EBPQ score of 1621 nurses was 4.24±0.79, which was significantly lower than those of the Registered nurses in the U.S.A (P<0.05). The mean DEBPQ score of this sample was 2.89±0.43. With regard to sources of practice knowledge, experiential sources such as information from clinical nursing experience and senior clinical nurses were ranked highest, which was similar to the other study abroad. Among the barrier dimension, mean score of the subjects was higher than UK nurses. The level of support and the mean score of knowledge/skills were lower than that in studies abroad.5. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Evidence-based practice were corelated with the relative knowledge/skills, the level of support and the attitudes towards Evidence-based practice, which could account for about 47.43% of variance.Conclusion1. The Chinese version of EBPQ is a reliable and valid assessment of EBP. But the split-half reliability coefficients, and the test-retest reliability coefficients of Chinese version of DEBPQ are lower than accepted value which need to be modified.6-factor model of DEBPQ is not a single questionnaire, but it can assist in assessing the specific “evidencing” tendencies of any given group of nurses.2. The level of knowledge/skills, attitudes, practice and support towards EBP of clinical nurses worked in Grade-Ⅲhospitals in Hunan province is lower than those of American nurses while the barrier level is higher than overseas research.3. The evidence-based practice of nurses is mainly influenced by evidence-based knowledge/skills, attitudes and supporting level.

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Effects of Community Intervention on Non-communicable Diseases and the Influencing Factors

On 15/05/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

BackgroundNon-communicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, consists of a range of diseases, which is characterized by a long incubation period, long duration, generally slow progression, and resulting in weakness or loss of function in patients. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes are the four main types of NCDs. NCDs are by far the leading cause of mortality in China, representing82.5%of all deaths. NCDs had serious impact on the Health of China’s labor force, with great harm to individuals, families, society and national economies.In reference to the international NCDs prevention and control practices and experiences, our country carried out a series of NCDs prevention and control programs, of which the most representative was the national demonstration project for NCDs prevention and control. In1997, the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China launched the demonstration project in Jinan. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in1999,2002and2010.ObjectiveTo explore the impact of11years’community intervention on prevalence of NCDs, behavioral risk factors and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to NCDs; to evaluate the effect of community intervention and analyze the influencing factors; and to provide reference for improvement of community intervention on NCDs.MethodsThe population-based surveys used a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, and the number of valid questionnaires obtained was1995,1974and2042, respectively. Subjects were all resident aged15years or older living in the current address in Muaiyin District for at least6months. A face-to-face interview was carried out using a self-designed questionnaire. The questionnaire mainly consisted of eight parts: socio-demographic information, tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits, hypertension, raised cholesterol, diabetes, etc.All the collected data were entered in duplicate into a database using the Epi Data3.1. And statistical analysis was performed using SPSS16.0and Stata8.0. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to describe demographic characteristics, KAP scores and the prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Measurement data were expressed as mean and standard deviation, and count data used proportion and ratio. Chi-square test, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore the statistical differences. Weighted linear regression to test time trends was performed using mean values, and changes in the prevalence were tested using linear trend chi-square test. Logistic regression was used to select the influencing or risk factors. A comprehensive quantitative analysis was performed to calculate the value of the combined effect of three surveys.Results1.Effects on KAP related to NCDsKAP scores related to NCDs increased bv1.86from1999to2010. Those of35~44and55years old. male and female, high school or higher Education, married and widowed, employed. unemployed and retired residents were increased by2.13.1.41~4.64.1.711.97,1.64.1.992.62.0.751.77(P<0.05)2. Effects on behavioral risk factorsProportions of residents smoking, drinking, cycling or walking30minutes and salt intake <6g daily decreased to27.1%.24.1%.69.6%and17.5%. respectively (P<0.05). Rate of residents participating in physical activity daily increased to45.2%(P<0.05). No significant change was observed in the number of resident intake of vegetables and fruits≥400g daily. 3. Changes in prevalence of NCDsAge adjusted prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol increased to11.5%,3.9%and8.5%(P<0.05)4. Influencing factors of KAP related to NCDsNCDs-related KAP scores of45~64years old and female residents were higher, and the pooled RR values were0.497~0.567and0.655~0.658, respectively. Those of junior high school or lower Education level, widowed, unemployed residents and families with per capita monthly income of0to499were lower, and the pooled RR values were1.763~3.410,1.367~1.370,1.739~1.761,1.617~1.749, respectively.5. Influencing factors of NCDsResults showed that low Education level, high cholesterol, drinking were risk factors for hypertension, and the pooled OR were1.345~1.346,4.288~4.382,1.238~1.239, respectively.25~64years old and high behavior scores were protective factors with the pooled OR were0.044~0.566and0.711~0.729.Primary and lower education level, high blood pressure and high cholesterol were risk factors for diabetes, and the pooled OR were1.678~1.770,2.034~2.087,3.391~3.579, respectively.35~44years old, high knowledge scores and cycling or walking30minutes daily were protective factors with the pooled OR were0.164~1.203,0.401-0.411and0.680~0.714.Primary and lower education level, smoking, drinking, consumption of salted or smoked foods were risk factors for high cholesterol, and the pooled OR were1.300~1.340,1.515~1.564,1.540~1.561and1.407~1.456. respectively.25~44years old, low income levels, high KAP scores, high behavior scores, physical exercise and cycling or walking30minutes daily were protective factors, and the pooled OR were0.052~0.337,0.587~0.729,0.492~0.493,0.308~0.313,0.740~0.745,0.643~0.647, respectively.Conclusions1. Mean KAP score increased by2.32from2002to2010, but it’s still not ideal. KAP score associated with age, gender, education level, marital status, employment status, and family income level.45~64years old and female residents had a higher KAP score, junior high school or lower education level, widowed, unemployed residents and families with per capita monthly income of0to499had a lower KAP score.2.Rates of smoking and drinking were both reduced by9.4%. Proportion of residents participating in physical exercise increased by5.3%, but those of residents cycling or walking30minutes and salt intake <6g daily decreased by20.0%and10.8%.3.The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were14.6%,3.9%and8.5%. Low educational level, high cholesterol, drinking were risk factors for hypertension, and25~54years old, high behavior scores were protective factors. Primary and lower education level, high blood pressure and high cholesterol were risk factors for diabetes, and35~44years old, high knowledge scores and cycling or walking30minutes daily were protective factors. Primary and lower education level, smoking, drinking, consumption of salted or smoked foods were risk factors for high cholesterol, and25~44years old, low income levels, high KAP scores, high behavior scores, physical exercise and cycling or walking30minutes daily were protective factors.4.Alter11years of community interventions, integrated intervention model of behavioral risk factors was established. The next step should be to continue to maintain the operating mode and convert it to regular work. Building behavioral risk factors and community environment monitoring network is necessary to get comprehensive and dynamic understanding of the prevalence of different risk factors

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Knowledge Transformation and Teachers’ Roles

On 29/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Whether a country in prosperous or in recession, first of all it will be attributed toor blame to the Education. The public expect our teachers to change bear the brunt.Teachers as a teaching and learning activities organizers and managers, to a largeextent,affect the effectiveness of teaching and learning activities, the role of teachersin the minds of most people also vary. In the Social progress and the prevalence ofeducation reform today, people expect teachers to achieve the perfect transformation ina variety of curriculum reform and teaching reforms.Accompanied by a high degree of development of science and technology, humansociety has entered a new era-the era of knowledge economy, the concept of”Knowledge is the power” has influenced us and knowledge has been regarded as aninvisible productivity and valued by people. In the concept of the importance of theknowledge, it is bound to have a profound impact on Education. Because knowledge isrooted in the soil of the educational activities, even if under the new curriculum reform,the role of the knowledge is pivotal. Today’s society has entered a knowledge-big bangera, knowledge is growing at its alarming rate, how to filter in the existing knowledgeand pass along knowledge, which is every educator should pay attention to.Author based on the view of Mr Shi Zhongying, divide the knowledge into thefollowing stages: Original Knowledge, Ancient Knowledge, Modern Knowledge andPost-modern Knowledge. Compared to Mr Shi Zhongying, the author emphasize thatthese types of knowledge-based knowledge in different knowledge-based nature of therelationship between knowledge and knower, knowledge and understanding of objectrelations and so changed, while these changes will inevitably affect the teachingcontent, teaching methods, the relationship between teachers’ knowledge, therelationship between teachers and students. This paper first introduces the fourknowledge-based development of human society has experienced and described thetime and their knowledge of the characteristics of these types of knowledge-based, followed by introduction of the related concepts of the role of the teachers, and thendescribes the knowledge transformation is for educational purposes, teaching content,teaching methods, teaching evaluation affect the teacher’s role as an intermediary, andfinally further third of the knowledge requirements of the role of teachers in transition,impact on the role of primary and secondary school teachers and the role of universityteachers, and finally the proposed change the problems and propose solutions to countermeasures.

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A Study on Mathematics Student Teachers’ Knowledge of Parallelogram

On 19/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge about parallelogram of mathematics student teachers and their expectations and evaluation of the teacher Education curriculum. Comparing mathematics student teachers’ knowledge of parallelogram, the author expected to know how the learning in the university produce an effect on the professional development of mathematics student teachers, and give some suggestions for professional training of pre-service teachers.160 student teachers of freshman year and the forth year from a normal university of Shanghai participated in the questionnaire survey and interview. Using the analytical method of Sarah and others to assess change in student teachers’ knowledge and the framework given by Mohan Chinnappan and Michael J. Lawson to compare the quality of student teachers’knowledge, the author obtained the following results:Ⅰ. The student teachers are short of knowledge of parallelogram at various degree, and student teachers of the forth year solve the problem effectively by consulting books and periodicals. Specific performances are as follows:1. All the student teachers need more content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge about parallelogram.2. In the second interview, student teachers of the forth year have no difficulty in giving examples about the application of parallelogram.3. The numbers of chunks of knowledge of the freshmen increase and the numbers of cross-links decrease, while both numbers of student of the forth year increase.Ⅱ. Student teachers of the forth year have an advantage over the freshmen in understanding of parallelogram, but the advantage is not distinct.1. With some reference material, student teachers of the forth year could make internal connections between the knowledge of parallelogram.2. The concept maps of parallelogram of student teachers show that the student teachers of the forth year have more knowledge of parallelogram than the freshmen.3. There are two elaborate chunks of knowledge about “rhombus” and “rectangle” for all student teachers.Ⅲ. The freshmen want to learn some Basic skills of teacher. The student of the forth year need more instructional practical activities although they are satisfied with the teacher Education curriculum of the normal university.Some suggestions for the curriculum for teacher education of the normal universities and the development of the student teachers are given according to the results of the study. In the end, the deficiencies of the paper have been explained and some subsequent research topics are proposed.

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The Investigation of Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior and the Research of Health Education Intervention on AIDS Prevention among Construction Workers

On 24/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Using the methods of epidemiological study, based on the KABP model (knowledge attitude belief practice model) of Health Education theory and Health promotion theory, about 300 male construction workers are selected for study through the approach of cluster sampling from three construction sites: the Qingshan District, Hongshan District, Wuchang District in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei where the construction workers of mobility gather, from April to September in 2005. The data of the Basic information of these construction workers, the situation of accepting Health Education to prevent AIDS in the past, the relevant knowledge, attitude, behavior and the main demanding related to AIDS are gained by baseline survey; Health education activities are carried out and evaluated by the process and effect, that is the face-to-face propaganda and education (five forms: providing handbook, displaying drawing board, holding knowledge lecture, watching the disk and taking knowledge contest) and the peer education depends on the crowd features. At the same time, the method of in-depth interviews with individuals is used for understanding the awareness, needs and recommendations of construction workers on the health education to prevent AIDS. Through qualitative research, some in-depth information is obtained as effective supplement to quantitative information. This study aims at seeking out practical and effective methods and forms of preventing AIDS, the work mode of AIDS prevention in line with China’s actual conditions in construction workers.Before the intervention research, 301 available questionnaires are received; after the intervention research, 299 available questionnaires are collected. At the same time, 23 in-depth interview documents are received. The average age of these people is 36.3±10.11 and 90.4% of them are aged from 15 to 49. Their educational level is mainly junior middle school, accounting for 57.8%. And the bulk of them are married, accounting for 72.1%. People who have ever accepted the health education of AIDS prevention occupy a relatively lower proportion in the whole group. The single means of health education is mainly such mass media as broadcasting and TV. The proportion of people who have been accepted the health education of AIDS prevention is higher in the groups of old people and college students than other groups. The baseline investigation reveals that construction workers have low level of knowledge on AIDS prevention, and they don’t have a systematical, complete and balanced mastery of relevant knowledge. Basic knowledge and non-transmission knowledge is generally less than 50%, lower than that of transmission knowledge. There are a considerably high proportion of people who have sex with other women besides their wives, even with prostitutes. Those whose sexual partners are not fixed account for nearly half. They have sex with other women besides their wives very frequently. And less than 20% of them use condom every time. After the health education intervention, obvious improvement of known rate and averaged points in such aspects as basic knowledge, transmission knowledge, non-transmission knowledge of AIDS prevention can be seen in the group of construction workers of different ages, education background and state of marriage, which have the statistical significance(p<0.05). The proportion of people who have sex with other women besides their wives and who go to prostitutes when they have sexual needs has come down, and the differences between before and after the intervention have the statistical significance(p<0.05). But the change of other behaviors is still not obvious. No matter which form of face-to-face propaganda and education is taken, above 90% of the workers who participate can remember or assumable remember the knowledge that is propagandized. The most acceptable way for construction workers is watching disks, and then knowledge lectures, knowledge handbooks, drawing broads and knowledge contests. Groups of different ages and education background accept different forms in the five kinds of face-to-face propaganda and education: Young people accept disks the most and handbooks the least; People in prime of life and at middle age accept knowledge lectures the most and knowledge contests the least; Old people accept handbooks and disks the most and knowledge contests the least; People with college diploma accept handbooks and drawing broads the most; People with the diploma of senior high school accept handbooks the most; People with the diploma of junior middle school and elementary school accept knowledge lectures the most and uneducated people accept disks the most.Due to the lack of knowledge and skills to prevent AIDS, little consciousness of self-protection, the dangerous conditions of extramarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sexual partner and low rate of condom use, as well as the unchangeable actuality of travelling backwards and forwards between villages and cities, construction workers are easier to catch AIDS and they have become the bridge of spreading AIDS from high risk group to ordinary people. As a result, they are the weak and disadvantaged group of the infection and transmission of AIDS. And to them, comprehensive and systematic measures should be taken to carry out the AIDS prevention. The intervention of health education, quite acceptable in construction workers, is an effective way to popularize the knowledge of preventing AIDS in construction workers, improve their ability of self-protection, in order to contain the spreading of AIDS. In accordance with the features of construction workers, carrying out focused intervention of health education of preventing AIDS can rapidly improve by a large amount the knowledge level of AIDS prevention, so as to change their behaviors and effectively prevent the spreading of AIDS from high risk group to ordinary people and finally contain the spreading of AIDS. It is worth popularizing in other similar key groups of AIDS infection and spread.

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The Research on Impacts from Informationalized Internetwork on Manual Worker’s Knowledge and Skills

On 07/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With the furthermore development of high technology, internetwork informatization,symbolized in mobile phone and internet etc., is all over in people’s lives, which directly orindirectly effects every person. In China, manual workers make a great contribution in thedevelopment of society during the process of industrialization and urbanization. However,their career capability improvement and career Education development is always in omission.As a part of China competitive power, manual workers’ Education and personal developmentis very important, which is the original driving force to establish affluent society andsustainable economy. The extensive usage of mobile phone and internetwork provides anefficient tool for manual workers to obtain employment information and working experienceetc., which indirectly or directly improve the manual workers’ career development andeducation. This tool speeds up the manual workers’ internal career development.This article focus on the research in informationalized internetwork’s current status,future development and information tool usage practices by manual workers who are both incities and countries. Through questionnaire survey, the article compared the manual workers’usage situation and request in different industries, different ages, different educationbackground to adequately understand the function of informationalized internetwork. Wefound, there are mainly three functions of informationalized internetwork:Ⅰ.Improvingacquiring knowledge and survival skills; Ⅱ. Improving personal emotion communicationsand living skills; Ⅲ. Improving writing, reading and oracle communications.In a conclusion, to get more benefit from informationalized internetwork, there are twomeasures need we pay more attention to, the one is to conduct more marketing investigationsin the manual workers’ requirement and innovate eligible product solutions to fulfillcustomer’s marketing request; the other one is to improve the technology and service ofinformationalized internetwork to strengthen the trust from manual workers. In doing so, wecan get both society benefits in fulfilling manual workers’ information request and economicbenefits in digging out more medium customers.

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The Image of George Eliot in Maggie

On 05/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Among the novelists of the nineteenth century, there appeared a group of excellent women novelists in the British literature, such as Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, Mrs. Gaskell and George Eliot. Of them George Eliot is listed by the contemporary English critic F. R. Leavis as one of the four “great English novelists”, for her serious discussion of morality, and her broad mind towards human experience.The lifetime of George Eliot is in the Victorian period on the whole, so is her creating time. In this period, the national power increased very fast. The early years of the Victorian England was a time of rapid Economic development. The Industrial Revolution brought amazing changes to the country. Ideologically, the Victorians experienced fundamental changes. George Eliot researched and described the Social life of the Victorian Age in diverse aspects. There were Social, political and Economic reform; development of science; crisis of religious belief. George Eliot described the provincial life and the relationship of man and society in such backgrounds.George Eliot successfully creates many heroines in her books. More or less there are some personal symbilities between her and those heroines; even in some books abounds her own true image. Through studying the author and the novel, The Mill on the Floss, it is easy to see the author’s experience and her thoughts and feelings have brought great influence to the heroine. You may find out that Maggie and Tom are clearly autobiographical; all Eliot’s thoughts can be partly conveyed in this novel. This paper will develop in the following parts to state that this novel is a mirror in which we can see the image of George Eliot in Maggie.In The Mill on the Floss, George Eliot shows herself openly and completely in the heroine, Maggie, and hereby proposes to have a more close-up look at the link between Maggie’s quest and the quest of George Eliot herself.First, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Knowledge. This chapter tries to analyze their attitude to the knowledge. Maggie is earnest about books and has a strong thirst for knowledge when she was a child, on this point Maggie is quite similar as the author, because Eliot’s spirit of diligence brought great influence on Maggie.Second, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Love. This Chapter reveals Maggie and Eliot were both longing for being loved when they were young, moreover, Maggie’s quest for freedom and true love and her challenge to the society are actually Eliot’s own efforts.Third, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Morality. The third chapter states Eliot’s moral standards. She thinks women’s virtue mainly includes Sacrifice, Obedience, and Self-constraint. Maggie’s act didn’t at all go beyond this confine of moral codes, besides, Eliot’s point of view in religious works on Maggie in some way.Fourth, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Defiant Spirit. This nature was well shown in Eliot’s religious belief and her rebellious marriage. Like Eliot, Maggie rebels against circumstances from an early age, and she makes great resistance for her own love.The last part expounds Eliot’s deep concern for lower-class people, and painstaking efforts to save human soul as a writer. All of these are to lead the readers to the author’s aim and significance of her creation The Mill on the Floss.

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At present, the professional development of teachers is the directio…

On 28/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

At present, the professional development of teachers is the direction and theme of professional teachers, the paper from the perspective of teacher’s knowledge and construction on professional development of teachers. Teachers’professional development is the continuous process of individual profession in which teachers accept new knowledge and gain professional competence. Teachers should become mature professionals, through continuous learning and exploration to expand their professional course and enhance their professional standards, so as to achieve their professional maturity. Professional development of teachers has the characteristics of long-lasting and continuous-growing, with three orientations of sensible,practice-reflection and ecological orientation.Paper analyzes of the current in-service teacher Education deficiencies. The main ones are as follows. Teacher training is in serious utilitarian thinking, the conspicuous “only academic certificate” phenomenon, resulting in the transference of knowledge content of teacher training from the variety of teaching practice Teaching knowledge in the construction of these subjects and building materials is outdated Teacher-training is obsolete Teachers’professional knowledge is hard to have the effective convergence. The concepts of specialized teachers in the Education are not accepted by many.For in-service teacher professional development to construct knowledge, after the effective interpretation of the teaching knowledge, the article concentrates on practical knowledge and academic knowledge. It holds the opinion that the practical knowledge, the subject teaching knowledge is not only the core of teachers’knowledge composition, but also practical knowledge is the basis of teachers’knowledge construction. Teachers need highly professional practice, the development of teachers’knowledge cannot do without the teaching professional practice. Materialism tells us that theory only comes from practice and returns to practice; a theory without practice is empty, practice without theoretical guidance is superficial. Therefore, in recent years, the summing up of teachers’practical knowledge has been paid much attention to.With the careful analysis and summary of the knowledge of teachers and scholars at home and abroad, the article raises the effective way to construct teachers’knowledge: practical knowledge of teachers is the Basic of the in-service teachers knowledge construction; teaching reflection is the key to in-service teachers knowledge construction; constructive learning and problem-solving based accumulation of knowledge are the important method and means to construct in-service teachers’knowledge. The article provides a theoretical basis on the in-service teacher training.

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A Study of HIV-related Knowledge, Attitud, Behavior Among Different Kinds of People and Their Affection Factors in HuBei Province

On 24/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective Investigate the characteristics of HIV-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among general and high-risk people. Provide convincing evidences and suggestions of HIV Health Education and intervention on targeting population to promote controlling and prevention of HIV spreading.Methods Cluster stratified sampling method was used to sample the general population from 6 counties (city, district) according to the high, median, and low level of HIV epidemic in Hubei province. Sampling strata consists of county, town (community), and village (block). One town (community) was sampled in each county; three villages (blocks) were sampled in each town (community); And 30 persons were sampled in each village (block). As results, a total of 1080 persons were investigated as research subjects. A total of 120 high HIV risk persons, were sampled from Woman Penitentiaries and Drug-quitting Departments. Of them, 60 prostitutes are from two Woman Penitentiaries, and 60 IDUS are from two Drug-quitting Departments. High HIV risk persons stayed in Woman Penitentiaries and Drug-quitting Departments, at least, more than 6 months. The questionnaire, designed by Health Ministry of China, was used to investigate the HIV-related knowledge, attitude and behavior. Using face-to-face interviewing method, interviewer interviewed the research subjects. Before investigation, the interviewer received formal training. For the reason of human participant protection and increasing the validity of research, no other persons, except for interviewer and research subjects was there while interviewing. Furthermore, all of the private information for the research subjects kept secrets, according to written consent of this research.Results For the General population, all of the 1080 persons completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 100.0%. A total of 1047 of them reported they ever heard of AIDS, accounted for 96.9%. Of them, 799 persons had HIVknowledge score $= 60(total score transformed to 100), accounted for 74.0%. Multivariate logistic regression model analyses indicated that persons living in the area of low level HIV spreading, living in the countryside, having lower Education, unmarried, and discrimination toward persons of HIV positive were more likely to have the HIV knowledge score < 60, and to be a student was more likely to have the HIV knowledge score ^60. All of the 120 high HIV risk person completed the questionnaire, generated response rate of 100.0%. A total of 111 of the 120 high HIV risk person reported they ever heard of the AIDS, accounted for 92.5%. 95 persons of them had HIV knowledge score ^60, accounted for 79.2%. Multivariate logistic regression model analyses indicated that marital status and education level was the influencing factors for the rate of HIV knowledge. Persons of unmarried, high education levels have a higher rate of HIV knowledge. Married person compared with unmarried person, OR=0.318, 95% CI=0.120-0.842 for HIV knowledge rate. While the OR=2.660, 95% CI=1.367-5.177 for person of high education level compared with low education level person. Of person-injected drugs, 41.2% of them shared syringe with their partners. Of drug users of unmarried, most of them (92.5%) had sexual experience, Female accounted for 35.0% of drug users of unmarried. Among drug users with sexual experience, 71.9% of them didn’t use condom in their latest sexual behavior. 21.7% of prostitutes didn’t use condom in their latest sexual behavior. The correct rate of knowledge of HIV transmitting was higher than that of HIV non-transmitting for bothgeneral population and high HIV risk population (general population: %2 =192.121, P<0.01; high HIV risk population: j2 =5.438, P <0.05). After controlling for theconfounding factors of gender, age, education level, martial status in logistic regression model, the OR of HIV knowledge rate was 2.305(95% CI 1.398-3.801) for high HIV risk person compared with general person. However, discrimination rate for HIV positive persons has significant difference between the groups of general population and HIV risk population.Conclusion Persons of female, of low education levels, of unmarried status, and living in the countryside have both low HIV knowledge score and HIV knowledge rate. Our results reinforced that it is necessary to implement the health education among the targeting populations, cany out the intervention measure among high HIV risk population, raise awareness of HIV, and reduce fear and panic for HIV. Our results also suggested that it is more difficult to decrease the discrimination rate of HIV than improve the HIV knowledge among population. Decreasing the discrimination rate of HIV among population is still great challenge for controlling for the HIV spreading in our country.

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The Study on Yin-Yang Theory in Zhou Yi and Its Curriculum Reform’s Significance

On 21/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Curriculum reform is the core of Education reform, curriculum development is the driving force mechanism, and Yin-Yang is Zhou Yi Philosophy of the core doctrine. This study was the Zhou Yi yin-yang theory and its interpretation of the meaning of the curriculum reform, and to broaden the curriculum reform of the theoretical foundation, to raise awareness of curriculum reform, the reform of asphalt courses some of the Basic problems, and summarize the lessons learned.Based on this, the study of literature study, comparative study and historical research, Zhou Yi for the Yin-Yang said that the starting point and started to study the significance of the curriculum reform. Focus on the interpretation of the Zhou Yi Yin-Yang theory of the Basic contents and viewpoints, discussed in detail the Zhou Yi Yin-Yang, meaning that the curriculum reform: “Sang Sang of that easy”, which reveals the development of general rules of the universe – the natural and Social universe is a perennial personnel, the development of the new process is more, the nature of the curriculum reform – innovation and Gujiu of Moldova and changes in Health, Chujiubuxin, leather is ASD; “yin-Yang news” day and night cold and heat the moon and rigid-flexible curriculum reform movement looks into the “pendulum” cycle; “push rod-coil phase, in which the variable”, the curriculum reform is the driving force within the curriculum, a Yin-Yang of a two forces of the unity of opposites, is the new change things, the fundamental Shengshengbuyi; “Time” is the key to the curriculum reform, “Time” and said that the integration of Yin-Yang, no Xugao absolutely everything at any time transfer, curriculum reform to “see – and” the “with the Xiexing”; “Tai Wo” is a one-system, internal contains various forces than by confrontation, to a state of equilibrium. This is a short, it is ideal. Therefore, the curriculum reform must be carried out impartially, without a plan, not an overkill, all overturn.Subsequently view of the current curriculum reform in the various issues raised some enlightenment, so that the new curriculum reform to the collective wisdom to prevent one-sidedness, extremism, and it has become a process of practice, the process of dialogue and consultation process, in practice the steady trend of integration and balanced.

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