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A Study of HIV-related Knowledge, Attitud, Behavior Among Different Kinds of People and Their Affection Factors in HuBei Province

On 24/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective Investigate the characteristics of HIV-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among general and high-risk people. Provide convincing evidences and suggestions of HIV Health Education and intervention on targeting population to promote controlling and prevention of HIV spreading.Methods Cluster stratified sampling method was used to sample the general population from 6 counties (city, district) according to the high, median, and low level of HIV epidemic in Hubei province. Sampling strata consists of county, town (community), and village (block). One town (community) was sampled in each county; three villages (blocks) were sampled in each town (community); And 30 persons were sampled in each village (block). As results, a total of 1080 persons were investigated as research subjects. A total of 120 high HIV risk persons, were sampled from Woman Penitentiaries and Drug-quitting Departments. Of them, 60 prostitutes are from two Woman Penitentiaries, and 60 IDUS are from two Drug-quitting Departments. High HIV risk persons stayed in Woman Penitentiaries and Drug-quitting Departments, at least, more than 6 months. The questionnaire, designed by Health Ministry of China, was used to investigate the HIV-related knowledge, attitude and behavior. Using face-to-face interviewing method, interviewer interviewed the research subjects. Before investigation, the interviewer received formal training. For the reason of human participant protection and increasing the validity of research, no other persons, except for interviewer and research subjects was there while interviewing. Furthermore, all of the private information for the research subjects kept secrets, according to written consent of this research.Results For the General population, all of the 1080 persons completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 100.0%. A total of 1047 of them reported they ever heard of AIDS, accounted for 96.9%. Of them, 799 persons had HIVknowledge score $= 60(total score transformed to 100), accounted for 74.0%. Multivariate logistic regression model analyses indicated that persons living in the area of low level HIV spreading, living in the countryside, having lower Education, unmarried, and discrimination toward persons of HIV positive were more likely to have the HIV knowledge score < 60, and to be a student was more likely to have the HIV knowledge score ^60. All of the 120 high HIV risk person completed the questionnaire, generated response rate of 100.0%. A total of 111 of the 120 high HIV risk person reported they ever heard of the AIDS, accounted for 92.5%. 95 persons of them had HIV knowledge score ^60, accounted for 79.2%. Multivariate logistic regression model analyses indicated that marital status and education level was the influencing factors for the rate of HIV knowledge. Persons of unmarried, high education levels have a higher rate of HIV knowledge. Married person compared with unmarried person, OR=0.318, 95% CI=0.120-0.842 for HIV knowledge rate. While the OR=2.660, 95% CI=1.367-5.177 for person of high education level compared with low education level person. Of person-injected drugs, 41.2% of them shared syringe with their partners. Of drug users of unmarried, most of them (92.5%) had sexual experience, Female accounted for 35.0% of drug users of unmarried. Among drug users with sexual experience, 71.9% of them didn’t use condom in their latest sexual behavior. 21.7% of prostitutes didn’t use condom in their latest sexual behavior. The correct rate of knowledge of HIV transmitting was higher than that of HIV non-transmitting for bothgeneral population and high HIV risk population (general population: %2 =192.121, P<0.01; high HIV risk population: j2 =5.438, P <0.05). After controlling for theconfounding factors of gender, age, education level, martial status in logistic regression model, the OR of HIV knowledge rate was 2.305(95% CI 1.398-3.801) for high HIV risk person compared with general person. However, discrimination rate for HIV positive persons has significant difference between the groups of general population and HIV risk population.Conclusion Persons of female, of low education levels, of unmarried status, and living in the countryside have both low HIV knowledge score and HIV knowledge rate. Our results reinforced that it is necessary to implement the health education among the targeting populations, cany out the intervention measure among high HIV risk population, raise awareness of HIV, and reduce fear and panic for HIV. Our results also suggested that it is more difficult to decrease the discrimination rate of HIV than improve the HIV knowledge among population. Decreasing the discrimination rate of HIV among population is still great challenge for controlling for the HIV spreading in our country.

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The Study on Yin-Yang Theory in Zhou Yi and Its Curriculum Reform’s Significance

On 21/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Curriculum reform is the core of Education reform, curriculum development is the driving force mechanism, and Yin-Yang is Zhou Yi Philosophy of the core doctrine. This study was the Zhou Yi yin-yang theory and its interpretation of the meaning of the curriculum reform, and to broaden the curriculum reform of the theoretical foundation, to raise awareness of curriculum reform, the reform of asphalt courses some of the Basic problems, and summarize the lessons learned.Based on this, the study of literature study, comparative study and historical research, Zhou Yi for the Yin-Yang said that the starting point and started to study the significance of the curriculum reform. Focus on the interpretation of the Zhou Yi Yin-Yang theory of the Basic contents and viewpoints, discussed in detail the Zhou Yi Yin-Yang, meaning that the curriculum reform: “Sang Sang of that easy”, which reveals the development of general rules of the universe – the natural and Social universe is a perennial personnel, the development of the new process is more, the nature of the curriculum reform – innovation and Gujiu of Moldova and changes in Health, Chujiubuxin, leather is ASD; “yin-Yang news” day and night cold and heat the moon and rigid-flexible curriculum reform movement looks into the “pendulum” cycle; “push rod-coil phase, in which the variable”, the curriculum reform is the driving force within the curriculum, a Yin-Yang of a two forces of the unity of opposites, is the new change things, the fundamental Shengshengbuyi; “Time” is the key to the curriculum reform, “Time” and said that the integration of Yin-Yang, no Xugao absolutely everything at any time transfer, curriculum reform to “see – and” the “with the Xiexing”; “Tai Wo” is a one-system, internal contains various forces than by confrontation, to a state of equilibrium. This is a short, it is ideal. Therefore, the curriculum reform must be carried out impartially, without a plan, not an overkill, all overturn.Subsequently view of the current curriculum reform in the various issues raised some enlightenment, so that the new curriculum reform to the collective wisdom to prevent one-sidedness, extremism, and it has become a process of practice, the process of dialogue and consultation process, in practice the steady trend of integration and balanced.

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A Prospective Study of Smoking Knowledge Attitudes Behavior among Adult Smokers in Guangzhou

On 13/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

BackgroundTobacco use is highly correlated to the cause of many diseases and death. A large number of scientific researches have proven from different angles that smoking is the significant risk factors for lung cancer,chronic respiratory diseases,coronary heart disease,stroke and even death.Besides that,it is today’s one of the most serious public Health problems.There are currently 1.1 billion smokers all over the world,and nearly 5 million people die from smoking-related diseases annually.China is the world’s largest tobacco producing and consuming country with about 350 million smokers, accounting for more than a third of the global total on both counts.There are evidences showed that different target groups’ tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes play important roles on tobacco control by enabling smokers to generate mind or take action to quit smoking,and preventing non-smokers to turn into smokers.Therefore,in order to take corresponding measures for tobacco control,it is important to understand the changes of knowledge and attitudes among smokers and non-smokers.If the knowledge and attitudes were able to change,smokers could develop the belief that smoking is bad for Health,and had a positive attitude to quit smoking.In this study,prospective panel methods were used to systematically analyze the differences and changing patterns of Health knowledge,tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes among Guangzhou adult smoking and non-smoking populations in recent years.The results will provide evidences for the development of tobacco control measures in the southern areas of China.Objectives To describe adult smokers’ health knowledge,smoking-related knowledge and attitudes by using non-smokers in Guangzhou as control,to analyze the changes of tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes among smokers after one year’s follow up,to explore the effects of national and local tobacco control policies on smokers’ tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes,and so as to provide basis for developing tobacco control policies in Guangzhou.MethodsA Prospective Panel Study method was used for this research.It is the first and second rounds of ITC project which is a 5-year follow-up survey with a total of 5 round investigations.The participants were revisited once every year after the first round survey.In the first round,800 smokers and 200 non-smokers were selected with multiple stages sampling method from “street”,”household”,”family” to “individual”.The second round survey required the same number of investigations to be completed,and made sure all participants in the first round have conducted follow-up survey.For those who miss the follow-up need to complete the supplementary survey.Both of the two rounds used face to face interview with questionnaires.Then,single factor and multiple factors analysis methods were used to identify the differences of tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes between adult smokers and non-smoker,and the impact of their smoking behavior.Results1、Knowledge of smoking-related disease:the smokers’ awareness rate of both lung cancer and emphysema which caused by smoking were 55.2%and 52.1%.Besides that,the knowledge about accelerated ageing(27.5%), coronary heart disease(30.2%),impotence(11.9%),and lung cancer due to passive smoking(43.6%) was obviously insufficient,and which was even lower than the six cities’ average level.In contrast,the non-smokers’ knowledge of smoking-related disease was higher than that of smokers.The smokers,however,showed improvement in disease knowledge after one year’s follow up.2、Knowledge of tobacco:Both smokers and the follow-up smokers were lack of the correct understanding of tobacco knowledge which cigarette filter could reduce the harm of smoking,and nicotine is chemical substances causing majority cancer.They were also not able to differentiate the low tar, light cigarettes and menthol cigarettes.There was no significant change on the knowledge of tobacco use after the one year follow-up.3、Smoking ban in public places:The attitudes towards the smoking ban in schools and public transport were better than those in restaurants and workplaces.The non-smokers’ attitudes of ban in public places were significantly higher than those of smokers.After one year’s follow up, smokers’ the attitudes towards the smoking ban in public transport and restaurants were increased.4、After one year’s follow up,the changes in smokers’ knowledge and attitudes were noticed to have correlation with sex,Education,and the scores of knowledge and attitudes.It was found that they were correlated positively with Education,negatively with the awareness rate of knowledge and attitude. Meanwhile,male were noticed to change greater than female.The findings from non-smokers’ knowledge and attitudes were also showed negative correlation with the awareness rate.5、The smoking cessation rate in this survey was 4.7 percent.The main reasons for smokers to quit smoking were Health and illnesses.Therefore,for those who concerning their health were more likely to quit smoking.It is also found that smokers whose age ranged from 45 to 54 had higher tendency to drop the habit than those age above 55.High schools or technical schools graduates had higher tendency to give up smoking than those graduated from primary schools or below.According to the survey findings,confidence was also play an important role in smoking cessation.Those smokers who had stong determination had greater possiblility to quit smoking.In contrast, smokers with smoking index “40~160″ were more difficult to quit smoking than those above 160.There were no significant differences between smoking cessation tendency and Sex,family incomes,the awareness of tobacco knowledge and attitudes.ConclusionsThe smoker’s health knowledge in Guangzhou was lower than the average level of other six cities in China,as well as the awareness of tobacco hazards.After one year’s follow up,the understanding of health knowledge were significantly enhanced among smokers.However,they were still lack of the correct understanding of knowledge which “cigarette filter could reduce the harm of smoking”,”nicotine is chemical substances causing majority cancer”,”the differences of low tar,light cigarettes and menthol cigarettes”. There was no significant change after the one-year follow-up.The contrast of the attitudes for smoking ban in different public places was remarkable.It is found that the attitudes towards the smoking ban in schools and public transport were better than those in restaurants and workplaces.Nevertheless,the smokers showed improvement in understanding the smoking ban in public transport and restaurants after one year’s follow up.In Guangzhou,the changes in knowledge and attitudes were found to have positive correlation with Education,negative with the awareness rate of knowledge and attitude.The changes in male were greater than female.The smoking cessation rate was 4.7 percent in this survey.It was noticed that age,education,confidence,attempt in quitting smoking,smoking index and health concerning were the factors affecting quitting intention.The main reasons for smokers to quit smoking were Health and illnesses.

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The Status and Intervention of Occupational Hazards’ “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice” about Manufacturing Industry Workers in Shenzhen

On 07/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective: To find out the manufacturing industry workers’ status on occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice”; analysis the various factors about workers’ occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice”; explore the possible way about occupational hazards Health Education activities on workers who contact occupational hazards.Methods: Select the manufacturing industry workers in Bao’an District Gongming Street in Shenzhen as the investigated object, divided them into intervention and control groups, collect their status on occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice” and correlative laboratory inspection; give the community intervention to the workers who selected in the intervention group. After the intervention is ending, investigate the two groups’ workers’ occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice” again. Evaluating the effect of intervention according to compare the change between baseline and endline’s occupational hazards of “knowledge,attitude and practice”.Results: There is 284 survey object in the baseline,131 workers are in the intervention group, the average of “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score is 70.46; 153 workers are in control group, the average of total score is 70.80,there is no statistical significance between them. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice each part’s average score and the laboratory inspection results are also has no statistical significance between the two groups. After the intervention, there is 257 survey object in the endline,122 workers are in the intervention group, the average of “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score is 75.84; 135 workers are in control group, the average of total score is 69.70,there is observably statistical significance between them(p<0.001). Knowledge and Practice part’s average score are also has statistical significance between the two groups, but there is no statistical significance in Attitude part’s average score between the tow groups. The Knowledge’s score’s factors include the time stayed in the factory, native place, every month’s incoming, work time for every week, having physical examination or not in last one year; the Attitude’s score’s factors include having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for the type of work, Knowledge’s score; the Practice’ score’s factors include age, having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for every week, working period, time for rest caused by disease or injury every year, the result of laboratory inspection, Knowledge’s score, the Attitude’s score; “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score’s factors include age, native place, Education level, having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for every week, time for rest caused by disease or injury every year.Conclusions: Recently, the status on occupational hazards of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice is not optimistic. Age, native place, education level, having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for every week, time for rest caused by disease or injury every year, have come to be the factors of “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score. Occupational hazards Health education’s community intervention have improved the manufacturing industry workers’ knowledge about occupational hazards , have some modifications on the prevention of occupational hazards to the enthusiasm and initiative, but the effect of improving the workers’ actual health state is not clear yet. Health education’s community intervention have got some effect, develop a number of human resources in the objective locale, to ensure the sustainability of the similar investigations and interventions in the future. But in the next step, still need to strengthen the exploration and study about occupational hazards’ health education methods, by more understandable, easier to believe and more acceptable manner to the workers, to find more effective health education methods, for actually improving the health status of workers, and promoting such methods in the other similar areas.

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Investigation Knowledge on AIDS in Rural Population of Zhejiang Province

On 31/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

HIV/AIDS has spread rapidly worldwide, infected and killed more than 60 and 25 million people respectively (till 2008), since the world’s first case of HIV infector was recognized in 1981. It has become a major global concern of public Health and Social hot-spot issues. In china, HIV infection is in a period of rapid growth.80% of overall 32 million HIV-infected people of China live in rural areas (which accounts for 62% of the total population in China). Therefore, it is crucial to understand awareness of HIV/AIDS in rural residents, and then to take proper control measures.1 ObjectiveBased on the survey of awareness of HIV/AIDS in rural population, we discussed effective procedures for propaganda and Education to farmers; and provided theoretical basis for relevant departments to carry out controls of HIV/AIDS Health instruction on HIV/AIDS.2 Method2.1 survey objectPopulation was all current rural residents aged 15 and above. Current residents were all living members of the households including inhabitants who lived without Hukou but living in the household for more than half a year, but excluding people with Hukou away from home for more than half a year.2.2 sample methodWe conducted a questionnaire-type survey of households drawn samples from population using stratified cluster random sampling method. Two cities (Shaoxing, Jiaxing City) randomly selected from Zhejiang province were divided into three groups (namely, the upper, middle and lower layer) according to geographic location. Three random select steps were taken afterwards:(1) chose a county from each layer; (2) chose a town from each selected county; (3) chose three administrative villages from each selected town. Finally, all eligible households in each village were taken as sample households.This survey was carried out in July 2008, covering 2517 households and 5296 people totally.2.3 analytic procedureWe employed rank-sum test using SPSS 11.5 statistical software. Significance level of the test was 0.05. We conducted the normality test and rank sum test to correct values score about HIV/AIDS awareness acquired from residents of different ages, different sexes, different Education, different occupations, different marital status etc.3 Results3.1 Basic knowledge of rural residents on HIV/AIDS SituationOnly 27.7% of the inhabitants conceived that it was not very far away from HIV/AIDS, and the possibility to infected is existed. The accuracy rate was over 70% about other Basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS.3.2 Awareness of rural residents on HIV transmission routesRegarding the main HIV transmission routes(sexual, blood, Mother-to-child), the residents’correct answer rate was over 60%, but the correct rate of the non-transmission routes(bath, coughing, sneezing, shaking, hugging, meal) was 60% or less. The correct rate was only 24.6% about “Mosquitoes cannot transmit HIV”.3.3 Awareness of HIV/AIDS among rural residents in different situationThe correct rate of HIV/AIDS awareness in rural residents was low (about 69.6%). There were significant differences on the awareness of HIV/AIDS in different age, marital status, education level, occupation, etc.3.4 means of rural residents to acquire knowledge of HIV/AIDSRural residents obtain the knowledge of HIV/AIDS related mainly via television and radio.3.5 residents’attitude to HIV-infectorsRural residents showed obvious discrimination and fear to HIV-infector.4 ConclusionsSince the level of HIV/AIDS awareness of rural residents in some parts of Zhejiang province was low, further propaganda and education on HIV/AIDS for rural residents were recommended, which would be useful to control HIV/AIDS more effectively.

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A Study on Mathematics Student Teachers’ Knowledge of Parallelogram

On 28/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge about parallelogram of mathematics student teachers and their expectations and evaluation of the teacher Education curriculum. Comparing mathematics student teachers’ knowledge of parallelogram, the author expected to know how the learning in the university produce an effect on the professional development of mathematics student teachers, and give some suggestions for professional training of pre-service teachers.160 student teachers of freshman year and the forth year from a normal university of Shanghai participated in the questionnaire survey and interview. Using the analytical method of Sarah and others to assess change in student teachers’ knowledge and the framework given by Mohan Chinnappan and Michael J. Lawson to compare the quality of student teachers’knowledge, the author obtained the following results:Ⅰ. The student teachers are short of knowledge of parallelogram at various degree, and student teachers of the forth year solve the problem effectively by consulting books and periodicals. Specific performances are as follows:1. All the student teachers need more content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge about parallelogram.2. In the second interview, student teachers of the forth year have no difficulty in giving examples about the application of parallelogram.3. The numbers of chunks of knowledge of the freshmen increase and the numbers of cross-links decrease, while both numbers of student of the forth year increase.Ⅱ. Student teachers of the forth year have an advantage over the freshmen in understanding of parallelogram, but the advantage is not distinct.1. With some reference material, student teachers of the forth year could make internal connections between the knowledge of parallelogram.2. The concept maps of parallelogram of student teachers show that the student teachers of the forth year have more knowledge of parallelogram than the freshmen.3. There are two elaborate chunks of knowledge about “rhombus” and “rectangle” for all student teachers.Ⅲ. The freshmen want to learn some Basic skills of teacher. The student of the forth year need more instructional practical activities although they are satisfied with the teacher Education curriculum of the normal university.Some suggestions for the curriculum for teacher Education of the normal universities and the development of the student teachers are given according to the results of the study. In the end, the deficiencies of the paper have been explained and some subsequent research topics are proposed.

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The Game Analysis in the Process of Enterprises’ Knowledge Conversion

On 19/09/2013, in Management, by rain

In an era of knowledge economy, enterprises’knowledge is one of the important forces to improve competitiveness and to develop sustainability for modern companies, which can also be converted to a vital resource for Economic wealth benefits and reforming. The mankind has entered an era of taking knowledge and technology as a core resource to possess, product and distribute other resources. When Social sector and the academics are asked to answer how reasonable to manage knowledge in enterprises, how to reform and make low-cost system to transfer and share knowledge to the needs of everyone, it arises their attention and hope that there would have some impressive new solutions. This paper focuses on knowledge sharing form the perspective of game theory.First of all, to externalize the tacit knowledge of employees is one of Basic conditions for modern companies to build an internal knowledge base. However, there is such a problem that Prisoner’s Dilemma exists when privates supply public goods. In this paper, we develop a complete information static game model on this problem and analyze the strategic behavior of the risk adverse participators to find out the four solutions of Nash equilibrium. Further, the supply of tacit knowledge on condition of Nash equilibrium is discussed from perspective of individual employees. Simultaneously, the supply of knowledge under Pareto optimality is researched from perspective of overall interest of employees. In these two conditions comparing the individual contribution reaches some kind of relationship.Secondly, we develop a complete information dynamic game model and analyze the strategic behavior of the risk adverse participators to find out the sub game perfect Nash equilibrium from perspective of individual employees. We also offer some managerial recommendations on how to balance individual interest and collective interests in modern companies.Thirdly, this article starts with the knowledge transferring process of establishing knowledge base of industrial alliance members. Under the condition of complete information and oligopolistic market, we have considered the knowledge has the characteristics of substitute, so we use reaction function in Economic field and the method of iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies to find out the solution of Nash equilibrium and the method of game theory to discuss several issues about the corporation and competition of oligarch alliance members. In conclusion, we present a series of related Management apocalypses according to our analysis.This paper studied extensive literatures to find the above problems. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative research methods(game theory, Economics ect.), some impact of factors in the process of knowledge sharing are clarified. We hope to enrich the study of knowledge Management and provide theoretical basis for the decision-makers.

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Research on the Relationship between the Practice and Theory from the Modern Concept of Knowledge

On 10/09/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

The21st century is the era of knowledge economy, bacon once said that”knowledge is power”, the research on knowledge Management in academic andcorporate has caused widespread concern. Scholars and managers constantly study inknowledge Management theory and application field to make knowledge managementtheory and practice very rich.Besides, the research of knowledge management has itsunique function in explaining the relationship between theory and the practice, thetraditional study in the relationship between theory and practice often are based onphilosophy, many philosophers has made their own research, but the research from theaspect of knowledge is very limited. Theory is systematic knowledge in essence,therefore the study on the relationship between theory and practice is actually therelationship between the knowledge that theory contains and practice. The model ofknowledge fermentation is a kind of model that describe the progress of knowledgesharing, diffusion and innovation.The progress is quite similar to the progress ofanimal fermentation.With the model of knowledge fermentation, this thesis analysisthe relationship between theory and practice and find the inner mechanism that theoryand practice. Japanese scholars Ikujiro Nonaka advance the theory of SECI model,and use it to analysis the transition between implicit knowledge and explicitknowledge. The model has also be applied by other scholars to make intensive study,the paper studies the effect that the practice play in the transformation betweenimplicit knowledge and explicit knowledge the theory contains with the SECI model.We find that the practice is an important way to get implicit knowledge.In addition,this paper puts forward the principle of thinking, and find the way that the practiceaffect with the theory. At last, the paper analysis the history of management theoryand studies the relation between the practice and management theory. Besides, with ananalysis of the reform of the Business Administration of Tianjin University, we findsome relationship between the practice and theory.

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Qualitative Research on the Growth of Personalized Knowledge

On 30/08/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

Michael polanyi first proposed “personal knowledge” in1958, and the conceptsubverts the understanding of objective knowledge in academic community. Based onthe concept of personal knowledge, personalized knowledge is put forward.Knowledge is growing and is inseparable from the individual life, it is the product ofconstruction of individual significance. The mission of the growth of personalizedknowledge is to transform knowledge into wisdom, and to practice the view of theunity of knowledge and practice. The growth of personalized knowledge study is verynecessary and significant to Education, personal development and knowledgeinnovation.Domestic and international research on personalized knowledge are veryinsufficient, and the concept between knowledge, personal knowledge and personalknowledge are confused. The study is prior to descriptive and explanatory research,the study on the growth of personalized knowledge is insufficient.Based on the grounded theory method and purposive sampling, two people inTaiwan were selected to have in-depth interview and a whole-content analysis wasadopted. Qualitative analysis software Nvivo8was used to encode and analyzescripts, construct the related theory of personalized knowledge. The study is reliableand valid, testified by triangulation method, sufficient firsthand data and interpretingmethod.Based on analysis of two typical cases, the growth of personalized knowledge iselaborated, the concept of personal knowledge, personalized knowledge is discussed.The significance and main factors are obtained.The essential significance of the growth of personalized knowledge is to promotethe All-around Human Development, and is reflected in the growing up of a person.The essential significances of the growth of personalized knowledge include characterrefinement, cognitive ability promotion, thinking pattern changing, knowledge accumulation and personal character development. As for the influencing factors ofgrowth of personalized knowledge, two main aspects can be divided: one is theexternal factor; one is the internal factor. The internal factor involves personal interest,self-actualization needs, their own busyness, curiosity and thirst for knowledge andpersonal inner quality. The internal factor involves pressure, opportunity, Education,the key event, important people and interpersonal intercourse.

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Rresearch on Industry Cluster Based on Knowledge Management

On 06/12/2012, in Management, by rain

【Abstract】 Today, with the rapid development of knowledge, only depending on acompany’s own knowledge basis to realize the internal increase can not meet the needof competition. On the contrary, acquiring the external knowledge positively andeffectively is more significant for the company to face the complex marketing andtechnology environment increasingly. During knowledge economy times, companiesare clustered not only for static clustering effect such as sharing equipment, saving thecosting of trade and transportation, but also for clustering Economic effect, which helpthe innovation and propagation of technology and knowledge. In other words,companies cluster not for saving costing but for acquiring the message of technologyand marketing more conveniently and tracing the message about development oftechnology and market and then innovate continually during the contract andcommunication with the company in the same field or relative. Knowledge Management is a completely new area. Consequently, fewresearchers have been put into the realm about the KM in industrial cluster. Afterconsulting a great many references, the author elaborates the definition of cluster anddiffers it from other relative authorities, analyzes the knowledge in cluster fromphilosophy, Management, sociology and analyzes the feature, advantage, theory,method of knowledge innovation and sharing. afterwards, the author puts forward theferment model to explain the process of knowledge sharing and knowledge innovationand then uses this model to explain the bicycle cluster in Tianjin. The author sincerelybelieves that this theory can be of great benefit to the practice of industrial cluster forgovernment and company.