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The Investigation of Knowledge, Attitude, Behavior and the Research of Health Education Intervention on AIDS Prevention among Construction Workers

On 24/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Using the methods of epidemiological study, based on the KABP model (knowledge attitude belief practice model) of Health Education theory and Health promotion theory, about 300 male construction workers are selected for study through the approach of cluster sampling from three construction sites: the Qingshan District, Hongshan District, Wuchang District in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei where the construction workers of mobility gather, from April to September in 2005. The data of the Basic information of these construction workers, the situation of accepting health Education to prevent AIDS in the past, the relevant knowledge, attitude, behavior and the main demanding related to AIDS are gained by baseline survey; Health education activities are carried out and evaluated by the process and effect, that is the face-to-face propaganda and education (five forms: providing handbook, displaying drawing board, holding knowledge lecture, watching the disk and taking knowledge contest) and the peer education depends on the crowd features. At the same time, the method of in-depth interviews with individuals is used for understanding the awareness, needs and recommendations of construction workers on the health education to prevent AIDS. Through qualitative research, some in-depth information is obtained as effective supplement to quantitative information. This study aims at seeking out practical and effective methods and forms of preventing AIDS, the work mode of AIDS prevention in line with China’s actual conditions in construction workers.Before the intervention research, 301 available questionnaires are received; after the intervention research, 299 available questionnaires are collected. At the same time, 23 in-depth interview documents are received. The average age of these people is 36.3±10.11 and 90.4% of them are aged from 15 to 49. Their educational level is mainly junior middle school, accounting for 57.8%. And the bulk of them are married, accounting for 72.1%. People who have ever accepted the health education of AIDS prevention occupy a relatively lower proportion in the whole group. The single means of health education is mainly such mass media as broadcasting and TV. The proportion of people who have been accepted the health education of AIDS prevention is higher in the groups of old people and college students than other groups. The baseline investigation reveals that construction workers have low level of knowledge on AIDS prevention, and they don’t have a systematical, complete and balanced mastery of relevant knowledge. Basic knowledge and non-transmission knowledge is generally less than 50%, lower than that of transmission knowledge. There are a considerably high proportion of people who have sex with other women besides their wives, even with prostitutes. Those whose sexual partners are not fixed account for nearly half. They have sex with other women besides their wives very frequently. And less than 20% of them use condom every time. After the health education intervention, obvious improvement of known rate and averaged points in such aspects as Basic knowledge, transmission knowledge, non-transmission knowledge of AIDS prevention can be seen in the group of construction workers of different ages, education background and state of marriage, which have the statistical significance(p<0.05). The proportion of people who have sex with other women besides their wives and who go to prostitutes when they have sexual needs has come down, and the differences between before and after the intervention have the statistical significance(p<0.05). But the change of other behaviors is still not obvious. No matter which form of face-to-face propaganda and education is taken, above 90% of the workers who participate can remember or assumable remember the knowledge that is propagandized. The most acceptable way for construction workers is watching disks, and then knowledge lectures, knowledge handbooks, drawing broads and knowledge contests. Groups of different ages and education background accept different forms in the five kinds of face-to-face propaganda and education: Young people accept disks the most and handbooks the least; People in prime of life and at middle age accept knowledge lectures the most and knowledge contests the least; Old people accept handbooks and disks the most and knowledge contests the least; People with college diploma accept handbooks and drawing broads the most; People with the diploma of senior high school accept handbooks the most; People with the diploma of junior middle school and elementary school accept knowledge lectures the most and uneducated people accept disks the most.Due to the lack of knowledge and skills to prevent AIDS, little consciousness of self-protection, the dangerous conditions of extramarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sexual partner and low rate of condom use, as well as the unchangeable actuality of travelling backwards and forwards between villages and cities, construction workers are easier to catch AIDS and they have become the bridge of spreading AIDS from high risk group to ordinary people. As a result, they are the weak and disadvantaged group of the infection and transmission of AIDS. And to them, comprehensive and systematic measures should be taken to carry out the AIDS prevention. The intervention of health education, quite acceptable in construction workers, is an effective way to popularize the knowledge of preventing AIDS in construction workers, improve their ability of self-protection, in order to contain the spreading of AIDS. In accordance with the features of construction workers, carrying out focused intervention of health education of preventing AIDS can rapidly improve by a large amount the knowledge level of AIDS prevention, so as to change their behaviors and effectively prevent the spreading of AIDS from high risk group to ordinary people and finally contain the spreading of AIDS. It is worth popularizing in other similar key groups of AIDS infection and spread.

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The Research on Impacts from Informationalized Internetwork on Manual Worker’s Knowledge and Skills

On 07/02/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

With the furthermore development of high technology, internetwork informatization,symbolized in mobile phone and internet etc., is all over in people’s lives, which directly orindirectly effects every person. In China, manual workers make a great contribution in thedevelopment of society during the process of industrialization and urbanization. However,their career capability improvement and career Education development is always in omission.As a part of China competitive power, manual workers’ Education and personal developmentis very important, which is the original driving force to establish affluent society andsustainable economy. The extensive usage of mobile phone and internetwork provides anefficient tool for manual workers to obtain employment information and working experienceetc., which indirectly or directly improve the manual workers’ career development andeducation. This tool speeds up the manual workers’ internal career development.This article focus on the research in informationalized internetwork’s current status,future development and information tool usage practices by manual workers who are both incities and countries. Through questionnaire survey, the article compared the manual workers’usage situation and request in different industries, different ages, different educationbackground to adequately understand the function of informationalized internetwork. Wefound, there are mainly three functions of informationalized internetwork:Ⅰ.Improvingacquiring knowledge and survival skills; Ⅱ. Improving personal emotion communicationsand living skills; Ⅲ. Improving writing, reading and oracle communications.In a conclusion, to get more benefit from informationalized internetwork, there are twomeasures need we pay more attention to, the one is to conduct more marketing investigationsin the manual workers’ requirement and innovate eligible product solutions to fulfillcustomer’s marketing request; the other one is to improve the technology and service ofinformationalized internetwork to strengthen the trust from manual workers. In doing so, wecan get both society benefits in fulfilling manual workers’ information request and economicbenefits in digging out more medium customers.

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The Image of George Eliot in Maggie

On 05/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Among the novelists of the nineteenth century, there appeared a group of excellent women novelists in the British literature, such as Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, Mrs. Gaskell and George Eliot. Of them George Eliot is listed by the contemporary English critic F. R. Leavis as one of the four “great English novelists”, for her serious discussion of morality, and her broad mind towards human experience.The lifetime of George Eliot is in the Victorian period on the whole, so is her creating time. In this period, the national power increased very fast. The early years of the Victorian England was a time of rapid Economic development. The Industrial Revolution brought amazing changes to the country. Ideologically, the Victorians experienced fundamental changes. George Eliot researched and described the Social life of the Victorian Age in diverse aspects. There were Social, political and Economic reform; development of science; crisis of religious belief. George Eliot described the provincial life and the relationship of man and society in such backgrounds.George Eliot successfully creates many heroines in her books. More or less there are some personal symbilities between her and those heroines; even in some books abounds her own true image. Through studying the author and the novel, The Mill on the Floss, it is easy to see the author’s experience and her thoughts and feelings have brought great influence to the heroine. You may find out that Maggie and Tom are clearly autobiographical; all Eliot’s thoughts can be partly conveyed in this novel. This paper will develop in the following parts to state that this novel is a mirror in which we can see the image of George Eliot in Maggie.In The Mill on the Floss, George Eliot shows herself openly and completely in the heroine, Maggie, and hereby proposes to have a more close-up look at the link between Maggie’s quest and the quest of George Eliot herself.First, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Knowledge. This chapter tries to analyze their attitude to the knowledge. Maggie is earnest about books and has a strong thirst for knowledge when she was a child, on this point Maggie is quite similar as the author, because Eliot’s spirit of diligence brought great influence on Maggie.Second, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Love. This Chapter reveals Maggie and Eliot were both longing for being loved when they were young, moreover, Maggie’s quest for freedom and true love and her challenge to the society are actually Eliot’s own efforts.Third, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Morality. The third chapter states Eliot’s moral standards. She thinks women’s virtue mainly includes Sacrifice, Obedience, and Self-constraint. Maggie’s act didn’t at all go beyond this confine of moral codes, besides, Eliot’s point of view in religious works on Maggie in some way.Fourth, Eliot’s Influence upon the Heroine in terms of Defiant Spirit. This nature was well shown in Eliot’s religious belief and her rebellious marriage. Like Eliot, Maggie rebels against circumstances from an early age, and she makes great resistance for her own love.The last part expounds Eliot’s deep concern for lower-class people, and painstaking efforts to save human soul as a writer. All of these are to lead the readers to the author’s aim and significance of her creation The Mill on the Floss.

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At present, the professional development of teachers is the directio…

On 28/12/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

At present, the professional development of teachers is the direction and theme of professional teachers, the paper from the perspective of teacher’s knowledge and construction on professional development of teachers. Teachersprofessional development is the continuous process of individual profession in which teachers accept new knowledge and gain professional competence. Teachers should become mature professionals, through continuous learning and exploration to expand their professional course and enhance their professional standards, so as to achieve their professional maturity. Professional development of teachers has the characteristics of long-lasting and continuous-growing, with three orientations of sensible,practice-reflection and ecological orientation.Paper analyzes of the current in-service teacher Education deficiencies. The main ones are as follows. Teacher training is in serious utilitarian thinking, the conspicuous “only academic certificate” phenomenon, resulting in the transference of knowledge content of teacher training from the variety of teaching practice Teaching knowledge in the construction of these subjects and building materials is outdated Teacher-training is obsolete Teachers’professional knowledge is hard to have the effective convergence. The concepts of specialized teachers in the Education are not accepted by many.For in-service teacher professional development to construct knowledge, after the effective interpretation of the teaching knowledge, the article concentrates on practical knowledge and academic knowledge. It holds the opinion that the practical knowledge, the subject teaching knowledge is not only the core of teachers’knowledge composition, but also practical knowledge is the basis of teachers’knowledge construction. Teachers need highly professional practice, the development of teachers’knowledge cannot do without the teaching professional practice. Materialism tells us that theory only comes from practice and returns to practice; a theory without practice is empty, practice without theoretical guidance is superficial. Therefore, in recent years, the summing up of teachers’practical knowledge has been paid much attention to.With the careful analysis and summary of the knowledge of teachers and scholars at home and abroad, the article raises the effective way to construct teachers’knowledge: practical knowledge of teachers is the Basic of the in-service teachers knowledge construction; teaching reflection is the key to in-service teachers knowledge construction; constructive learning and problem-solving based accumulation of knowledge are the important method and means to construct in-service teachers’knowledge. The article provides a theoretical basis on the in-service teacher training.

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A Study of HIV-related Knowledge, Attitud, Behavior Among Different Kinds of People and Their Affection Factors in HuBei Province

On 24/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective Investigate the characteristics of HIV-related knowledge, attitude and behavior among general and high-risk people. Provide convincing evidences and suggestions of HIV Health Education and intervention on targeting population to promote controlling and prevention of HIV spreading.Methods Cluster stratified sampling method was used to sample the general population from 6 counties (city, district) according to the high, median, and low level of HIV epidemic in Hubei province. Sampling strata consists of county, town (community), and village (block). One town (community) was sampled in each county; three villages (blocks) were sampled in each town (community); And 30 persons were sampled in each village (block). As results, a total of 1080 persons were investigated as research subjects. A total of 120 high HIV risk persons, were sampled from Woman Penitentiaries and Drug-quitting Departments. Of them, 60 prostitutes are from two Woman Penitentiaries, and 60 IDUS are from two Drug-quitting Departments. High HIV risk persons stayed in Woman Penitentiaries and Drug-quitting Departments, at least, more than 6 months. The questionnaire, designed by Health Ministry of China, was used to investigate the HIV-related knowledge, attitude and behavior. Using face-to-face interviewing method, interviewer interviewed the research subjects. Before investigation, the interviewer received formal training. For the reason of human participant protection and increasing the validity of research, no other persons, except for interviewer and research subjects was there while interviewing. Furthermore, all of the private information for the research subjects kept secrets, according to written consent of this research.Results For the General population, all of the 1080 persons completed the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 100.0%. A total of 1047 of them reported they ever heard of AIDS, accounted for 96.9%. Of them, 799 persons had HIVknowledge score $= 60(total score transformed to 100), accounted for 74.0%. Multivariate logistic regression model analyses indicated that persons living in the area of low level HIV spreading, living in the countryside, having lower Education, unmarried, and discrimination toward persons of HIV positive were more likely to have the HIV knowledge score < 60, and to be a student was more likely to have the HIV knowledge score ^60. All of the 120 high HIV risk person completed the questionnaire, generated response rate of 100.0%. A total of 111 of the 120 high HIV risk person reported they ever heard of the AIDS, accounted for 92.5%. 95 persons of them had HIV knowledge score ^60, accounted for 79.2%. Multivariate logistic regression model analyses indicated that marital status and Education level was the influencing factors for the rate of HIV knowledge. Persons of unmarried, high education levels have a higher rate of HIV knowledge. Married person compared with unmarried person, OR=0.318, 95% CI=0.120-0.842 for HIV knowledge rate. While the OR=2.660, 95% CI=1.367-5.177 for person of high education level compared with low education level person. Of person-injected drugs, 41.2% of them shared syringe with their partners. Of drug users of unmarried, most of them (92.5%) had sexual experience, Female accounted for 35.0% of drug users of unmarried. Among drug users with sexual experience, 71.9% of them didn’t use condom in their latest sexual behavior. 21.7% of prostitutes didn’t use condom in their latest sexual behavior. The correct rate of knowledge of HIV transmitting was higher than that of HIV non-transmitting for bothgeneral population and high HIV risk population (general population: %2 =192.121, P<0.01; high HIV risk population: j2 =5.438, P <0.05). After controlling for theconfounding factors of gender, age, education level, martial status in logistic regression model, the OR of HIV knowledge rate was 2.305(95% CI 1.398-3.801) for high HIV risk person compared with general person. However, discrimination rate for HIV positive persons has significant difference between the groups of general population and HIV risk population.Conclusion Persons of female, of low education levels, of unmarried status, and living in the countryside have both low HIV knowledge score and HIV knowledge rate. Our results reinforced that it is necessary to implement the Health education among the targeting populations, cany out the intervention measure among high HIV risk population, raise awareness of HIV, and reduce fear and panic for HIV. Our results also suggested that it is more difficult to decrease the discrimination rate of HIV than improve the HIV knowledge among population. Decreasing the discrimination rate of HIV among population is still great challenge for controlling for the HIV spreading in our country.

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The Study on Yin-Yang Theory in Zhou Yi and Its Curriculum Reform’s Significance

On 21/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Curriculum reform is the core of Education reform, curriculum development is the driving force mechanism, and Yin-Yang is Zhou Yi Philosophy of the core doctrine. This study was the Zhou Yi yin-yang theory and its interpretation of the meaning of the curriculum reform, and to broaden the curriculum reform of the theoretical foundation, to raise awareness of curriculum reform, the reform of asphalt courses some of the Basic problems, and summarize the lessons learned.Based on this, the study of literature study, comparative study and historical research, Zhou Yi for the Yin-Yang said that the starting point and started to study the significance of the curriculum reform. Focus on the interpretation of the Zhou Yi Yin-Yang theory of the Basic contents and viewpoints, discussed in detail the Zhou Yi Yin-Yang, meaning that the curriculum reform: “Sang Sang of that easy”, which reveals the development of general rules of the universe – the natural and Social universe is a perennial personnel, the development of the new process is more, the nature of the curriculum reform – innovation and Gujiu of Moldova and changes in Health, Chujiubuxin, leather is ASD; “yin-Yang news” day and night cold and heat the moon and rigid-flexible curriculum reform movement looks into the “pendulum” cycle; “push rod-coil phase, in which the variable”, the curriculum reform is the driving force within the curriculum, a Yin-Yang of a two forces of the unity of opposites, is the new change things, the fundamental Shengshengbuyi; “Time” is the key to the curriculum reform, “Time” and said that the integration of Yin-Yang, no Xugao absolutely everything at any time transfer, curriculum reform to “see – and” the “with the Xiexing”; “Tai Wo” is a one-system, internal contains various forces than by confrontation, to a state of equilibrium. This is a short, it is ideal. Therefore, the curriculum reform must be carried out impartially, without a plan, not an overkill, all overturn.Subsequently view of the current curriculum reform in the various issues raised some enlightenment, so that the new curriculum reform to the collective wisdom to prevent one-sidedness, extremism, and it has become a process of practice, the process of dialogue and consultation process, in practice the steady trend of integration and balanced.

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A Prospective Study of Smoking Knowledge Attitudes Behavior among Adult Smokers in Guangzhou

On 13/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

BackgroundTobacco use is highly correlated to the cause of many diseases and death. A large number of scientific researches have proven from different angles that smoking is the significant risk factors for lung cancer,chronic respiratory diseases,coronary heart disease,stroke and even death.Besides that,it is today’s one of the most serious public Health problems.There are currently 1.1 billion smokers all over the world,and nearly 5 million people die from smoking-related diseases annually.China is the world’s largest tobacco producing and consuming country with about 350 million smokers, accounting for more than a third of the global total on both counts.There are evidences showed that different target groups’ tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes play important roles on tobacco control by enabling smokers to generate mind or take action to quit smoking,and preventing non-smokers to turn into smokers.Therefore,in order to take corresponding measures for tobacco control,it is important to understand the changes of knowledge and attitudes among smokers and non-smokers.If the knowledge and attitudes were able to change,smokers could develop the belief that smoking is bad for Health,and had a positive attitude to quit smoking.In this study,prospective panel methods were used to systematically analyze the differences and changing patterns of Health knowledge,tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes among Guangzhou adult smoking and non-smoking populations in recent years.The results will provide evidences for the development of tobacco control measures in the southern areas of China.Objectives To describe adult smokers’ health knowledge,smoking-related knowledge and attitudes by using non-smokers in Guangzhou as control,to analyze the changes of tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes among smokers after one year’s follow up,to explore the effects of national and local tobacco control policies on smokers’ tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes,and so as to provide basis for developing tobacco control policies in Guangzhou.MethodsA Prospective Panel Study method was used for this research.It is the first and second rounds of ITC project which is a 5-year follow-up survey with a total of 5 round investigations.The participants were revisited once every year after the first round survey.In the first round,800 smokers and 200 non-smokers were selected with multiple stages sampling method from “street”,”household”,”family” to “individual”.The second round survey required the same number of investigations to be completed,and made sure all participants in the first round have conducted follow-up survey.For those who miss the follow-up need to complete the supplementary survey.Both of the two rounds used face to face interview with questionnaires.Then,single factor and multiple factors analysis methods were used to identify the differences of tobacco-related knowledge and attitudes between adult smokers and non-smoker,and the impact of their smoking behavior.Results1、Knowledge of smoking-related disease:the smokers’ awareness rate of both lung cancer and emphysema which caused by smoking were 55.2%and 52.1%.Besides that,the knowledge about accelerated ageing(27.5%), coronary heart disease(30.2%),impotence(11.9%),and lung cancer due to passive smoking(43.6%) was obviously insufficient,and which was even lower than the six cities’ average level.In contrast,the non-smokers’ knowledge of smoking-related disease was higher than that of smokers.The smokers,however,showed improvement in disease knowledge after one year’s follow up.2、Knowledge of tobacco:Both smokers and the follow-up smokers were lack of the correct understanding of tobacco knowledge which cigarette filter could reduce the harm of smoking,and nicotine is chemical substances causing majority cancer.They were also not able to differentiate the low tar, light cigarettes and menthol cigarettes.There was no significant change on the knowledge of tobacco use after the one year follow-up.3、Smoking ban in public places:The attitudes towards the smoking ban in schools and public transport were better than those in restaurants and workplaces.The non-smokers’ attitudes of ban in public places were significantly higher than those of smokers.After one year’s follow up, smokers’ the attitudes towards the smoking ban in public transport and restaurants were increased.4、After one year’s follow up,the changes in smokers’ knowledge and attitudes were noticed to have correlation with sex,Education,and the scores of knowledge and attitudes.It was found that they were correlated positively with Education,negatively with the awareness rate of knowledge and attitude. Meanwhile,male were noticed to change greater than female.The findings from non-smokers’ knowledge and attitudes were also showed negative correlation with the awareness rate.5、The smoking cessation rate in this survey was 4.7 percent.The main reasons for smokers to quit smoking were Health and illnesses.Therefore,for those who concerning their health were more likely to quit smoking.It is also found that smokers whose age ranged from 45 to 54 had higher tendency to drop the habit than those age above 55.High schools or technical schools graduates had higher tendency to give up smoking than those graduated from primary schools or below.According to the survey findings,confidence was also play an important role in smoking cessation.Those smokers who had stong determination had greater possiblility to quit smoking.In contrast, smokers with smoking index “40~160″ were more difficult to quit smoking than those above 160.There were no significant differences between smoking cessation tendency and Sex,family incomes,the awareness of tobacco knowledge and attitudes.ConclusionsThe smoker’s health knowledge in Guangzhou was lower than the average level of other six cities in China,as well as the awareness of tobacco hazards.After one year’s follow up,the understanding of health knowledge were significantly enhanced among smokers.However,they were still lack of the correct understanding of knowledge which “cigarette filter could reduce the harm of smoking”,”nicotine is chemical substances causing majority cancer”,”the differences of low tar,light cigarettes and menthol cigarettes”. There was no significant change after the one-year follow-up.The contrast of the attitudes for smoking ban in different public places was remarkable.It is found that the attitudes towards the smoking ban in schools and public transport were better than those in restaurants and workplaces.Nevertheless,the smokers showed improvement in understanding the smoking ban in public transport and restaurants after one year’s follow up.In Guangzhou,the changes in knowledge and attitudes were found to have positive correlation with education,negative with the awareness rate of knowledge and attitude.The changes in male were greater than female.The smoking cessation rate was 4.7 percent in this survey.It was noticed that age,education,confidence,attempt in quitting smoking,smoking index and health concerning were the factors affecting quitting intention.The main reasons for smokers to quit smoking were Health and illnesses.

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The Status and Intervention of Occupational Hazards’ “Knowledge, Attitude and Practice” about Manufacturing Industry Workers in Shenzhen

On 07/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective: To find out the manufacturing industry workers’ status on occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice”; analysis the various factors about workers’ occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice”; explore the possible way about occupational hazards Health Education activities on workers who contact occupational hazards.Methods: Select the manufacturing industry workers in Bao’an District Gongming Street in Shenzhen as the investigated object, divided them into intervention and control groups, collect their status on occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice” and correlative laboratory inspection; give the community intervention to the workers who selected in the intervention group. After the intervention is ending, investigate the two groups’ workers’ occupational hazards of “knowledge, attitude and practice” again. Evaluating the effect of intervention according to compare the change between baseline and endline’s occupational hazards of “knowledge,attitude and practice”.Results: There is 284 survey object in the baseline,131 workers are in the intervention group, the average of “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score is 70.46; 153 workers are in control group, the average of total score is 70.80,there is no statistical significance between them. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice each part’s average score and the laboratory inspection results are also has no statistical significance between the two groups. After the intervention, there is 257 survey object in the endline,122 workers are in the intervention group, the average of “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score is 75.84; 135 workers are in control group, the average of total score is 69.70,there is observably statistical significance between them(p<0.001). Knowledge and Practice part’s average score are also has statistical significance between the two groups, but there is no statistical significance in Attitude part’s average score between the tow groups. The Knowledge’s score’s factors include the time stayed in the factory, native place, every month’s incoming, work time for every week, having physical examination or not in last one year; the Attitude’s score’s factors include having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for the type of work, Knowledge’s score; the Practice’ score’s factors include age, having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for every week, working period, time for rest caused by disease or injury every year, the result of laboratory inspection, Knowledge’s score, the Attitude’s score; “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score’s factors include age, native place, Education level, having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for every week, time for rest caused by disease or injury every year.Conclusions: Recently, the status on occupational hazards of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice is not optimistic. Age, native place, Education level, having physical examination or not in last one year, type of work, work time for every week, time for rest caused by disease or injury every year, have come to be the factors of “knowledge, attitude and practice” total score. Occupational hazards Health education’s community intervention have improved the manufacturing industry workers’ knowledge about occupational hazards , have some modifications on the prevention of occupational hazards to the enthusiasm and initiative, but the effect of improving the workers’ actual Health state is not clear yet. Health education’s community intervention have got some effect, develop a number of human resources in the objective locale, to ensure the sustainability of the similar investigations and interventions in the future. But in the next step, still need to strengthen the exploration and study about occupational hazards’ health education methods, by more understandable, easier to believe and more acceptable manner to the workers, to find more effective health education methods, for actually improving the health status of workers, and promoting such methods in the other similar areas.

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Investigation Knowledge on AIDS in Rural Population of Zhejiang Province

On 31/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

HIV/AIDS has spread rapidly worldwide, infected and killed more than 60 and 25 million people respectively (till 2008), since the world’s first case of HIV infector was recognized in 1981. It has become a major global concern of public Health and Social hot-spot issues. In china, HIV infection is in a period of rapid growth.80% of overall 32 million HIV-infected people of China live in rural areas (which accounts for 62% of the total population in China). Therefore, it is crucial to understand awareness of HIV/AIDS in rural residents, and then to take proper control measures.1 ObjectiveBased on the survey of awareness of HIV/AIDS in rural population, we discussed effective procedures for propaganda and Education to farmers; and provided theoretical basis for relevant departments to carry out controls of HIV/AIDS Health instruction on HIV/AIDS.2 Method2.1 survey objectPopulation was all current rural residents aged 15 and above. Current residents were all living members of the households including inhabitants who lived without Hukou but living in the household for more than half a year, but excluding people with Hukou away from home for more than half a year.2.2 sample methodWe conducted a questionnaire-type survey of households drawn samples from population using stratified cluster random sampling method. Two cities (Shaoxing, Jiaxing City) randomly selected from Zhejiang province were divided into three groups (namely, the upper, middle and lower layer) according to geographic location. Three random select steps were taken afterwards:(1) chose a county from each layer; (2) chose a town from each selected county; (3) chose three administrative villages from each selected town. Finally, all eligible households in each village were taken as sample households.This survey was carried out in July 2008, covering 2517 households and 5296 people totally.2.3 analytic procedureWe employed rank-sum test using SPSS 11.5 statistical software. Significance level of the test was 0.05. We conducted the normality test and rank sum test to correct values score about HIV/AIDS awareness acquired from residents of different ages, different sexes, different Education, different occupations, different marital status etc.3 Results3.1 Basic knowledge of rural residents on HIV/AIDS SituationOnly 27.7% of the inhabitants conceived that it was not very far away from HIV/AIDS, and the possibility to infected is existed. The accuracy rate was over 70% about other Basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS.3.2 Awareness of rural residents on HIV transmission routesRegarding the main HIV transmission routes(sexual, blood, Mother-to-child), the residents’correct answer rate was over 60%, but the correct rate of the non-transmission routes(bath, coughing, sneezing, shaking, hugging, meal) was 60% or less. The correct rate was only 24.6% about “Mosquitoes cannot transmit HIV”.3.3 Awareness of HIV/AIDS among rural residents in different situationThe correct rate of HIV/AIDS awareness in rural residents was low (about 69.6%). There were significant differences on the awareness of HIV/AIDS in different age, marital status, Education level, occupation, etc.3.4 means of rural residents to acquire knowledge of HIV/AIDSRural residents obtain the knowledge of HIV/AIDS related mainly via television and radio.3.5 residents’attitude to HIV-infectorsRural residents showed obvious discrimination and fear to HIV-infector.4 ConclusionsSince the level of HIV/AIDS awareness of rural residents in some parts of Zhejiang province was low, further propaganda and education on HIV/AIDS for rural residents were recommended, which would be useful to control HIV/AIDS more effectively.

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A Study on Mathematics Student Teachers’ Knowledge of Parallelogram

On 28/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge about parallelogram of mathematics student teachers and their expectations and evaluation of the teacher Education curriculum. Comparing mathematics student teachers’ knowledge of parallelogram, the author expected to know how the learning in the university produce an effect on the professional development of mathematics student teachers, and give some suggestions for professional training of pre-service teachers.160 student teachers of freshman year and the forth year from a normal university of Shanghai participated in the questionnaire survey and interview. Using the analytical method of Sarah and others to assess change in student teachers’ knowledge and the framework given by Mohan Chinnappan and Michael J. Lawson to compare the quality of student teachers’knowledge, the author obtained the following results:Ⅰ. The student teachers are short of knowledge of parallelogram at various degree, and student teachers of the forth year solve the problem effectively by consulting books and periodicals. Specific performances are as follows:1. All the student teachers need more content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge about parallelogram.2. In the second interview, student teachers of the forth year have no difficulty in giving examples about the application of parallelogram.3. The numbers of chunks of knowledge of the freshmen increase and the numbers of cross-links decrease, while both numbers of student of the forth year increase.Ⅱ. Student teachers of the forth year have an advantage over the freshmen in understanding of parallelogram, but the advantage is not distinct.1. With some reference material, student teachers of the forth year could make internal connections between the knowledge of parallelogram.2. The concept maps of parallelogram of student teachers show that the student teachers of the forth year have more knowledge of parallelogram than the freshmen.3. There are two elaborate chunks of knowledge about “rhombus” and “rectangle” for all student teachers.Ⅲ. The freshmen want to learn some Basic skills of teacher. The student of the forth year need more instructional practical activities although they are satisfied with the teacher Education curriculum of the normal university.Some suggestions for the curriculum for teacher Education of the normal universities and the development of the student teachers are given according to the results of the study. In the end, the deficiencies of the paper have been explained and some subsequent research topics are proposed.