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The Experiments on Self-worth and Goal Orientation

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Self-worth/esteem is a multi-dimensional and multi-level psychological structure, which could reflect how people like and view themselves and how people are regarded by others indirectly. To study self-worth/esteem is rather valueable both theoretically and practically. Goal, cognitive representations of desired or undesired end states that serve as standards for guiding behavior, affects the process of achieving end states, the alternatives considered for a choice, and evaluations of alternatives. Higgins identifies two distinct goal orientations: promotion-focused orientation and prevention-focused orientation. The promotion goal orientation can be described along these characteristics: the needs that individuals seek to develop, to succeed, and to achieve ideal self. Promotion goal orientation can be reflected in an individual’s hopes and aspirations. In contrast, the prevention orientation can be defined as follows: it is the goal with the needs for safety, security, and the needs to achieve ought self, and can be reflected in duties and obligations. This research aims to study the relationship between self-worth/esteem and goal orientation, and tries to explain how the self-worth/esteem activates different goal orientations.This study is comprised of two experiments. A scale of Chinese Students’ Self-worth (Huang, Yang, 1999) was administered to screen out 61 participants (30 with high score and 31 with low score). The hypothesis of experiment 1 is: individuals with high self-worth should be more likely to choose promotion goal orientation; in contrast, individuals with low self-worth should be more likely to choose prevention goal orientation. Participants are given the task of choosing a risk assignment–a task conceptually similar to the one used by Lee, Aaker & Gardner (2004). The results agree with the hypotheses. The hypothesis of experiment 2 is: each individual have a “decision threshold” to evaluate the risk of choice. When the risk is higher

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Study on the Establishment and Operation Mode of Real Estate Investment Trusts in China

On 02/10/2014, in Finance, by rain

Real Estate Investment Trusts is a new trust system, and it collects funds for realestate Management from not-specific investors or specific investors meeting legalnumberhen specific institutions are responsible for the Management of the funds, andallocate the final interests to the investors.Real Estate Investment Trusts originated from the United States, which isdeveloped on the aspects of the organizational structure, Investment scope, incomedistribution, supervision, management and so on. In the United States, Real EstateInvestment Trusts is an important investment tool. Germany, France, Japan, Singapore,Hong Kong and other countries learn from the United States about the Real EstateInvestment Trusts on the combination of their own to establish distinctive Real EstateInvestment Trusts Systems. They provide us valuable experience for the development ofReal Estate Investment Trusts.With the constant development of Chinese real estate market, simply bank capitalcan not meet the long-term financing needs of enterprises, and many small investorshave strong demands for lucrative real estate investment. Thus the establishment of RealEstate Investment Trusts can improve the real estate capital market, achieve a virtuouscircle of real estate funds. Based on the increasingly standardized development of thetrust industry, the gradual mature of the real estate market, the becoming of theinvestors and the perfection of relative legal systems, China has basically had theenvironment for the development of Real Estate Investment Trusts. In recent years,there have been some cases of Real Estate Investment Trusts in China, but comparedwith typical mode, Real Estate Investment Trusts in China have many differences in thepurpose of practitioner, requirements, investment returns, quantitative restrictions, taxincentives, investment risk and so on.By comparing the various foreign Real Estate Investment Trusts modes, accordingto the actual situation of China, it should take company and contract closed, equity andlisting type, the main external management and internal management auxiliary mode,adapting three release mechanism including the termination of failure, automatictermination and bankruptcy. Real Estate Investment Trusts in China has many defectsincluding little liquid; high risk, low interest rate; shortages of professionals; policies and regulations need to be improved; low information disclosure requirements; the lackof specialized regulatory agencies, etc.. So we need to solve the problems in some areasto improve Chinese Real Estate Investment Trust mode. In the Real Estate InvestmentTrusts risk control, macro, we should take steps in three stages of investmentdecision-making, investment management and investment exit; micro, we shouldestablish internal control mechanisms following the principles of effectiveness,prudence, comprehensiveness, timeliness and independence.

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The Mechanism and Empirical Analysis of China’s Foreign Trade Development Mode Changing Promoted by Trade in Service

On 02/10/2014, in Trade, by rain

Since the reform and opening up, China’s foreign trade has made a strikingsuccess during the past three decades. In1978, the total number of China’s foreigntrade is only about$20billion in the world, ranked only No.32, and by2010China’sforeign trade import and export value is nearly$3trillion, ranked the second largesttrading nation. Although China’s trade volume in a very short period of time has beena rapid increase, but the traditional development mode of foreign trade has been”focusing on size, but ignoring quality,”” focusing on surplus, but ignoringstructure”,” focusing on goods trade, but ignoring service in trade “, etc. extensive,not the concept of sustainable development led to the development of China’s foreigntrade has brought many problems, China’s foreign trade development mode needs tochange. The world’s major developed countries will trade in services as a new impetusto the development of foreign trade, foreign trade for its own development hasinjected new vitality. Other countries learn from the successful development offoreign trade experience, our government proposes to unswervingly develop trade inservices, trade in services through the promotion of China’s foreign trade developmentmode transformation.In this paper, the use of sustainable development theory, theory of competitiveadvantage and new Economic growth theory for the transformation of foreign tradedevelopment mode to build a theoretical foundation, and then shows how trade inservices through the promotion of foreign trade, Economic, Social and environmentalbenefits to improve trade efficiency, through optimize the trade of industrial base anddevelop new trade competitiveness, reduce the proportion of trade in goods tooptimize the overall structure of foreign trade, by accelerating the accumulation ofknowledge, promote innovation, improve the people to the capital stock of foreigntrade to improve the technological content of products to promote foreign tradedevelopment mode change. Furthermore, the author from the reality of China, showsthat the current development of China’s current foreign trade exists in the way of lightweight scale efficiency, light weight trade in goods and services trade, but the numberof re-exports uncompetitive and other issues. In addition, this paper build China’sforeign trade development mode shift goals, and shows that China’s foreign tradedevelopment mode transformation of the current, detailed analysis of trade in servicesis how to promote China’s foreign trade development mode change. Next, the authors use data from China’s actual econometric model built from three aspects, analysis oftrade in services has changed the role of China’s foreign trade development mode.Finally, the conclusions for the future better for the Chinese trade in services throughthe promotion of foreign trade development mode to provide countermeasures.The empirical results show that foreign trade in services by improving theeconomic, Social and Environmental benefits can be very good to enhance the overalleffectiveness of the promotion of foreign trade, especially the production of foreigntrade in services to enhance the overall effectiveness of the effect is remarkable.Development of trade in services can effectively promote China’s overall tradestructure optimization. Four forms of trade in services to improve the technologicalcontent of export products, develop corporate brand, enhance the competitiveness of astrong role in promoting. Therefore, continue to develop trade in services, whileensuring China’s foreign trade under the premise of comparative advantage to developa dynamic competitive advantages of foreign trade, trade in services and to strengthenthe linkage role of trade in goods, trade in services to promote trade in goods throughthe development and, ultimately, China’s foreign trade development mode change.

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Visitors’ Low-carbon Tourism Traffic Behavior and Its Mechanism

On 25/09/2013, in Tourism, by rain

Nowadays, low-carbon development has become the commonsubject throughout the world, and the way of sustainable development ineach region and industry. Under the background of more and moreexhausted resources and serious Environmental pollution in the global,tourism industry is not thought as “smokeless industry”, but the pioneerof ecological destruction and the major energy consumption.Hence,low-carbon in the tourism industry is extremely important. In tourismindustry, Tourism transportation takes a larger proportion on energyconsumption and carbon emissions, hence, it’s useful for tourism industryto reduce tourist traffic energy consumption and carbon emissions.With the low-carbon development of the tourism transportation,the objective aspect such as energy-saving technology is required toresearch and improve; as well as individual subjective initiative,in otherwords, visitors should also make efforts in the tourist traffic forlow-carbon tourism development. With an in-depth study on currenttourism low-carbon development; related behavior theory such asplanned behavior theory,the KAP behavior theory are analyzed;,psychological variables that may affect low-carbon tourism behavior ofvisitors are summed up, then, the extended KAP behavior theory model isestablished.Preliminary questionnaire is designed on the base of the theory aboutmodel construction and then formal questionnaire is established afterexploratory analysis of the pilot survey data. Structural equationmodeling analysis and correlation analysis, regression analysis are used to deal with formal survey data to verify the relevance and the significantlevels between psychological variables and low-carbon tourism trafficbehavior, and to reveal the mechanism of the transport behavior oflow-carbon tourism.The analysis shows that: low-carbon tourism traffic behavior isaffected by five factors: low-carbon tourism traffic knowledge,low-carbon tourism traffic preferences, low-carbon tourism trafficemotions, sense of Social responsibility, and individualeffectiveness.Each of these factors has different impact on thelow-carbon tourism traffic behavior. Low-carbon tourism traffic emotions,low carbon tourism knowledge have significant effect on low-carbontourism behavior while low-carbon tourism traffic perception andindividual effectiveness’ impact on the low-carbon tourism trafficbehavior is not significant. Overall, the theoretical model of expansionthe KAP behavior can effectively explain the mechanism of low-carbontourism traffic behavior.

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A Study of Internal Auditing Management of X Telecom Service Company

On 25/09/2013, in Management, by rain

Since the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) promulgated the new definition ofinternal auditing and Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing,internal auditing has been combined with corporate governance organically,coming toconsistency with corporate strategy.Transaction-based internal auditing andsystem-based internal auditing have been replaced by modern risk-orientedauditing.With the internal audition’s developing to risk-oriented level,thedevelopment of auditing in the field of activity can be reflected in the methods,techniques as well as standards.However,there is few research which regards internalauditing as a collective work and studies on its organization and control. Taking thesignificance of internal auditing for guaranteeing companies’ business goals intoaccount,it is of great importance for companies to manage the collective work:internal auditing.This essay takes X Telecom Service Company as study object, starting from thestatus of the development of internal audit and internal audit Management,entrustedwith the Economic responsibility of internal audit and system theory-based,from themanagement of internal audit,internal audit Management and internal audit the workprogram Management system to analyze the problems of internal auditingmanagement of X Telecom Service Company.Finally,against the problems of thesethree areas,this report encourages a reasonable set of the internal audit,diversifiedaudit content,expansion of internal audit rights, improvement of internal auditpersonnel access mechanism, the implementation of job rotation system,enhancementof the internal audit staff continuing Education,improvement of staff assessmentmethods to keep the project independence,strengthen the process of quality reviewand the introduction of the follow-up audit to solve the problems of X TelecomServices Company internal auditing management.I hope to provide a reference for themanagement of the company’s internal audit.

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The Tacit Knowledge Sharing Mechanism and Management Strategies of Enterprises’ Marketing Staff

On 25/09/2013, in Management, by rain

In the era of knowledge economy, the competition between enterprises becomesincreasingly intense. Enterprises do their best to obtain a higher market share, and marketing hasbecome a major focus of the work of enterprises.This article, through unifying the case and analyzing the tacit knowledge sharingmechanism of Enterprise’s marketing staff, tries to conclude specific tacit knowledge sharingmechanism and put forward the concrete Management strategies. The article studies themechanism from two aspects including external conditions and internal factors of enterprises.External conditions, which are the tacit knowledge sharing platform for the marketing staff ofenterprises, include the corporate culture and the Environmental system. Internal factors mainlylie in analyzing the marketing staff’s tacit knowledge sharing levels. On the basis of analyzingthe sharing levels, the article puts forward the tacit knowledge operation mechanism ofmarketing staff of enterprises, which is knowledge transition, and analyzes the components andthe adjustment mechanism of the tacit knowledge transition of marketing staff. When it comes tomanagement strategies of tacit knowledge sharing mechanism, the article analyzes it from threeaspects that are the internal operation, the information transition and the network communication.The first one includes improving the organization form, transforming the culture and reformingincentive mechanism. The second one includes enhancing the sharing initiative andcommunication ability and creating opportunities to promote the communication. And the lastone includes constructing effective Social network and flexible COP.

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The Liaoning Exhibition Trade Group Company Management Communication Mechanism Research

On 24/09/2013, in Management, by rain

Since the reforming and opening of china, the reform of the socialist market economy and the trend of global Economic integration intensifies, the market competition is becoming increasingly fierce. From the international situation analysis, widespread Economic crisis; from the domestic situation analysis, stimulating economic development initiatives effect is not ideal. In this process, the information is true, complete, timely delivery, it is of great significance for the Management. Therefore, the Enterprise Management communication mechanism construction is very necessary.Based on the above reasons, this article to serve the state-owned enterprises of Liaoning exhibition trade group company as an example, studied the communication and management concepts, as well as the relevant theoretical knowledge. In addition, both in the business management, marketing management, financial management, human resource management, management, strategy management, technology management, organization management, operation management, will produce a large amount of information transmission. The formation of core competence, and the management of enterprises are inseparable. Realization of management must be between the member and the member and communication with the external object.On this basis, analysis of the company’s management communication network operation effectiveness, find out the management communication process resulting in disorder, analyzed the cause of barriers, and the needle causes puts forward the specific methods of management communication mechanism, put forward compose to build management mechanism of communication barriers and measures.In the process of this paper, have got the guidance of the teacher’s guidance and help, see the massive literature material, understand the latest domestic and foreign study field; for example in the study, using a questionnaire, combining theory with practice, through the example to summarize and other methods, the proposed solution is targeted, also can make full use of the newly emerging things, management communication channels.

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A Study on Financial Support of Innovative Cities’ Construction

On 23/09/2013, in Finance, by rain

In2010, for implementing the Party Central Committee and State Council on thestrategy of ‘strengthening national independent innovation ability and constructing aninnovative country’, Ministry of Science and Technology have been launched a pilotproject of National Pilot Innovative Cities (Areas). As a representative of ChongqingCity, Shapingba District is one of the National Pilot Innovative Cities (Areas). In recentyears, with the development of the pilot work on National Pilot Innovative Cities(Areas), the construction and development of Innovative Cities becomes the coreproblem that Chinese academia focus on. As the kernel of modern economy, the financeis bringing the important effect into play in supporting National Pilot Innovative Cities’construction. A fully functioning and high-quality financial support system plays a keyrole in the advancement of technology and in the construction of Innovative Cities.Therefore, how to make full use of finance in the construction of Innovative Cities andstrengthen its supporting power and find the way to support and accelerate thedevelopment of Shapingba ‘National Pilot Innovative Area’, is the most importantproblem that Chongqing’s financial departments should focus on and solve quickly atpresent.Based on reviewing and summarizing the literature of domestic and abroadresearch results, this article first defines the relevant concept of innovative city andfinancial support, analyses the related theories of financial support and explains thedetails of financial support the construction of the innovative cities mechanism. Theinnovative cities financial support is through the government policy, financialorganizations, financial market, financial services and supporting system approaches forthe innovative cities construction to provide adequate funding, at the same time, inscattered in the process of innovation of various risks, and promote the healthydevelopment of high and new technology Enterprise, thus further promote theconstruction of innovative cities.Secondly, this article, based on studying the theories, selecting American SiliconValley, Tokyo in Japan and China’s Beijing, Shenzhen, which made great achievementin financial support the innovative cities, to make a comparative analysis, summarizedthe cities (areas) financial support the construction of innovative cities’ characteristicsand laws, to get some important enlightenment: First, policy financial system is an important motive that push innovative cities’ construction. Second, Commercialbanking system is a booster of innovative cities’ construction. And then, a strong capitalmarkets system is a foundation of innovative cities’ construction. Finally, a perfectsupporting service system is the guarantee of innovative cities’ construction.Finally, this article will focus on Shapingba district in Chongqing’s ‘National PilotInnovative City’ construction on the financial support and on the analysis of the regionalinnovation, after analyzed Shapingba district’s present situation and problems offinancial support, put forward of the financial support construction countermeasures inShapingba district: First, improve the policy financial system. Second, innovate thefinancial institutions to make financial organization system perfectly. Third, develop amultilevel capital market system. Fourth, optimize the financial supporting servicesystem.

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Research on the Mechanism of the Formation and the Operation of Regional Labor Brand

On 23/09/2013, in Management, by rain

With the deepening of united employment of urban and rural and employment of ruralsurplus labor, labor economy has become part of the socialist market economy can notbe ignored. How to guide and promote the development of the labor economy, theoperation of the services brand is a gradual emergence of a new direction, servicesbrand has gradually become a booster of the local governments to develop the laboreconomy. The labor is done by people, services brand carrier can only be the workersthemselves. Labor brand has unique and complex nature different from ordinarygoods from the outset. The research of labor brand should reflect its same strain withproducts brands, regional brands, but also where the emphasis on its specificity.In this paper, Based on the theory of brand, regional brand and regional laborbrand, this paper elaborated comparative analysis of the differences in product brands,regional brands and regional labor brands. Take “Qianjiang tailor” labor brand as anexample, to collect adequate data on the basis of its formation and operation.”Qianjiang tailor” experiences sprout, develop and mature in three stages, it generateda region-specific cultural resources and historical background, Qianjiang City in thebrand promotion work takes full advantage of this, it is worth learn from theexperience. labor workers, government, stakeholder groups are played important roles in the building of “Qianjiang tailor” brand. Labor workers are the heart and soul ofthe labor brand, they directly embody the labor value in their labor, and they directlyimpact on the reputation of the labor brand. Labor brand has the characteristics ofquasi-public goods, the Government must be guided and supported the formation andoperation of the labor brand, the government should play a leading role. The power ofthe industry associations, training institutions, intermediaries and other related interestgroups can not be ignored, the government departments should coordinate all partiesto participate and play their supporting role.Two market research methods of focus groups and survey methods are used inthis study. The objects of this research include the personnel of relevant government departments, clothing companies, labor workers, vocational training schools, andother interviews. With depth understanding of the “Qianjiang tailor” labor workersand labor brand building, analyzing the mechanism of the formation and operationof labor brands in the multiple dimensions. This paper has analyzed and proposed fourmain elements of the formation and operation of the labor brand, including theregional environment, the brand labor workers, the relevant government departments,stakeholder groups (including trade associations, schools and vocational traininginstitutions, labor agency, corporate). And on the basis of the first paper studies,proposed theoretical model the formation and operation mechanism of the laborbrands.The carrier of labor brand mostly is the surplus rural labor, and its overall qualityis generally low, services brands work is very difficult. There are still many problemsin the development of the labor service brand development. This paper analyzes fivekey problems, and proposed the overall ideas and suggestions for formation andoperation of the labor brand.

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The Occurrence,Development Mechanism of Cooperation in Forestry Family Joint Production

On 23/09/2013, in Agriculture, by rain

H village belongs to Yongan, Sanming City, Fu Jian. It locates in china’s key forest zone, and have fertile soil, water and heat resources. Forest Because land area accounts for81%of the total area of H village. Forestry income,which accounting for about52%of total income of local farmers, become an important part of H villager’s income. Before1990’s, H village mainly live on the farm. Though they have a large forest but cannot benefit from it. Its economy is backward, Pirates of the cut logging occurs. To reverse the situation, village committee and villagers after many discussions, finally decided to change the forestry production and Management system to production, cooperation, joint operation, the forestry production and Management system reform is also regarded as a watershed moment in the development of H village. The family joint operation is H village’s main forestry production and management mode, after the forest property right system reform.”Cooperation” is the biggest characteristic of family joint operation. How to achieve cooperative behavior,how to continue the cooperative relations, and how to avoid cooperation risk?To answer these three questions is the key to understanding of H village forestry production organization mode. Through investigation found, it founds that there are three aspects contributing to reach cooperation relationship factors in H Village:firstly, forestry production scale tendency is the objective factors which promotes cooperation relationship; secondly, based on the different roles under the support of psychological identity, namely trust is to promote cooperation of subjective elements; thirdly, H village politics elite, technical elite advocate ” couplet door operation”, they are contributing to cooperate external thrust. The following factors contribute to continue the cooperation in family joint operation in H village:firstly, Economic interests; secondly, the original interest distribution mechanism; thirdly, Democratic and open management mode. For those who threaten cooperation relationship factors, H village through consensus norms of the system to avoid the deviant behavior, and through to the system remains elastic space, to counteract the couplet door inner panel in the short period interest differences, thereby reducing the risk of rupture can lead to cooperative relationship. Research thinks, the occurrence and development of cooperation are the result of joint action of rational, and irrational factors. The interrelationships between these factors, constitute the organic whole in close contact, become available natural resources mobilized aggregates in cooperation management,and is H village’s Social capital.In addition, the homogeneity of family joint production members constituting, and take ” family” as the Basic unit of family joint production team composition, is the key to the operation of family joint production.The majority of H village family joint production continues to this day, cooperation between the further maintained but is facing a bottleneck:The family joint production levels are relatively low, cooperative content is more onefold, operation institutionalization, standardization to remain to be strengthened further, group member heterogeneity needs enhance, group differences in organizational communication, coordination costs.In this case, whether to have the ability to solve the cooperative operation of soaring costs will become the key to the good development of family joint production.