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Study on Functional Mechanism by Using Chinese Medicine Which Activating Blood and Dissolving Stasis Eliminating Mass Killing Embryo to Treat Tubal Pregnancy

On 17/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective:By adopting prospective case-control study method to observe the mechanism effects of using the Chinese medicine (ectopicⅠ, Decoction), which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo to treat unruptured tubal pregnancy. By using electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry staining method to detect surgical obtained pregnancy oviduct mucous cell and villi from patients who choose surgery after using traditional Chinese medicine therapy (observation group) and surgical specimens from patients who choose the surgery directly (control group), in the field of the ultrastructural morphology changes of oviduct epithelial cells, Bcl-2 expression intensity of villus, mucous membrane estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone hormone receptor (PR) expression intensity, in order to investigate the functional mechanism of using the Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo for treating tubal pregnancy, such study has positive influence in enriching the theory of Chinese medicine gynecology, setting basis for clinical dialectics medication, developing the traditional Chinese medicine for treating tubal pregnancy has not damaged, providing the scientific theoretical basis how to the treat the unruptured tubal pregnancy with the Chinese medicine.Method:1. Case Source:patients who were in hospital at Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine First Affiliated Hospital of gynecological department during 2008.9-2010.2. Collecting the patients who met the inclusion standard,15 cases in observation group,15 cases in control group.2. Grouping:①Observation Group:ectopic pregnancy I Recipe (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge 15g, Paeonia veitchii Lynch 15g, peach kernel 15g) plus Radices trichosanthis 20g, Lithospermum erythrorhizon 15g, centipede 6g, day 1, twice water simmer a day. Prepared uniformly by Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Preparation of the First Affiliated Hospital Pharmacy. Patients who have been treated with Chinese medicine for 3 to 8 days require a surgery treating, the cutted oviduct have been collected.②Control group:Tubal pregnancy patients request surgical treatment directly, the cutted oviduct have been collected.3. Using in situ hybridization method detects bcl-2 expression intensity of tubal pregnancy tissue. Immunohistochemical SP method to measure the tunica mucosa tubae uterinae ER, PR expression.4. Test the ultrastructure of the fallopian tube mucosa cell by electron microscop, observe the ultrastructure morphological difference between oviduct observation group and control group.5. Data processing:According to the data distribution of two independent samples using Wilcoxon test and two independent samples t test, analysis of statistical software with spss10.0Results:1. Tubal pregnancy villus Bcl-2 immunohistochemical staining intensity in the observation group and the control group were significantly different, (P<0.05);2. Tubal pregnancy oviduct mucosa ER immunohistochemical staining intensity comparisons show no significant difference (P> 0.05);3. Tubal pregnancy oviduct mucosa PR immunohistochemistry Comparison of staining intensity are significantly different (P<0.05), The observation group have a higher level of PR expression;4. Observation group and control group by transmission electron microscopy ultrastructure of mucosal cells tubal pregnancy are significant differences. It is found that the observation group oviducts have few microvilli, more endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria denser, structure disappeared in mitochondria and nuclear condensation. Self-scoring of their scoring was carried out, proved by statistical analysis, this difference was significant. The mucosal cell damage of the observation group was significantly higher. The Mann-Whitney U test (bilateral), the control group and observation group oviduct ciliated epithelial cells in transmission electron microscopy of microvilli difference between groups P=0.000<0.05, significant few in the observation group oviduct ciliated epithelial microvilli sparse compared with the control group; Mitochondrial change difference between groups P=0.001<0.05, significant difference in the observation group oviduct epithelial cells mitochondria serious injury than the control group; Nuclear change difference between groups P=0.045<0.05, significant difference in the observation group oviduct epithelial cells nuclei serious injury than the control group; Difference between the groups within the endoplasmic reticulum P=0.007<0.05, significant difference in the observation group oviduct epithelial cells mitochondria serious injury than the control group; Difference between the groups of intracellular vacuoles P=0.143> 0.05, not statistically significant.Conclusion:1. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, can lower Tubal pregnancy villi Bcl-2 expression may hinder Bcl-2 antiapoptotic, Promote apoptosis of embryonic tissue of tubal pregnancy, prevent embryo growth which could lead to fallopian tube to withstand high tension and may cause tubal rupture, thereby reduce the surgery rate as a result of tubal rupture.2. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, can enhance pregnancy oviduct mucosa PR expression, Thereby reducing the oviduct of receptivity for the embryo, leading to embryonic death.3. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, have no statistically significant effect on expression of the pregnancy oviduct mucosa ER4. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, has an obvious effect on cell ultrastructure of the oviduct. There are significant effects on the cilia microvilli, mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum structure, Considering activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminate mass kill embryo Chinese medicine affect the normal physiological processes of the fallopian tubes mucosal cell metabolism, reduce nutrients provided for the implantation of the embryo in the fallopian tube to promote apoptosis of embryonic tissue.

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Study on Water Resourdce Sustainable Utilization of Pastoral Area and Policy and Mechanism in Inner Mongolia

On 14/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Utilize the water resource by science, is the important proposition of Economics and society sustainable development of pastoral area. In the first 20 years of this century, the Inner Mongol faced the well-off society of comprehensive construction, built in the period of important strategic opportunities of the new pastoral area. Accelerate realizing industrialization, urbanization, modernization. Advance this course can not break away from the situation of Inner Mongolia, especially the restraint of population, resource and environment. Furthermore, the bear of water resource is the most key link., thus, based on the water resource state of the Inner Mongolia, carry on the sustainable utilization of water resource in the pastoral area will be the important guarantee of that Inner Mongolia could realize the set objective, strengthen the sustainable development capacity in the pastoral area, get in harmony between the ecological construction with Economics and society of pastoral area, and build the new pastoral area.Based on constructing completely the Well-off society, building the era of the new pastoral area, under the lead of scientific development view, in the face of the opportunities, challenges and puzzled of socio-Economic development of pastoral area, follow and start with from ecological water, water right system, pastoral area water resources utilization thorv as develop theory, cirCulation economictheory, the changes theory of the system, relevant principies of the preperty (??) theory, in harmony between the sustainable development theory and ecological economy etc. for the support of theory, Use dynamic analysis and static analysis, real example and standardize to analyze synthetically; Expound the research meaning of water resource sustainable utilization of pastoral area: The pool in urban and rural areas develops, resole the herdsman, herd, and pastoral area, deepen the theoretical research; Review practice of water resources utilization of pastoral area: conspicuous imbalance between supply and demand of water resource, industrial water utilization ratio low, ecological construction water little, grassland water ecological environment not optimist, water pollution extend towards pastoral area, thus announce the question and puzzle; Dissect question cause from population, resource, environment: the population in the pastoral area increases comparatively fast, industrialization, urbanization development aggravate the pressure of the water resource, the industrial structure is unreasonable, extensive, the robbing type developed and utilized, the overexploitation of grassland utilizes, urged by the interests of the traditional achievements view, does not improve water price system; And then put forward mechanism and countermeasure of the water resource sustainable development in the pastoral area: reform and improve the price of water utilization, speeds up the development of water right market, change the mode of production of the traditional animal husbandry, build grassland ecology scientifically and rationally, stabilize the size of population of pastoral area, improve the herdsman culture quality, accelerate construction of new industrialization and new urbanization of pastoral area, build the pastoral area society that economize on water and defend the corrupt, improve the government’s water resource managerial ability, insist in the scientific development view and correct achievements view.

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The hot reactivity of coke, it can accurately reflect the ability of…

On 10/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The hot reactivity of coke, it can accurately reflect the ability of anti-dissolves in the blast furnace and the ability to undertake the load as the Skeleton of the stock column. Therefore improving coke quality, specially to improve it’s thermal state performance which has already becomes a hot topic in the field of ironmaking. However, at present the research mainly focus on finding out the positive and negative catalytic material to the coke, which are relatively few to the catalyzed mechanism.In this experiment, we has compared several common materials to the coke which has positive and negative catalysis effect. As a basis on this, we choose each one positive catalysis and negative catalysis material to analyze its catalytic effect’s mechanism.(1) Boric acid has the best negative catalytic effect on Coke, with the concentration increasing, it’s negative catalytic effect increased. When the boric acid solution concentration of 3%, the reactivity of coke can reduce of 5.85%, and the immersion time of boric acid solution have no any impact on the catalytic effect.(2) The calcium oxide has the positive catalysis effect to coke, but it has different impact on the reactivity with it’s different concentration. When the calcium oxide concentration is less than 1%, the reactivity has obvious change with the concentration, but when the calcium oxide concentration from 1%to 5%, the reactivity increases very much slightly, in 0.5%, and the immersion time have no any impact on the catalytic effect.(3) The reaction of coke with CO2 which not only includes the surface reaction, but also the internal reaction. In this paper, we according to different control steps to derive to the corresponding rate equation, Then bring the experimental data according to the thermal analysis into the equation, we can get under 1100℃, the controlling step of the reaction is internal proliferation. After according to the equation and the data, we can obtain the kinetic parameters of the process, namely the diffusion coefficient Dε=1.5×10-9m2/s.(4) Based on the reaction of C and CO2, we analyze the suppression Mechanism of the reaction. The boric acid contact with the carbon of the most edge’s carbon net, the atom of the boric acid will first substitute for the carbon of the most edge’s carbon net to prevent the reaction occur. Then replace the carbon of the inferior edge’s carbon net, so as to improve the coke structure and enhance it’s strength; at the same time, after the boric acid completely substitutes for the carbon of the edge’s carbon net, because of boric acid have the strong negative Electric, it can form negative ion on the surface of coke, which can prevent the formation of CO complexes and decrease the loss reaction of coke. Lead to the reactivity to drop unceasingly.(5) When add calcium oxide into, CaO combine with the activated atoms of the coke surface to generate two types of oxygen-containing intermediate product. Planar-type oxygen complexes Cf(Ca·O) and non-planar oxygen complexes C(Ca-O)Cf(Ca·O), the two kinds of complex compounds are easy to decompose, thus it has accelerated the response and play the role of positive catalysis.

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The Resistance to Tribenuron-methyl in Galium Aparine L. in Winter Wheat Fields of Northern China

On 07/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Galium aparine L. is a troublesome weed in winter wheat fields in northern China. In order to evaluate the resistance of Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl, 14 wheat field biotypes were collected from winter wheat fields of 14 counties or cities in Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, and Anhui Provinces, and 14 susceptible biotypes were correspondingly collected from the nearby non-farming lands never applied herbicides.A qualitative method in Petri dish for detection of herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl in Galium aparine L. was established, single concentration discrimination method. This method together with Petri dish resistance level bioassay, the quick detection of herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl of large population of Galium aparine L. can be achieved, which has important practical significance to herbicide resistance monitoring and to scientific and rational herbicide use.28 biotypes in all were detected for the profile of Galium aparine L. herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl, by the single concentration discrimination method greenhouse pot tests and Petri dish resistance level bioassay.Based on the work done above, the biotype with relative higher herbicide resistance was selected, and the enzymology mechanism of resistance was discussed by the research on the target enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), important plant metabolic enzyme glutathione-s-transferase (GSTs), and the protective enzyme (SOD、POD).For the sake of the rational herbicide resistance control strategy and scientific and rational herbicide use, the cross-resistance of Galium aparine L. to bensulfuron-methyl, fluroxypyr meptyl, isoproturon, thifensulfuon methyl, and 2,4-D 1-butyl ester.The results are as follows:ⅠThe single concentration discrimination method 1. Significant difference of germination rate between resistance and susceptible biotypes was obtained under the discrimination concentration, 85μg a.i./mL.2. Under the discrimination concentration, the germination rate of the susceptible biotypes was from 0 to 27.6%; except for the wheat field biotypes from the collecting sites of Tai’an, Shandong Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, with the germination rate being lower than 20%, the germination rates of all the other wheat field biotypes were above 20%, and significant difference between resistance and susceptible biotypes was obtained. The wheat field biotypes from Tai’an, Shandong province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province were primarily estimated as susceptible biotypes, all the other wheat field biotypes had developed different degree resistance to tribenuron-methyl.ⅡThe resistance level detection of Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl1. The results of greenhouse pot tests showed that except for the wheat field biotypes from the collecting sites of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, and Tai’an, Shandong Province, with a resistance factor 1.2, 1.1, 1.1, and 0.9 respectively, all the other wheat field biotypes evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl, with a resistance factor ranging from 1.6 to 4.3. The resistance was relatively higher in Henan Province. The resistance was relatively lower in Anhui, and Jiangsu Provinces than in Henan Province. The resistance factor of Shandong Province was about 2. The resistance in Shaanxi Province was low, and the resistance factors of Baoji and Huaxian were 1.7, 1.6 respectively. The wheat field biotypes collected from Hebei and Shanxi Provinces were still susceptible.2. The results of Petri dish showed that except for the wheat field biotypes from the collecting sites of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, and Tai’an, Shandong Province, with the resistance factors all being 1.0, the other wheat field biotypes had developed different degree resistance to tribenuron-methyl, with the resistance factors lower than 2, from 1.5 to 1.9, except for the biotypes from the collecting sites of Zhoukou and Xuchang of Henan Province and Zaozhuang of Shandong Province, with the resistance factors above 2, being 2.2, 2.2 and2.1 respectively. The wheat field biotypes collected from Hebei and Shanxi Provinces were still susceptible. The results of the quick-test in Petri dish are in accordance with those of greenhouse pot tests on the whole.ⅢThe resistance mechanism of Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl1. In vitro, there was no significant difference between the sensitivity of ALS from the R and S biotypes to tribenuron-methyl. The resistance to tribenuron-methyl in the resistant biotype is not due to the sensitivity of ALS. The study on Michaelis-Menten equation of ALS in vitro showed that no significant difference exists between the Km of ALS from the R and S biotypes, and no significant difference exists between the Vmax. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions showed no difference between ALS from the R and S biotypes.2. In vivo, the activity of ALS from S biotype was inhibited, while that of R biotype was high. This may be one of the reasons why Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl. The high activity of ALS from R biotype after application may be owing to the overexpression of ALS gene.3. The GSTs activity of R biotype was higher than that of S biotype on the whole. The correlation between GSTs activity and herbicide resistance indicated that the difference of metabolizable ability of GSTs to tribenuron-methyl is the other important reason of herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl.4. No significant difference existed between POD activity of both R and S biotypes, and no significant difference existed either. Oxidative stress is not related to the mode of action of tribenuron-methyl.ⅣThe cross-resistance of Galium aparine L. resistant to tribenuron-methylThe detection of cross-resistance showed that the R biotype was resistant to 2,4-D 1-butyl ester, with a resistance factor 2.5, but still was susceptible to bensulfuron-methyl, fluroxypyr meptyl, isoproturon, and thifensulfuon methyl.

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Quantum Chemical Study on Mechanism of Ribosomal Peptide Bond Formation Catalyzed by Peptidyl Transferase

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

In this work, a series of theoretical methods were employed to investigate the reaction mechanisms of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase. The thesis consists of three chapters, including (1) Basic theory and computational methods. (1) Theoretical study on mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase. (2) Theoretical study on mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase in mutation. (3) Quantum Mechanical and molecular dynamics simulations calculations on other possible mechanisms of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase.In th first chapter, Ab initio methods , density functional theory and transition state theory were briefly introduced.For the studies described in the second chapter, reaction pathways and free energy barriers for the model reaction of the peptide bond synthesis were studied by performing Ab initio calculation. Two self-consistent reaction field(SCRF) methods were used to calculate of the whole reaction pathway. These results indicate that the free energy barry of the rate-determining step in our model is lower than the free energy barry of the rate-determining step in Merz’s model, these show that the present theoretical reaction mechanism is a potential and competitive one for the reaction modeling of the ribosomal peptide synthesis.In the third chapter, first-principles electronic structure calculations were performer to study the reaction mechanisms of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by 9-methyl Guanine or 1-methyl Uracil instead of Adenine. These results indicate that substrate position is important.In the last chapter, molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Mechanical were performed to study the other possible mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase. These results indicate our model is a potential and competitive one for reaction modeling for the ribosomal peptide synthesis.

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The Experiments on Self-worth and Goal Orientation

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Self-worth/esteem is a multi-dimensional and multi-level psychological structure, which could reflect how people like and view themselves and how people are regarded by others indirectly. To study self-worth/esteem is rather valueable both theoretically and practically. Goal, cognitive representations of desired or undesired end states that serve as standards for guiding behavior, affects the process of achieving end states, the alternatives considered for a choice, and evaluations of alternatives. Higgins identifies two distinct goal orientations: promotion-focused orientation and prevention-focused orientation. The promotion goal orientation can be described along these characteristics: the needs that individuals seek to develop, to succeed, and to achieve ideal self. Promotion goal orientation can be reflected in an individual’s hopes and aspirations. In contrast, the prevention orientation can be defined as follows: it is the goal with the needs for safety, security, and the needs to achieve ought self, and can be reflected in duties and obligations. This research aims to study the relationship between self-worth/esteem and goal orientation, and tries to explain how the self-worth/esteem activates different goal orientations.This study is comprised of two experiments. A scale of Chinese Students’ Self-worth (Huang, Yang, 1999) was administered to screen out 61 participants (30 with high score and 31 with low score). The hypothesis of experiment 1 is: individuals with high self-worth should be more likely to choose promotion goal orientation; in contrast, individuals with low self-worth should be more likely to choose prevention goal orientation. Participants are given the task of choosing a risk assignment–a task conceptually similar to the one used by Lee, Aaker & Gardner (2004). The results agree with the hypotheses. The hypothesis of experiment 2 is: each individual have a “decision threshold” to evaluate the risk of choice. When the risk is higher

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Study on the Establishment and Operation Mode of Real Estate Investment Trusts in China

On 02/10/2014, in Finance, by rain

Real Estate Investment Trusts is a new trust system, and it collects funds for realestate Management from not-specific investors or specific investors meeting legalnumberhen specific institutions are responsible for the Management of the funds, andallocate the final interests to the investors.Real Estate Investment Trusts originated from the United States, which isdeveloped on the aspects of the organizational structure, Investment scope, incomedistribution, supervision, management and so on. In the United States, Real EstateInvestment Trusts is an important investment tool. Germany, France, Japan, Singapore,Hong Kong and other countries learn from the United States about the Real EstateInvestment Trusts on the combination of their own to establish distinctive Real EstateInvestment Trusts Systems. They provide us valuable experience for the development ofReal Estate Investment Trusts.With the constant development of Chinese real estate market, simply bank capitalcan not meet the long-term financing needs of enterprises, and many small investorshave strong demands for lucrative real estate investment. Thus the establishment of RealEstate Investment Trusts can improve the real estate capital market, achieve a virtuouscircle of real estate funds. Based on the increasingly standardized development of thetrust industry, the gradual mature of the real estate market, the becoming of theinvestors and the perfection of relative legal systems, China has basically had theenvironment for the development of Real Estate Investment Trusts. In recent years,there have been some cases of Real Estate Investment Trusts in China, but comparedwith typical mode, Real Estate Investment Trusts in China have many differences in thepurpose of practitioner, requirements, investment returns, quantitative restrictions, taxincentives, investment risk and so on.By comparing the various foreign Real Estate Investment Trusts modes, accordingto the actual situation of China, it should take company and contract closed, equity andlisting type, the main external management and internal management auxiliary mode,adapting three release mechanism including the termination of failure, automatictermination and bankruptcy. Real Estate Investment Trusts in China has many defectsincluding little liquid; high risk, low interest rate; shortages of professionals; policies and regulations need to be improved; low information disclosure requirements; the lackof specialized regulatory agencies, etc.. So we need to solve the problems in some areasto improve Chinese Real Estate Investment Trust mode. In the Real Estate InvestmentTrusts risk control, macro, we should take steps in three stages of investmentdecision-making, investment management and investment exit; micro, we shouldestablish internal control mechanisms following the principles of effectiveness,prudence, comprehensiveness, timeliness and independence.

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The Mechanism and Empirical Analysis of China’s Foreign Trade Development Mode Changing Promoted by Trade in Service

On 02/10/2014, in Trade, by rain

Since the reform and opening up, China’s foreign trade has made a strikingsuccess during the past three decades. In1978, the total number of China’s foreigntrade is only about$20billion in the world, ranked only No.32, and by2010China’sforeign trade import and export value is nearly$3trillion, ranked the second largesttrading nation. Although China’s trade volume in a very short period of time has beena rapid increase, but the traditional development mode of foreign trade has been”focusing on size, but ignoring quality,”” focusing on surplus, but ignoringstructure”,” focusing on goods trade, but ignoring service in trade “, etc. extensive,not the concept of sustainable development led to the development of China’s foreigntrade has brought many problems, China’s foreign trade development mode needs tochange. The world’s major developed countries will trade in services as a new impetusto the development of foreign trade, foreign trade for its own development hasinjected new vitality. Other countries learn from the successful development offoreign trade experience, our government proposes to unswervingly develop trade inservices, trade in services through the promotion of China’s foreign trade developmentmode transformation.In this paper, the use of sustainable development theory, theory of competitiveadvantage and new Economic growth theory for the transformation of foreign tradedevelopment mode to build a theoretical foundation, and then shows how trade inservices through the promotion of foreign trade, Economic, Social and environmentalbenefits to improve trade efficiency, through optimize the trade of industrial base anddevelop new trade competitiveness, reduce the proportion of trade in goods tooptimize the overall structure of foreign trade, by accelerating the accumulation ofknowledge, promote innovation, improve the people to the capital stock of foreigntrade to improve the technological content of products to promote foreign tradedevelopment mode change. Furthermore, the author from the reality of China, showsthat the current development of China’s current foreign trade exists in the way of lightweight scale efficiency, light weight trade in goods and services trade, but the numberof re-exports uncompetitive and other issues. In addition, this paper build China’sforeign trade development mode shift goals, and shows that China’s foreign tradedevelopment mode transformation of the current, detailed analysis of trade in servicesis how to promote China’s foreign trade development mode change. Next, the authors use data from China’s actual econometric model built from three aspects, analysis oftrade in services has changed the role of China’s foreign trade development mode.Finally, the conclusions for the future better for the Chinese trade in services throughthe promotion of foreign trade development mode to provide countermeasures.The empirical results show that foreign trade in services by improving theeconomic, Social and Environmental benefits can be very good to enhance the overalleffectiveness of the promotion of foreign trade, especially the production of foreigntrade in services to enhance the overall effectiveness of the effect is remarkable.Development of trade in services can effectively promote China’s overall tradestructure optimization. Four forms of trade in services to improve the technologicalcontent of export products, develop corporate brand, enhance the competitiveness of astrong role in promoting. Therefore, continue to develop trade in services, whileensuring China’s foreign trade under the premise of comparative advantage to developa dynamic competitive advantages of foreign trade, trade in services and to strengthenthe linkage role of trade in goods, trade in services to promote trade in goods throughthe development and, ultimately, China’s foreign trade development mode change.

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Visitors’ Low-carbon Tourism Traffic Behavior and Its Mechanism

On 25/09/2013, in Tourism, by rain

Nowadays, low-carbon development has become the commonsubject throughout the world, and the way of sustainable development ineach region and industry. Under the background of more and moreexhausted resources and serious Environmental pollution in the global,tourism industry is not thought as “smokeless industry”, but the pioneerof ecological destruction and the major energy consumption.Hence,low-carbon in the tourism industry is extremely important. In tourismindustry, Tourism transportation takes a larger proportion on energyconsumption and carbon emissions, hence, it’s useful for tourism industryto reduce tourist traffic energy consumption and carbon emissions.With the low-carbon development of the tourism transportation,the objective aspect such as energy-saving technology is required toresearch and improve; as well as individual subjective initiative,in otherwords, visitors should also make efforts in the tourist traffic forlow-carbon tourism development. With an in-depth study on currenttourism low-carbon development; related behavior theory such asplanned behavior theory,the KAP behavior theory are analyzed;,psychological variables that may affect low-carbon tourism behavior ofvisitors are summed up, then, the extended KAP behavior theory model isestablished.Preliminary questionnaire is designed on the base of the theory aboutmodel construction and then formal questionnaire is established afterexploratory analysis of the pilot survey data. Structural equationmodeling analysis and correlation analysis, regression analysis are used to deal with formal survey data to verify the relevance and the significantlevels between psychological variables and low-carbon tourism trafficbehavior, and to reveal the mechanism of the transport behavior oflow-carbon tourism.The analysis shows that: low-carbon tourism traffic behavior isaffected by five factors: low-carbon tourism traffic knowledge,low-carbon tourism traffic preferences, low-carbon tourism trafficemotions, sense of Social responsibility, and individualeffectiveness.Each of these factors has different impact on thelow-carbon tourism traffic behavior. Low-carbon tourism traffic emotions,low carbon tourism knowledge have significant effect on low-carbontourism behavior while low-carbon tourism traffic perception andindividual effectiveness’ impact on the low-carbon tourism trafficbehavior is not significant. Overall, the theoretical model of expansionthe KAP behavior can effectively explain the mechanism of low-carbontourism traffic behavior.

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A Study of Internal Auditing Management of X Telecom Service Company

On 25/09/2013, in Management, by rain

Since the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) promulgated the new definition ofinternal auditing and Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing,internal auditing has been combined with corporate governance organically,coming toconsistency with corporate strategy.Transaction-based internal auditing andsystem-based internal auditing have been replaced by modern risk-orientedauditing.With the internal audition’s developing to risk-oriented level,thedevelopment of auditing in the field of activity can be reflected in the methods,techniques as well as standards.However,there is few research which regards internalauditing as a collective work and studies on its organization and control. Taking thesignificance of internal auditing for guaranteeing companies’ business goals intoaccount,it is of great importance for companies to manage the collective work:internal auditing.This essay takes X Telecom Service Company as study object, starting from thestatus of the development of internal audit and internal audit Management,entrustedwith the Economic responsibility of internal audit and system theory-based,from themanagement of internal audit,internal audit Management and internal audit the workprogram Management system to analyze the problems of internal auditingmanagement of X Telecom Service Company.Finally,against the problems of thesethree areas,this report encourages a reasonable set of the internal audit,diversifiedaudit content,expansion of internal audit rights, improvement of internal auditpersonnel access mechanism, the implementation of job rotation system,enhancementof the internal audit staff continuing Education,improvement of staff assessmentmethods to keep the project independence,strengthen the process of quality reviewand the introduction of the follow-up audit to solve the problems of X TelecomServices Company internal auditing management.I hope to provide a reference for themanagement of the company’s internal audit.

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