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Synthesis and Mechanism of Pyrochlore-type H2W2O7 Microstructures Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

On 07/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Pyrochlore-type H2W2O7 not only could be used as the former body of WO3, but itself has wide application prospect and popularization value with the special reticular formation and metastability. The researches on H2W2O7 are still at starting stage at present and commercial production is difficult to realize. The hydrothermal method is hopeful to solve the problem, but it’s limited by the complex construction of the hydrothermal system with sodium tungstate solution. Therefore, intensification of the precipitation process aiming to prepare high quality powders of H2W2O7 and increase precipitation yield holds outstanding significance and applying prospect.From the point of view of increasing precipitation yield, the influence of additive species, acidity of the solution and temperature on the precipitation are investigated in detail, and some kinds of organic additives are studied principally. Meanwhile, the product feature and some related influencing factors are analyzed, and preliminary explanation about the mechanism of hydrothermal synthesis of H2W2O7 is presented.The results indicate that the suitable pH range of solution for preparing H2W2O7 could be extended to 3.5-8.9, and the highest precipitation rate could reach 99%. The pH value and stability of sodium tungstate solution significantly affect the reaction rate and morphology of powders, and various additives can create quite different pH environment of the hydrothermal system, which is the key influence of all the factors. The addition of reactants and temperature mainly affect the reaction rate, and the molar ratio of H+ to WO42- has more possibility to be 2. The higher of the pH, the purer the powders of H2W2O7, and there are scarcely any impurities when pH of the solution is higher than 7.0. The powders (generally less than 0.5μm) agglomerate readily, but the agglomerates could be eliminated to some degree by ultrasonic vibration. The precursor of H2W2O7 has been approximately confirmed as W2O72-, and the multicomponent ionic balance in sodium tungstate solution under neutral or weak alkaline environment have been discussed, both of which help to determine the mechanism of hydrothermal synthesis of H2W2O7.

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Researches on the Mechanism and Revelation of Chinese Archaic Country Inspection

On 06/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

In this paper the county administration inspection is studied from the historical angle. It aims to make clear the evolving process of Chinese archaic county administration inspection. By analyzing the alternate of past dynasties, the role of archaic county administration inspection is discussed and mechanism of archaic county administration inspection is analyzed. Finally, according to the actualities of Chinese county administration inspection, the experiences and lessons of archaic county administration inspection are summarized and then provided for promoting the development of current county administration inspection in China.The study is very important in the theory and practice. Studying the archaic county administration inspection can offset the study content of county administration inspection. The county administration is the center of state administration and the county administration inspection is also an important part of administration inspection system. However the references about our state county administration inspection are very limited. On the other hand the study of the archaic county administration inspection can provide references for current county administration inspection and accelerate the development of current county administration. During the past few years with the development of regional government system reformation, for example county is changed into city and so on, the roles of county administration become more and more important and then the roles of county administration inspection also become more and more important. Valid county administration inspection system can validly supervise the government and can make the regional government become more democratic, more efficient and more uncorrupted.The normative method and case analyzing method are adopted in this dissertation. At the same time, the four mechanism of archaic county administration inspection are studied: inspection system, inspection method, inspection principle, inspection function. The major innovations of this paper are as follows: Based on the evolving process of Chinese archaic county administration inspection and the four mechanism, the experiences and lessons are summarized.The research indicates that archaic county administration inspection is the base andportion of archaic bureaucrat polity. Therefore the experiences and lessons can provide beneficial revelation for current county administration inspection in china.

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Study on Hypoglycemic Function of Momordica Charantia L. Bleeding Sap and Its Mechanism

On 05/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Momordica charantia L. has the Medical and edible value, which is widely used in the treatment of diabetes in Asia. The previous researches on the bioactivities of Momordica charantia L. were only focus on the extraction and bioactivity such as Momordica charantia L. fruit and seed, while neglecting the research of Momordica charantia L.bleeding sap. Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap refers to the sap collected from the cut stem of Momordica charantia L.. Since it is collected after the harvest of Momordica charantia L., it can be an excellent way to make full use of the resources.Based on Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and Momordica charantia L. fruit juice as raw materials, the research adopts freeze-drying technology to make Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and Momordica charantia L. fruit juice into powder. Then the composition of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and its antioxidant activity, hypoglycemic activity, and hypoglycemic mechanism are studied. The main contents and results are presented as follows:(1) The chemical analysis is carried out to analyze the composition of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap, and ICP-AES is applied to the determination of some mineral element content. The results show that in the bleeding sap, soluble solid concentration is 1.9~2.2%o, protein, sugar, phenols are detected; major elements such as K, Ca and trace elements such as Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Se are also detected.(2) Use antioxidant model in vitro to make a research to the antioxidant activity of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and Momordica charantia L. fruit juice. The results show that:at the respective concentration of 20 mg/mL and 1.6 mg/mL of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and Momordica charantia L. fruit juice, the ability to scavenging the DPPH-is similar to Vc of 0.02 mg/mL; the chelating capacity for ferrous irons is similar to 0.05 mg/mL EDTA-Na2 when the Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap concentration at 10 mg/mL, but Momordica charantia L. fruit juice has no significant effect on the system; at the respective concentration of 20 mg/mL and 15 mg/mL of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and Momordica charantia L. fruit juice, inhibition capacity to AGEs are 44.55% and 49.07%.(3) Establish STZ diabetic mice model and make a comparison research on the the hypoglycemic activity between bleeding sap and fruit juice. The dates demonstrate that both Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap and Momordica charantia L.fruit juice could reduce the levels of blood glucose in diabetic mice, and they have no significant difference between each other. The effect of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap at 450 mg/kg doses of hypoglycemic is better than that of 900 mg/kg.(4) Adopt STZ diabetic mice to study the hypoglycemic mechanism of Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap. The results show that bleeding sap could significantly reduce the levels of blood-fat in diabetic mice, with an increase in hepatic glycogen and insulin content. The pathological sections show Momordica charantia L. bleeding sap could improve the function of pancreas islet tissues, and accelerate the renovation of pancreaticβcells in diabetic mice. The results indicate that bleeding sap can accelerate the repair of pancreatic inletβcells injured by streptozotocin, stimulate the secretion of insulin, increase the synthesis of liver glycogen and regulate blood lipid metabolism so as to reduce blood glucose level of the diabetic mice.(5) Use insulinβcells to study the repairing effect of bleeding sap and test the hypoglycemic mechanism of bleeding sap. The results show that:when 1.5 mmol/L STZ acting inβcells, cells security rate is 75.89%; when the damaged cells are repaired by bleeding sap, the security rate rose significantly; at the concentration of 0.112 mg/mL, the security rate is 95.20%, and the insulin secretion is equivalent to normal group. This result further indicates the hypoglycemic mechanism of bleeding sap is related to the renovation of insulinβcells and the stimulation of insulin secretion.

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The Mechanism of Streptomyces R15 and Purification, Properties of β-Glucosidase

On 30/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

There were many specieses of beneficial microorganism in soil, the actinomyces accounted for big scale in the beneficial microorganism. Many of them could produce inhibitor substances, such as antibiotics, beta-1, 3-glucanases, beta-glucosidase, beta-1, 6-glucanases etc. The actinomyces and its metabolites were a species of microorganism with tremendous utilization value. They were of great benefits to environment and economy which could bear dry and heat, be easy to large-scale commercialized production. Some plant diseases caused by Oomycetes on severity has increased yearly and caused significant Economic loss because the planting system had been adjusted and the agriculture condition had been changed. The environment pollution caused by chemical control and the fungicide resistance increasing have been paid more and more attention. It is necessary to screen and utilize the antifungal to control the plant disease. The cell walls of Oomycetes were mainly made up of cellulose. It is feasible to control the disease caused by Oomycetes by using the cellulose which were produced by beneficial microorganism. Many microorganism could produce cellulose, but the contents and enzyme activity of beta- glucosidase were relative too low which could restrict the efficiency of cellulose degradation and control effect. In this paper, in order to provide theoretic basis of exploiting, utilizing and providing the brand-new biological fungicides, the separation, purification and properties of beta-glucosidase produced by R15 and the mechanism were systemic studied.The identification of species R45 of antifungal Streptomyces , inhibitory spectrums, inhibition mechanism, the allelopathy of metabolite on three different crops, the purification, properties of the inhibitor substance (beta-glucosidase) were comprehensively, systemically studied.1. By observation of the morphological character, cultivation properties, measurement of the biochemical features, the results showed that the substrate

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Mechanism Analysis and Characteristic Research on Split Hybrid Air Conditioner for Cool Storage

On 28/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

This paper can synthesize the technology to do thoroughly in the split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage . After carrying on the thermal energy analysis to its circulation, it proposes principle of work about the new hybrid air conditioner with energy storage.Study of ESWAC is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The main work of this paper can be summarized as following:1 .Thermal-analysis for realization process of all functions for ESWAC is done, the results show that super cooling degree discharging-cooling increases cooling capacity, moreover, theory maximum of cooling capacity for using super cooling degree discharging-cooling to increase cooling capacity based on refrigerant R22 and its replacer R410A, R407C has been forecasted, which shows that R410A and R407C are better than R22.2. Based on the analysis of heat and quality transfer for storage tank and integrated with trait of storage tank design and refrigerant distribution, charging and discharging model of storage tank for ESWAC has been built. Calculation results indicate that during charging period, increasing refrigerant quality has little effect on charging performance as long as refrigerant quality makes that outlet refrigerant of storage coils meets some superheat temperature. The analysis of refrigerant distribution in the storage coils during charging and discharging period shows that refrigerant in coils during discharging period is 4 to that during charging period, which makes it necessary to adjust refrigerant flux under different functions for ESWAC. To solve above problem, fills up the quantity based on the split air-conditioner refrigerant to have the certain limit the characteristic, special design for storage tank instead of adding accumulator to adjust refrigerant quality is brought forward for the first time.

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Research on the Inheritance Mechanism and Educational Significance of the Yi “Kezhi”

On 21/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

As a verbal duel, Kezhi is not only a kind of verbal behavior and the art of dialogue, but also a way of communication and inheritance, through which the Yi people learn about their tradition, learn knowledge, think rationally and understand history. As a way of inheritance, Kezhi is still of strong vitality in the Liangshan Yi area. It is characterized by “poeticity”, which is the same as the verbal duel tradition of the ancient Greek. The paper proposes the necessity of studying Kezhi’s unique inheritance approach. Meanwhile, the study which relates to Kezhi and orality has been sorted and evaluated.The paper introduces the background of Kezhi inheritance which includes natural environment and Social structure, from which we can know that the Kezhi’s unique way of inheritance links closely with its dissemination’s context. Though tracing the beginning of human orality and the origin of Kezhi, the paper decrypts the entire process of the Kezhi performance. After describing the process of Kezhi performance, the paper has also analysed the temperament characteristics of the Kezhi.The paper tries to analyse the Kezhi’s inheritance mechanism so as to probe a new theoretical interpretation concerning the folk oral inheritance approach and the way of thinking behind it.It has done an in-depth analysis of the inheritance mechanism behind the Kezhi, especially of the poetic-thinking revealled in the process of verbal duel.After looking back at the history of orality and literacy, the author unfolds the relationship between orality and literacy a process from association to break and finally ended with integration. In the paper, orality is thought as an inherited ability of humans and an indispensable part of human structure, just like our hands. All these have decided that primary orality will not be substituted by literacy rapidly. The author tries to convince that the “current” way people used to treat oral inheritance is improper Orality is of long history. It is a kind of innate ability of humans. Its value or position is equal to literacy. Orality is not only the premise but also the “destination” of literacy The relationship between orality and school Education is not like fire and water, but symbiotic. From the perspective of orality, Education owns many orality characteristics.The paper also illustrates the educational implication behind Kezhi inheritance. Although written text is invented, instead of disappearing, orality still coexists with writing, which demonstrates the Education significance. Kezhi inheritance owns “presence” “dialogs” and”poeticity”education significance. It utilizes the things around to compose dialogs and train logical thinking. In the end, the author analyzes the enlightenment that Kezhi inheritance brings to our education:1) changing our mind and treating oral culture in a proper attitude; 2) creating a good educational environment; 3) adjusting the teaching content in minority schools; 4) improving teaching’s methods.

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Alliance has remained one of the central topics in International Rel…

On 21/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Alliance has remained one of the central topics in International Relations students for years. Existing theoretical discussions tend to focus on alliance formation and the relationship between alliance and war, and much less attention has been paid to alliance maintenance. This article seeks to reveal the central mechanism of alliance Management. We argue that mutual binding (or constraining) is the central mechanism of alliance maintenance. And power balance and the match of intentions among allies within an alliance determine the mutual constraint of the alliance, and thereby the alliance maintenance. By the two variables, we can divide alliances into different types, basically defensive vs. offensive alliance and symmetric vs. asymmetric alliance. And each type of alliance has its own interactive dynamics. In conclusion, in a symmetric alliance, if allies have similar intentions, mutual binding is unproblematic and alliance maintenance is relatively easy; otherwise, it is hard to sustain. In contrast, in an asymmetric alliance, most type of alliances are high likely to be maintained, except the asymmetric alliance type B (stronger state=defensive realist state; weaker state=offensive realist state). We test our theory with the cases of Franco-Russian alliance, Sino-Soviet alliance and US-Japan alliance.

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A Comparative Study of Supervision Mechanism of Parties out of Power in the U.K., U.S.A., France

On 02/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The modern history of western countries is a history of governments change and the rise or fall of political parties. The parties out of power, as an important political force, exist objectively and play unique roles in the political arena of western developed countries. With the evolution of western political parties, the supervision system of parties out of power, as an integral part of the institution of political parties, tend to be mature and become one of the characteristics of the institution of political parties in western capitalist countries, play a unique role. In which, the supervision institutions of the parties out of power of the U.K., U.S.A., France are the most typical ones.The thesis starts with defining the meaning of parties out of power, analyses the theoretical basis of the establishment of parties out of power supervision system in western countries, and sums up the general supervision mechanism of it. Then, from the content of “mechanism”, around perspective on the structure (organizational structure of political parties and powers composition), function (supervision characteristics, methods, etc.) as well as the relationship (the interaction between the power and authority or power and authority agencies in the specific operation), make a systematic comparative study of supervision mechanism of parties out of power in the U.K., U.S.A. and France. Finally, make preliminary analysis of the causes of the similarities and differences of supervision mechanism of parties out of power in the U.K., U.S.A. and France, and pose the challenges that the supervision and operating mechanism of western parties out of power now face and the enlightenment to the political development of our country.

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Studies on Monitoring and Mechanism of Cyfluthrin Resistance in Pieris Rapae

On 26/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Pieris rapae is a worldwide distributed polyphagous pest on various cultivated crops, including vegetables, cotton, fruittrees, ornamentals, and so on. In past two decades Pieris rapae has emerged as a serious pest in many countries. Resistance to 10 insecticides in five field populations of Pieris rapae, was evaluated in laboratory.Reistance to cyhalothrin is the most.Biochemical mechanism of resistance in Pieris rapae, to cyhalothrin has been investigated by enzyme synergists (PBO, SV1, DEF and DEM) and enzyme activities assays of esterase, glutathione S-transferase and microsomal O-demethylase. The synergism ratios of PBO, SV1,, DEF and DEM to cyhalothrin were 1.3, 1.6, 1.1 and 1.5 folds in susceptible strain, respectively; 47.0, 29.0, 7.1and 5.9-fold in resistant strain, respectively. Ratios between resistant and susceptible strain were 36.2, 18.1, 6.5 and 4.0 folds, respectively. The result shows that synergism to cyhalothrin by PBO was the most distinct. This implied that mixed-function oxidase was involved in the resistance to cyhalothrin. Synergism to cyhalothrin by DEF and DEM was not much significant. The ratios of enzymatic activity of esterase, glutathione S-transferase in susceptible and resistant strains were 1.08, 1.14, respectively, no significant difference. All these indicated that detoxification enzymes such as esterase, glutathione S-transferase contributed little to the resistance of pieris rapae to cyhalothrin.

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The Discussion about the Well-run Mechanism of the Government Authority

On 26/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The government authority and other authorities have equally the possibility that abuse. In present stage of our country, large quantity phenomenons of the not positive movement in power in government exist. Therefore, a set of valid run mechanism of governments’authority should be established. It is essential to guarantee well-run of the government authority.The article divides into three parts:The first part elaborated the government authority and the connotation and significance of well-run of the government authority.The government power is the national right of manage that government agency is to complete its mission and implement the job. The positive movement in power in government is a government agency within the scope of the law clearly show authorizes or negative tacit consent of according purpose, spirit with fair and reasonable principle, according to effective demand with concrete circumstance, judgment, choice, decision administration behavior method with contents. Return to benefit to the government with all strength with the coordination of the citizen power.The second part analyzes the present condition in the run of government power in our country.Through long-term developments and building, the country has formed the central government power circulates system leading by the party with the people represent conference system as center. But in practice, a lot of not positive phenomenon still exits in power in government.The third part puts forward the measures of the positive movement of government power mechanism.Perfect the mechanism of democratic election. Make governmental affairs opens. Norm the procedure of power exercises. Establish the valid supervised mechanism. Further change government function, reform the government organization, and increase the public official’s quality.

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