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The hot reactivity of coke, it can accurately reflect the ability of…

On 10/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The hot reactivity of coke, it can accurately reflect the ability of anti-dissolves in the blast furnace and the ability to undertake the load as the Skeleton of the stock column. Therefore improving coke quality, specially to improve it’s thermal state performance which has already becomes a hot topic in the field of ironmaking. However, at present the research mainly focus on finding out the positive and negative catalytic material to the coke, which are relatively few to the catalyzed mechanism.In this experiment, we has compared several common materials to the coke which has positive and negative catalysis effect. As a basis on this, we choose each one positive catalysis and negative catalysis material to analyze its catalytic effect’s mechanism.(1) Boric acid has the best negative catalytic effect on Coke, with the concentration increasing, it’s negative catalytic effect increased. When the boric acid solution concentration of 3%, the reactivity of coke can reduce of 5.85%, and the immersion time of boric acid solution have no any impact on the catalytic effect.(2) The calcium oxide has the positive catalysis effect to coke, but it has different impact on the reactivity with it’s different concentration. When the calcium oxide concentration is less than 1%, the reactivity has obvious change with the concentration, but when the calcium oxide concentration from 1%to 5%, the reactivity increases very much slightly, in 0.5%, and the immersion time have no any impact on the catalytic effect.(3) The reaction of coke with CO2 which not only includes the surface reaction, but also the internal reaction. In this paper, we according to different control steps to derive to the corresponding rate equation, Then bring the experimental data according to the thermal analysis into the equation, we can get under 1100℃, the controlling step of the reaction is internal proliferation. After according to the equation and the data, we can obtain the kinetic parameters of the process, namely the diffusion coefficient Dε=1.5×10-9m2/s.(4) Based on the reaction of C and CO2, we analyze the suppression Mechanism of the reaction. The boric acid contact with the carbon of the most edge’s carbon net, the atom of the boric acid will first substitute for the carbon of the most edge’s carbon net to prevent the reaction occur. Then replace the carbon of the inferior edge’s carbon net, so as to improve the coke structure and enhance it’s strength; at the same time, after the boric acid completely substitutes for the carbon of the edge’s carbon net, because of boric acid have the strong negative Electric, it can form negative ion on the surface of coke, which can prevent the formation of CO complexes and decrease the loss reaction of coke. Lead to the reactivity to drop unceasingly.(5) When add calcium oxide into, CaO combine with the activated atoms of the coke surface to generate two types of oxygen-containing intermediate product. Planar-type oxygen complexes Cf(Ca·O) and non-planar oxygen complexes C(Ca-O)Cf(Ca·O), the two kinds of complex compounds are easy to decompose, thus it has accelerated the response and play the role of positive catalysis.

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The Resistance to Tribenuron-methyl in Galium Aparine L. in Winter Wheat Fields of Northern China

On 07/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Galium aparine L. is a troublesome weed in winter wheat fields in northern China. In order to evaluate the resistance of Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl, 14 wheat field biotypes were collected from winter wheat fields of 14 counties or cities in Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, and Anhui Provinces, and 14 susceptible biotypes were correspondingly collected from the nearby non-farming lands never applied herbicides.A qualitative method in Petri dish for detection of herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl in Galium aparine L. was established, single concentration discrimination method. This method together with Petri dish resistance level bioassay, the quick detection of herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl of large population of Galium aparine L. can be achieved, which has important practical significance to herbicide resistance monitoring and to scientific and rational herbicide use.28 biotypes in all were detected for the profile of Galium aparine L. herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl, by the single concentration discrimination method greenhouse pot tests and Petri dish resistance level bioassay.Based on the work done above, the biotype with relative higher herbicide resistance was selected, and the enzymology mechanism of resistance was discussed by the research on the target enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS), important plant metabolic enzyme glutathione-s-transferase (GSTs), and the protective enzyme (SOD、POD).For the sake of the rational herbicide resistance control strategy and scientific and rational herbicide use, the cross-resistance of Galium aparine L. to bensulfuron-methyl, fluroxypyr meptyl, isoproturon, thifensulfuon methyl, and 2,4-D 1-butyl ester.The results are as follows:ⅠThe single concentration discrimination method 1. Significant difference of germination rate between resistance and susceptible biotypes was obtained under the discrimination concentration, 85μg a.i./mL.2. Under the discrimination concentration, the germination rate of the susceptible biotypes was from 0 to 27.6%; except for the wheat field biotypes from the collecting sites of Tai’an, Shandong Province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, with the germination rate being lower than 20%, the germination rates of all the other wheat field biotypes were above 20%, and significant difference between resistance and susceptible biotypes was obtained. The wheat field biotypes from Tai’an, Shandong province, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, and Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province were primarily estimated as susceptible biotypes, all the other wheat field biotypes had developed different degree resistance to tribenuron-methyl.ⅡThe resistance level detection of Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl1. The results of greenhouse pot tests showed that except for the wheat field biotypes from the collecting sites of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, and Tai’an, Shandong Province, with a resistance factor 1.2, 1.1, 1.1, and 0.9 respectively, all the other wheat field biotypes evolved resistance to tribenuron-methyl, with a resistance factor ranging from 1.6 to 4.3. The resistance was relatively higher in Henan Province. The resistance was relatively lower in Anhui, and Jiangsu Provinces than in Henan Province. The resistance factor of Shandong Province was about 2. The resistance in Shaanxi Province was low, and the resistance factors of Baoji and Huaxian were 1.7, 1.6 respectively. The wheat field biotypes collected from Hebei and Shanxi Provinces were still susceptible.2. The results of Petri dish showed that except for the wheat field biotypes from the collecting sites of Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, Zhouzhi, Shaanxi Province, and Tai’an, Shandong Province, with the resistance factors all being 1.0, the other wheat field biotypes had developed different degree resistance to tribenuron-methyl, with the resistance factors lower than 2, from 1.5 to 1.9, except for the biotypes from the collecting sites of Zhoukou and Xuchang of Henan Province and Zaozhuang of Shandong Province, with the resistance factors above 2, being 2.2, 2.2 and2.1 respectively. The wheat field biotypes collected from Hebei and Shanxi Provinces were still susceptible. The results of the quick-test in Petri dish are in accordance with those of greenhouse pot tests on the whole.ⅢThe resistance mechanism of Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl1. In vitro, there was no significant difference between the sensitivity of ALS from the R and S biotypes to tribenuron-methyl. The resistance to tribenuron-methyl in the resistant biotype is not due to the sensitivity of ALS. The study on Michaelis-Menten equation of ALS in vitro showed that no significant difference exists between the Km of ALS from the R and S biotypes, and no significant difference exists between the Vmax. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions showed no difference between ALS from the R and S biotypes.2. In vivo, the activity of ALS from S biotype was inhibited, while that of R biotype was high. This may be one of the reasons why Galium aparine L. to tribenuron-methyl. The high activity of ALS from R biotype after application may be owing to the overexpression of ALS gene.3. The GSTs activity of R biotype was higher than that of S biotype on the whole. The correlation between GSTs activity and herbicide resistance indicated that the difference of metabolizable ability of GSTs to tribenuron-methyl is the other important reason of herbicide resistance to tribenuron-methyl.4. No significant difference existed between POD activity of both R and S biotypes, and no significant difference existed either. Oxidative stress is not related to the mode of action of tribenuron-methyl.ⅣThe cross-resistance of Galium aparine L. resistant to tribenuron-methylThe detection of cross-resistance showed that the R biotype was resistant to 2,4-D 1-butyl ester, with a resistance factor 2.5, but still was susceptible to bensulfuron-methyl, fluroxypyr meptyl, isoproturon, and thifensulfuon methyl.

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Quantum Chemical Study on Mechanism of Ribosomal Peptide Bond Formation Catalyzed by Peptidyl Transferase

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

In this work, a series of theoretical methods were employed to investigate the reaction mechanisms of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase. The thesis consists of three chapters, including (1) Basic theory and computational methods. (1) Theoretical study on mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase. (2) Theoretical study on mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase in mutation. (3) Quantum Mechanical and molecular dynamics simulations calculations on other possible mechanisms of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase.In th first chapter, Ab initio methods , density functional theory and transition state theory were briefly introduced.For the studies described in the second chapter, reaction pathways and free energy barriers for the model reaction of the peptide bond synthesis were studied by performing Ab initio calculation. Two self-consistent reaction field(SCRF) methods were used to calculate of the whole reaction pathway. These results indicate that the free energy barry of the rate-determining step in our model is lower than the free energy barry of the rate-determining step in Merz’s model, these show that the present theoretical reaction mechanism is a potential and competitive one for the reaction modeling of the ribosomal peptide synthesis.In the third chapter, first-principles electronic structure calculations were performer to study the reaction mechanisms of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by 9-methyl Guanine or 1-methyl Uracil instead of Adenine. These results indicate that substrate position is important.In the last chapter, molecular dynamics simulations and quantum Mechanical were performed to study the other possible mechanism of ribosomal peptide bond formation catalyzed by peptidyl transferase. These results indicate our model is a potential and competitive one for reaction modeling for the ribosomal peptide synthesis.

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The Experiments on Self-worth and Goal Orientation

On 06/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Self-worth/esteem is a multi-dimensional and multi-level psychological structure, which could reflect how people like and view themselves and how people are regarded by others indirectly. To study self-worth/esteem is rather valueable both theoretically and practically. Goal, cognitive representations of desired or undesired end states that serve as standards for guiding behavior, affects the process of achieving end states, the alternatives considered for a choice, and evaluations of alternatives. Higgins identifies two distinct goal orientations: promotion-focused orientation and prevention-focused orientation. The promotion goal orientation can be described along these characteristics: the needs that individuals seek to develop, to succeed, and to achieve ideal self. Promotion goal orientation can be reflected in an individual’s hopes and aspirations. In contrast, the prevention orientation can be defined as follows: it is the goal with the needs for safety, security, and the needs to achieve ought self, and can be reflected in duties and obligations. This research aims to study the relationship between self-worth/esteem and goal orientation, and tries to explain how the self-worth/esteem activates different goal orientations.This study is comprised of two experiments. A scale of Chinese Students’ Self-worth (Huang, Yang, 1999) was administered to screen out 61 participants (30 with high score and 31 with low score). The hypothesis of experiment 1 is: individuals with high self-worth should be more likely to choose promotion goal orientation; in contrast, individuals with low self-worth should be more likely to choose prevention goal orientation. Participants are given the task of choosing a risk assignment–a task conceptually similar to the one used by Lee, Aaker & Gardner (2004). The results agree with the hypotheses. The hypothesis of experiment 2 is: each individual have a “decision threshold” to evaluate the risk of choice. When the risk is higher

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Study on the Establishment and Operation Mode of Real Estate Investment Trusts in China

On 02/10/2014, in Finance, by rain

Real Estate Investment Trusts is a new trust system, and it collects funds for realestate Management from not-specific investors or specific investors meeting legalnumberhen specific institutions are responsible for the Management of the funds, andallocate the final interests to the investors.Real Estate Investment Trusts originated from the United States, which isdeveloped on the aspects of the organizational structure, investment scope, incomedistribution, supervision, Management and so on. In the United States, Real EstateInvestment Trusts is an important investment tool. Germany, France, Japan, Singapore,Hong Kong and other countries learn from the United States about the Real EstateInvestment Trusts on the combination of their own to establish distinctive Real EstateInvestment Trusts Systems. They provide us valuable experience for the development ofReal Estate Investment Trusts.With the constant development of Chinese real estate market, simply bank capitalcan not meet the long-term financing needs of enterprises, and many small investorshave strong demands for lucrative real estate investment. Thus the establishment of RealEstate Investment Trusts can improve the real estate capital market, achieve a virtuouscircle of real estate funds. Based on the increasingly standardized development of thetrust industry, the gradual mature of the real estate market, the becoming of theinvestors and the perfection of relative legal systems, China has basically had theenvironment for the development of Real Estate Investment Trusts. In recent years,there have been some cases of Real Estate Investment Trusts in China, but comparedwith typical mode, Real Estate Investment Trusts in China have many differences in thepurpose of practitioner, requirements, investment returns, quantitative restrictions, taxincentives, investment risk and so on.By comparing the various foreign Real Estate Investment Trusts modes, accordingto the actual situation of China, it should take company and contract closed, equity andlisting type, the main external management and internal management auxiliary mode,adapting three release mechanism including the termination of failure, automatictermination and bankruptcy. Real Estate Investment Trusts in China has many defectsincluding little liquid; high risk, low interest rate; shortages of professionals; policies and regulations need to be improved; low information disclosure requirements; the lackof specialized regulatory agencies, etc.. So we need to solve the problems in some areasto improve Chinese Real Estate Investment Trust mode. In the Real Estate InvestmentTrusts risk control, macro, we should take steps in three stages of investmentdecision-making, investment management and investment exit; micro, we shouldestablish internal control mechanisms following the principles of effectiveness,prudence, comprehensiveness, timeliness and independence.

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The Mechanism and Empirical Analysis of China’s Foreign Trade Development Mode Changing Promoted by Trade in Service

On 02/10/2014, in Trade, by rain

Since the reform and opening up, China’s foreign trade has made a strikingsuccess during the past three decades. In1978, the total number of China’s foreigntrade is only about$20billion in the world, ranked only No.32, and by2010China’sforeign trade import and export value is nearly$3trillion, ranked the second largesttrading nation. Although China’s trade volume in a very short period of time has beena rapid increase, but the traditional development mode of foreign trade has been”focusing on size, but ignoring quality,”” focusing on surplus, but ignoringstructure”,” focusing on goods trade, but ignoring service in trade “, etc. extensive,not the concept of sustainable development led to the development of China’s foreigntrade has brought many problems, China’s foreign trade development mode needs tochange. The world’s major developed countries will trade in services as a new impetusto the development of foreign trade, foreign trade for its own development hasinjected new vitality. Other countries learn from the successful development offoreign trade experience, our government proposes to unswervingly develop trade inservices, trade in services through the promotion of China’s foreign trade developmentmode transformation.In this paper, the use of sustainable development theory, theory of competitiveadvantage and new Economic growth theory for the transformation of foreign tradedevelopment mode to build a theoretical foundation, and then shows how trade inservices through the promotion of foreign trade, Economic, Social and environmentalbenefits to improve trade efficiency, through optimize the trade of industrial base anddevelop new trade competitiveness, reduce the proportion of trade in goods tooptimize the overall structure of foreign trade, by accelerating the accumulation ofknowledge, promote innovation, improve the people to the capital stock of foreigntrade to improve the technological content of products to promote foreign tradedevelopment mode change. Furthermore, the author from the reality of China, showsthat the current development of China’s current foreign trade exists in the way of lightweight scale efficiency, light weight trade in goods and services trade, but the numberof re-exports uncompetitive and other issues. In addition, this paper build China’sforeign trade development mode shift goals, and shows that China’s foreign tradedevelopment mode transformation of the current, detailed analysis of trade in servicesis how to promote China’s foreign trade development mode change. Next, the authors use data from China’s actual econometric model built from three aspects, analysis oftrade in services has changed the role of China’s foreign trade development mode.Finally, the conclusions for the future better for the Chinese trade in services throughthe promotion of foreign trade development mode to provide countermeasures.The empirical results show that foreign trade in services by improving theeconomic, Social and Environmental benefits can be very good to enhance the overalleffectiveness of the promotion of foreign trade, especially the production of foreigntrade in services to enhance the overall effectiveness of the effect is remarkable.Development of trade in services can effectively promote China’s overall tradestructure optimization. Four forms of trade in services to improve the technologicalcontent of export products, develop corporate brand, enhance the competitiveness of astrong role in promoting. Therefore, continue to develop trade in services, whileensuring China’s foreign trade under the premise of comparative advantage to developa dynamic competitive advantages of foreign trade, trade in services and to strengthenthe linkage role of trade in goods, trade in services to promote trade in goods throughthe development and, ultimately, China’s foreign trade development mode change.

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Visitors’ Low-carbon Tourism Traffic Behavior and Its Mechanism

On 25/09/2013, in Tourism, by rain

Nowadays, low-carbon development has become the commonsubject throughout the world, and the way of sustainable development ineach region and industry. Under the background of more and moreexhausted resources and serious Environmental pollution in the global,tourism industry is not thought as “smokeless industry”, but the pioneerof ecological destruction and the major energy consumption.Hence,low-carbon in the tourism industry is extremely important. In tourismindustry, Tourism transportation takes a larger proportion on energyconsumption and carbon emissions, hence, it’s useful for tourism industryto reduce tourist traffic energy consumption and carbon emissions.With the low-carbon development of the tourism transportation,the objective aspect such as energy-saving technology is required toresearch and improve; as well as individual subjective initiative,in otherwords, visitors should also make efforts in the tourist traffic forlow-carbon tourism development. With an in-depth study on currenttourism low-carbon development; related behavior theory such asplanned behavior theory,the KAP behavior theory are analyzed;,psychological variables that may affect low-carbon tourism behavior ofvisitors are summed up, then, the extended KAP behavior theory model isestablished.Preliminary questionnaire is designed on the base of the theory aboutmodel construction and then formal questionnaire is established afterexploratory analysis of the pilot survey data. Structural equationmodeling analysis and correlation analysis, regression analysis are used to deal with formal survey data to verify the relevance and the significantlevels between psychological variables and low-carbon tourism trafficbehavior, and to reveal the mechanism of the transport behavior oflow-carbon tourism.The analysis shows that: low-carbon tourism traffic behavior isaffected by five factors: low-carbon tourism traffic knowledge,low-carbon tourism traffic preferences, low-carbon tourism trafficemotions, sense of Social responsibility, and individualeffectiveness.Each of these factors has different impact on thelow-carbon tourism traffic behavior. Low-carbon tourism traffic emotions,low carbon tourism knowledge have significant effect on low-carbontourism behavior while low-carbon tourism traffic perception andindividual effectiveness’ impact on the low-carbon tourism trafficbehavior is not significant. Overall, the theoretical model of expansionthe KAP behavior can effectively explain the mechanism of low-carbontourism traffic behavior.

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A Study of Internal Auditing Management of X Telecom Service Company

On 25/09/2013, in Management, by rain

Since the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) promulgated the new definition ofinternal auditing and Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing,internal auditing has been combined with corporate governance organically,coming toconsistency with corporate strategy.Transaction-based internal auditing andsystem-based internal auditing have been replaced by modern risk-orientedauditing.With the internal audition’s developing to risk-oriented level,thedevelopment of auditing in the field of activity can be reflected in the methods,techniques as well as standards.However,there is few research which regards internalauditing as a collective work and studies on its organization and control. Taking thesignificance of internal auditing for guaranteeing companies’ business goals intoaccount,it is of great importance for companies to manage the collective work:internal auditing.This essay takes X Telecom Service Company as study object, starting from thestatus of the development of internal audit and internal audit Management,entrustedwith the Economic responsibility of internal audit and system theory-based,from themanagement of internal audit,internal audit Management and internal audit the workprogram Management system to analyze the problems of internal auditingmanagement of X Telecom Service Company.Finally,against the problems of thesethree areas,this report encourages a reasonable set of the internal audit,diversifiedaudit content,expansion of internal audit rights, improvement of internal auditpersonnel access mechanism, the implementation of job rotation system,enhancementof the internal audit staff continuing Education,improvement of staff assessmentmethods to keep the project independence,strengthen the process of quality reviewand the introduction of the follow-up audit to solve the problems of X TelecomServices Company internal auditing management.I hope to provide a reference for themanagement of the company’s internal audit.

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The Tacit Knowledge Sharing Mechanism and Management Strategies of Enterprises’ Marketing Staff

On 25/09/2013, in Management, by rain

In the era of knowledge economy, the competition between enterprises becomesincreasingly intense. Enterprises do their best to obtain a higher market share, and marketing hasbecome a major focus of the work of enterprises.This article, through unifying the case and analyzing the tacit knowledge sharingmechanism of Enterprise’s marketing staff, tries to conclude specific tacit knowledge sharingmechanism and put forward the concrete Management strategies. The article studies themechanism from two aspects including external conditions and internal factors of enterprises.External conditions, which are the tacit knowledge sharing platform for the marketing staff ofenterprises, include the corporate culture and the Environmental system. Internal factors mainlylie in analyzing the marketing staff’s tacit knowledge sharing levels. On the basis of analyzingthe sharing levels, the article puts forward the tacit knowledge operation mechanism ofmarketing staff of enterprises, which is knowledge transition, and analyzes the components andthe adjustment mechanism of the tacit knowledge transition of marketing staff. When it comes tomanagement strategies of tacit knowledge sharing mechanism, the article analyzes it from threeaspects that are the internal operation, the information transition and the network communication.The first one includes improving the organization form, transforming the culture and reformingincentive mechanism. The second one includes enhancing the sharing initiative andcommunication ability and creating opportunities to promote the communication. And the lastone includes constructing effective Social network and flexible COP.

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The Liaoning Exhibition Trade Group Company Management Communication Mechanism Research

On 24/09/2013, in Management, by rain

Since the reforming and opening of china, the reform of the socialist market economy and the trend of global Economic integration intensifies, the market competition is becoming increasingly fierce. From the international situation analysis, widespread Economic crisis; from the domestic situation analysis, stimulating Economic development initiatives effect is not ideal. In this process, the information is true, complete, timely delivery, it is of great significance for the Management. Therefore, the Enterprise Management communication mechanism construction is very necessary.Based on the above reasons, this article to serve the state-owned enterprises of Liaoning exhibition trade group company as an example, studied the communication and management concepts, as well as the relevant theoretical knowledge. In addition, both in the business management, marketing management, financial management, human resource management, management, strategy management, technology management, organization management, operation management, will produce a large amount of information transmission. The formation of core competence, and the management of enterprises are inseparable. Realization of management must be between the member and the member and communication with the external object.On this basis, analysis of the company’s management communication network operation effectiveness, find out the management communication process resulting in disorder, analyzed the cause of barriers, and the needle causes puts forward the specific methods of management communication mechanism, put forward compose to build management mechanism of communication barriers and measures.In the process of this paper, have got the guidance of the teacher’s guidance and help, see the massive literature material, understand the latest domestic and foreign study field; for example in the study, using a questionnaire, combining theory with practice, through the example to summarize and other methods, the proposed solution is targeted, also can make full use of the newly emerging things, management communication channels.