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Alliance has remained one of the central topics in International Rel…

On 21/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Alliance has remained one of the central topics in International Relations students for years. Existing theoretical discussions tend to focus on alliance formation and the relationship between alliance and war, and much less attention has been paid to alliance maintenance. This article seeks to reveal the central mechanism of alliance Management. We argue that mutual binding (or constraining) is the central mechanism of alliance maintenance. And power balance and the match of intentions among allies within an alliance determine the mutual constraint of the alliance, and thereby the alliance maintenance. By the two variables, we can divide alliances into different types, basically defensive vs. offensive alliance and symmetric vs. asymmetric alliance. And each type of alliance has its own interactive dynamics. In conclusion, in a symmetric alliance, if allies have similar intentions, mutual binding is unproblematic and alliance maintenance is relatively easy; otherwise, it is hard to sustain. In contrast, in an asymmetric alliance, most type of alliances are high likely to be maintained, except the asymmetric alliance type B (stronger state=defensive realist state; weaker state=offensive realist state). We test our theory with the cases of Franco-Russian alliance, Sino-Soviet alliance and US-Japan alliance.

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A Comparative Study of Supervision Mechanism of Parties out of Power in the U.K., U.S.A., France

On 02/11/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The modern history of western countries is a history of governments change and the rise or fall of political parties. The parties out of power, as an important political force, exist objectively and play unique roles in the political arena of western developed countries. With the evolution of western political parties, the supervision system of parties out of power, as an integral part of the institution of political parties, tend to be mature and become one of the characteristics of the institution of political parties in western capitalist countries, play a unique role. In which, the supervision institutions of the parties out of power of the U.K., U.S.A., France are the most typical ones.The thesis starts with defining the meaning of parties out of power, analyses the theoretical basis of the establishment of parties out of power supervision system in western countries, and sums up the general supervision mechanism of it. Then, from the content of “mechanism”, around perspective on the structure (organizational structure of political parties and powers composition), function (supervision characteristics, methods, etc.) as well as the relationship (the interaction between the power and authority or power and authority agencies in the specific operation), make a systematic comparative study of supervision mechanism of parties out of power in the U.K., U.S.A. and France. Finally, make preliminary analysis of the causes of the similarities and differences of supervision mechanism of parties out of power in the U.K., U.S.A. and France, and pose the challenges that the supervision and operating mechanism of western parties out of power now face and the enlightenment to the political development of our country.

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Studies on Monitoring and Mechanism of Cyfluthrin Resistance in Pieris Rapae

On 26/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Pieris rapae is a worldwide distributed polyphagous pest on various cultivated crops, including vegetables, cotton, fruittrees, ornamentals, and so on. In past two decades Pieris rapae has emerged as a serious pest in many countries. Resistance to 10 insecticides in five field populations of Pieris rapae, was evaluated in laboratory.Reistance to cyhalothrin is the most.Biochemical mechanism of resistance in Pieris rapae, to cyhalothrin has been investigated by enzyme synergists (PBO, SV1, DEF and DEM) and enzyme activities assays of esterase, glutathione S-transferase and microsomal O-demethylase. The synergism ratios of PBO, SV1,, DEF and DEM to cyhalothrin were 1.3, 1.6, 1.1 and 1.5 folds in susceptible strain, respectively; 47.0, 29.0, 7.1and 5.9-fold in resistant strain, respectively. Ratios between resistant and susceptible strain were 36.2, 18.1, 6.5 and 4.0 folds, respectively. The result shows that synergism to cyhalothrin by PBO was the most distinct. This implied that mixed-function oxidase was involved in the resistance to cyhalothrin. Synergism to cyhalothrin by DEF and DEM was not much significant. The ratios of enzymatic activity of esterase, glutathione S-transferase in susceptible and resistant strains were 1.08, 1.14, respectively, no significant difference. All these indicated that detoxification enzymes such as esterase, glutathione S-transferase contributed little to the resistance of pieris rapae to cyhalothrin.

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The Discussion about the Well-run Mechanism of the Government Authority

On 26/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The government authority and other authorities have equally the possibility that abuse. In present stage of our country, large quantity phenomenons of the not positive movement in power in government exist. Therefore, a set of valid run mechanism of governments’authority should be established. It is essential to guarantee well-run of the government authority.The article divides into three parts:The first part elaborated the government authority and the connotation and significance of well-run of the government authority.The government power is the national right of manage that government agency is to complete its mission and implement the job. The positive movement in power in government is a government agency within the scope of the law clearly show authorizes or negative tacit consent of according purpose, spirit with fair and reasonable principle, according to effective demand with concrete circumstance, judgment, choice, decision administration behavior method with contents. Return to benefit to the government with all strength with the coordination of the citizen power.The second part analyzes the present condition in the run of government power in our country.Through long-term developments and building, the country has formed the central government power circulates system leading by the party with the people represent conference system as center. But in practice, a lot of not positive phenomenon still exits in power in government.The third part puts forward the measures of the positive movement of government power mechanism.Perfect the mechanism of democratic election. Make governmental affairs opens. Norm the procedure of power exercises. Establish the valid supervised mechanism. Further change government function, reform the government organization, and increase the public official’s quality.

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Simulant Kinematics Analysis on Mechanism Study of the Affecting Factors of Cutting Capability of Single Base Cutter of Sugarcane Harvester

On 26/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Cutting is the pivotal process in sugarcane harvesting procedure and the cutter is the main working parts. The cutter’s cutting performance has a badly effect on sugarcane harvester’s working performance and its popularized application. So it is essential for us to do an in-depth study on cutting mechanism of affecting factors which are related to the rate of broken biennial root of the single base cutter. These studies which have important theoretical significances and practical values will supply some theoretical basis on cutter structural design of sugarcane harvester.If the number of sugarcane in bad cutting state and broken by base cutter’s pressing is more, the rate of broken biennial root is higher in continuously cutting sugarcane process. So, in this dissertation, use the dynamic analysis software ADAMS to found kinematical simulant model of cutting sugarcane continuously. Used the currency finity cell analysis software ANSYS, analyze cutting sugarcane by finity cell means to frame distinguish standard of single base cutter on the bad cutting state. Through physical simulation experiment, frame distinguish standard of broken root by base cutter’s pressing. Contrasting result of single factors indoor physical simulation experiment and kinematical stimulant experiment to prove exactness of kinematical simulant model of cutting sugarcane continuously, distinguish standard of bad cutting state and broken root by base cutter’s pressing. Carry through kinematical simulant analysis of cutting sugarcane continuously to fix quantify to study on the affecting factors (vibration factors (frequency, amplitude), speed ratio (revolution line speed of knifepoint/forward speed), obliquity of base cutter, the number of razor) and interactive effect mechanism on the rate of rate of broken biennial root. The result show that when the vibration of base cutter which is generated by accidented ground is great, the combination of great speed ratio, low obliquity of base cutter and many razors is beneficial to reduce the rate of broken biennial root, when the vibration of base cutter which is generated by accidented ground is low, the combination of low speed ratio, great obliquity of base cutter and few razors is beneficial to reduce the rate of broken biennial root.

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Motion Analysis and Simulation of ⅢClass Mechanism Based on Bar-Groups Theory

On 24/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The analysis and synthesis of mechanism are the foundation of complicated machine study.The mechanism study by bar-groups method not only can disassemble the motion of mechanism, but also can benefit the program design of motion module. Meanwhile, the mechanism of various types and motions can be obtained by synthesis of various bar groups with different modes, which can benefit the innovative design of mechanism.As the Computer technology is developing by leaps and bounds, the Computer-aided design and simulation of mechanism have got more and more extensive research and discussion. But most mechanism analysis softwares based on bar-groups theory limit to ClassⅡbar groups, and seldom involve ClassⅢbar groups or higher level bar groups. Meanwhile, automatic degree of most software is not high, and the mutual ability and commonability of which are not strong.Against current situation, based on domestic and international research results, this paper do deep research on the form and motion of ClassⅡbar groups and ClassⅢbar groups, and design a software for analysis and simulation of ClassⅢmechanism under the environment of Windows, which use Visual C++ as the program platform. This software can link, modify and analyze ClassⅢmechanism random, which has certain impetuses to the research and innovation of the mechanism.The main content and research results of this paper include:(1) The principle of ClassⅡbar groups and ClassⅢbar groups has been researched, and these two kinds of bar groups have been further detailed into eight component models. The rules of nomenclature and form of these eight component models have been presented, and meanwhile two motion models have been set up by vector method and constraint method.(2) The types of ClassⅢbar groups have been discussed, and sixteen kinds of feasible ClassⅢbar groups have been conformed finally.The rules of nomenclature in those have also been presented.(3) Based on the analysis of the components, the motion models of five ClassⅡbar groups and three ClassⅢbar groups have been discussed. The thought that studying the motion of bar groups by component analysis method has been presented, which can be used for reference by study of higher level bar groups.(4) A software for the motion analysis and simulation of ClassⅢmechanism based on ClassⅡbar groups and ClassⅢbar groups has been designed. A thought of software design based on three class hiberarchy has been presented, and the corresponding module of each class has been set up. The main function, key arithmetic and interface design of the software have been expatiated. Some problems and details that should pay attention to in software design have been discussed, and the solutions have also been given.

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Study on the Photochemical Properties of Cyclic Imides and Preparation of Bromochloroglycoluril Disinfector

On 19/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Thirteen lactams, 5-methoxypyrrolidin-2-one (MPY), 5-ethoxypyrrolidin-2-one(EPY), 5-methoxy-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (MMPY), 5-ethoxy-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (EMPY), 5-methoxy-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-one (MEPY), 5-ethoxy-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-one (EEPY), 6-methoxypiperidin-2-one (MPI), 6-ethoxypiperidin-2-one (EPI), 5-methoxy-5-hydroxymethyl-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (MHMPY),5-ethoxy-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one (EHMPY), 5-methoxy-5-hydroxymethyl-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-one (MHEPY), 5-ethoxy-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1-ethylpyrrolidin-2-one (EHEPY), di-(pyrrolidin-2-on-5-yl)-peroxid (DPYP), weresynthesized from different cyclic imides in alcohol under the irradiation oflow-pressure mercury lamp (LPML, λ=250 nm). Their structures were determined byUV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction method.The photolysis mechanism of cyclic imides in alcohol was proposed andvalidated with UV and GC-MS by the devised experiments.The influence factors of photolysis of imide including reactor, concentration,acidity and temperature were investigated and it was found that higher acidity canaccelerate the photoreaction. Photolysis reactions of other cyclic carboxides werecompared with this analog.Bromochloroglycolurils, a new type of disinfectors, were prepared from low-costraw materials: urea, glyoxal and halogen with high yields. The one-pot output wasfour times more than that of the tetrachloroglycoluril reported in literature. Thebioactivities of these bactericides have been determined, which showed highantibacterial properties.

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Study on Functional Mechanism by Using Chinese Medicine Which Activating Blood and Dissolving Stasis Eliminating Mass Killing Embryo to Treat Tubal Pregnancy

On 17/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Objective:By adopting prospective case-control study method to observe the mechanism effects of using the Chinese medicine (ectopicⅠ, Decoction), which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo to treat unruptured tubal pregnancy. By using electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry staining method to detect surgical obtained pregnancy oviduct mucous cell and villi from patients who choose surgery after using traditional Chinese medicine therapy (observation group) and surgical specimens from patients who choose the surgery directly (control group), in the field of the ultrastructural morphology changes of oviduct epithelial cells, Bcl-2 expression intensity of villus, mucous membrane estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone hormone receptor (PR) expression intensity, in order to investigate the functional mechanism of using the Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo for treating tubal pregnancy, such study has positive influence in enriching the theory of Chinese medicine gynecology, setting basis for clinical dialectics medication, developing the traditional Chinese medicine for treating tubal pregnancy has not damaged, providing the scientific theoretical basis how to the treat the unruptured tubal pregnancy with the Chinese medicine.Method:1. Case Source:patients who were in hospital at Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine First Affiliated Hospital of gynecological department during 2008.9-2010.2. Collecting the patients who met the inclusion standard,15 cases in observation group,15 cases in control group.2. Grouping:①Observation Group:ectopic pregnancy I Recipe (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge 15g, Paeonia veitchii Lynch 15g, peach kernel 15g) plus Radices trichosanthis 20g, Lithospermum erythrorhizon 15g, centipede 6g, day 1, twice water simmer a day. Prepared uniformly by Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Preparation of the First Affiliated Hospital Pharmacy. Patients who have been treated with Chinese medicine for 3 to 8 days require a surgery treating, the cutted oviduct have been collected.②Control group:Tubal pregnancy patients request surgical treatment directly, the cutted oviduct have been collected.3. Using in situ hybridization method detects bcl-2 expression intensity of tubal pregnancy tissue. Immunohistochemical SP method to measure the tunica mucosa tubae uterinae ER, PR expression.4. Test the ultrastructure of the fallopian tube mucosa cell by electron microscop, observe the ultrastructure morphological difference between oviduct observation group and control group.5. Data processing:According to the data distribution of two independent samples using Wilcoxon test and two independent samples t test, analysis of statistical software with spss10.0Results:1. Tubal pregnancy villus Bcl-2 immunohistochemical staining intensity in the observation group and the control group were significantly different, (P<0.05);2. Tubal pregnancy oviduct mucosa ER immunohistochemical staining intensity comparisons show no significant difference (P> 0.05);3. Tubal pregnancy oviduct mucosa PR immunohistochemistry Comparison of staining intensity are significantly different (P<0.05), The observation group have a higher level of PR expression;4. Observation group and control group by transmission electron microscopy ultrastructure of mucosal cells tubal pregnancy are significant differences. It is found that the observation group oviducts have few microvilli, more endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria denser, structure disappeared in mitochondria and nuclear condensation. Self-scoring of their scoring was carried out, proved by statistical analysis, this difference was significant. The mucosal cell damage of the observation group was significantly higher. The Mann-Whitney U test (bilateral), the control group and observation group oviduct ciliated epithelial cells in transmission electron microscopy of microvilli difference between groups P=0.000<0.05, significant few in the observation group oviduct ciliated epithelial microvilli sparse compared with the control group; Mitochondrial change difference between groups P=0.001<0.05, significant difference in the observation group oviduct epithelial cells mitochondria serious injury than the control group; Nuclear change difference between groups P=0.045<0.05, significant difference in the observation group oviduct epithelial cells nuclei serious injury than the control group; Difference between the groups within the endoplasmic reticulum P=0.007<0.05, significant difference in the observation group oviduct epithelial cells mitochondria serious injury than the control group; Difference between the groups of intracellular vacuoles P=0.143> 0.05, not statistically significant.Conclusion:1. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, can lower Tubal pregnancy villi Bcl-2 expression may hinder Bcl-2 antiapoptotic, Promote apoptosis of embryonic tissue of tubal pregnancy, prevent embryo growth which could lead to fallopian tube to withstand high tension and may cause tubal rupture, thereby reduce the surgery rate as a result of tubal rupture.2. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, can enhance pregnancy oviduct mucosa PR expression, Thereby reducing the oviduct of receptivity for the embryo, leading to embryonic death.3. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, have no statistically significant effect on expression of the pregnancy oviduct mucosa ER4. The Chinese medicine which activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminating mass killing embryo, has an obvious effect on cell ultrastructure of the oviduct. There are significant effects on the cilia microvilli, mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum structure, Considering activating blood and dissolving stasis eliminate mass kill embryo Chinese medicine affect the normal physiological processes of the fallopian tubes mucosal cell metabolism, reduce nutrients provided for the implantation of the embryo in the fallopian tube to promote apoptosis of embryonic tissue.

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Study on Water Resourdce Sustainable Utilization of Pastoral Area and Policy and Mechanism in Inner Mongolia

On 14/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

Utilize the water resource by science, is the important proposition of Economics and society sustainable development of pastoral area. In the first 20 years of this century, the Inner Mongol faced the well-off society of comprehensive construction, built in the period of important strategic opportunities of the new pastoral area. Accelerate realizing industrialization, urbanization, modernization. Advance this course can not break away from the situation of Inner Mongolia, especially the restraint of population, resource and environment. Furthermore, the bear of water resource is the most key link., thus, based on the water resource state of the Inner Mongolia, carry on the sustainable utilization of water resource in the pastoral area will be the important guarantee of that Inner Mongolia could realize the set objective, strengthen the sustainable development capacity in the pastoral area, get in harmony between the ecological construction with Economics and society of pastoral area, and build the new pastoral area.Based on constructing completely the Well-off society, building the era of the new pastoral area, under the lead of scientific development view, in the face of the opportunities, challenges and puzzled of socio-Economic development of pastoral area, follow and start with from ecological water, water right system, pastoral area water resources utilization thorv as develop theory, cirCulation economictheory, the changes theory of the system, relevant principies of the preperty (??) theory, in harmony between the sustainable development theory and ecological economy etc. for the support of theory, Use dynamic analysis and static analysis, real example and standardize to analyze synthetically; Expound the research meaning of water resource sustainable utilization of pastoral area: The pool in urban and rural areas develops, resole the herdsman, herd, and pastoral area, deepen the theoretical research; Review practice of water resources utilization of pastoral area: conspicuous imbalance between supply and demand of water resource, industrial water utilization ratio low, ecological construction water little, grassland water ecological environment not optimist, water pollution extend towards pastoral area, thus announce the question and puzzle; Dissect question cause from population, resource, environment: the population in the pastoral area increases comparatively fast, industrialization, urbanization development aggravate the pressure of the water resource, the industrial structure is unreasonable, extensive, the robbing type developed and utilized, the overexploitation of grassland utilizes, urged by the interests of the traditional achievements view, does not improve water price system; And then put forward mechanism and countermeasure of the water resource sustainable development in the pastoral area: reform and improve the price of water utilization, speeds up the development of water right market, change the mode of production of the traditional animal husbandry, build grassland ecology scientifically and rationally, stabilize the size of population of pastoral area, improve the herdsman culture quality, accelerate construction of new industrialization and new urbanization of pastoral area, build the pastoral area society that economize on water and defend the corrupt, improve the government’s water resource managerial ability, insist in the scientific development view and correct achievements view.

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The hot reactivity of coke, it can accurately reflect the ability of…

On 10/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

The hot reactivity of coke, it can accurately reflect the ability of anti-dissolves in the blast furnace and the ability to undertake the load as the Skeleton of the stock column. Therefore improving coke quality, specially to improve it’s thermal state performance which has already becomes a hot topic in the field of ironmaking. However, at present the research mainly focus on finding out the positive and negative catalytic material to the coke, which are relatively few to the catalyzed mechanism.In this experiment, we has compared several common materials to the coke which has positive and negative catalysis effect. As a basis on this, we choose each one positive catalysis and negative catalysis material to analyze its catalytic effect’s mechanism.(1) Boric acid has the best negative catalytic effect on Coke, with the concentration increasing, it’s negative catalytic effect increased. When the boric acid solution concentration of 3%, the reactivity of coke can reduce of 5.85%, and the immersion time of boric acid solution have no any impact on the catalytic effect.(2) The calcium oxide has the positive catalysis effect to coke, but it has different impact on the reactivity with it’s different concentration. When the calcium oxide concentration is less than 1%, the reactivity has obvious change with the concentration, but when the calcium oxide concentration from 1%to 5%, the reactivity increases very much slightly, in 0.5%, and the immersion time have no any impact on the catalytic effect.(3) The reaction of coke with CO2 which not only includes the surface reaction, but also the internal reaction. In this paper, we according to different control steps to derive to the corresponding rate equation, Then bring the experimental data according to the thermal analysis into the equation, we can get under 1100℃, the controlling step of the reaction is internal proliferation. After according to the equation and the data, we can obtain the kinetic parameters of the process, namely the diffusion coefficient Dε=1.5×10-9m2/s.(4) Based on the reaction of C and CO2, we analyze the suppression Mechanism of the reaction. The boric acid contact with the carbon of the most edge’s carbon net, the atom of the boric acid will first substitute for the carbon of the most edge’s carbon net to prevent the reaction occur. Then replace the carbon of the inferior edge’s carbon net, so as to improve the coke structure and enhance it’s strength; at the same time, after the boric acid completely substitutes for the carbon of the edge’s carbon net, because of boric acid have the strong negative Electric, it can form negative ion on the surface of coke, which can prevent the formation of CO complexes and decrease the loss reaction of coke. Lead to the reactivity to drop unceasingly.(5) When add calcium oxide into, CaO combine with the activated atoms of the coke surface to generate two types of oxygen-containing intermediate product. Planar-type oxygen complexes Cf(Ca·O) and non-planar oxygen complexes C(Ca-O)Cf(Ca·O), the two kinds of complex compounds are easy to decompose, thus it has accelerated the response and play the role of positive catalysis.