Family planning is a long-termstate policy of China. In order to maintain this state policy, protect citizen’s legitimate rights and interests and realize the coordinated development of the population, the economical, the , the resources, the environment, State collects the compensation fee on the citizen not in conformity with the legal provisions. Taking “S” County in Anhui Province as an example, through the full and accurate data, this article has first unfolded the present situation of the collection and the use of the compensation fee in the rural community:The disbursement rate of the collection is low and the use distribution is unreasonable; Then based on the investigation in the interview, it discusses the existing problems in the collection and the use of the social compensation fee in the rural community. The collection problems mainly include:Policy advocacy is not in place; There are “three difficulties” about the illegal action of birth—-that is difficult to find, to obtain evidence and to execute; The collection team quality is not high. And the use problems mainly stem from the type of distribution of the social compensation fee— “raises little returns much”; Finally from the perspective of rectifying the resource fairness, this article proposes the s of the collection problems:To strengthen policy propaganda, to make the citizens realize the necessity to collect the social compensation fee from the perspective of intra-generational equity and inter-generational equity of resource fairness, to change the unreasonable type of distribution of the social compensation fee; And also it puts forward to three main ways of using the social compensation fee:social security for family planning, in and in , so that the social compensation is worthy of the name and return to the correct purposes.
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