Food is important strategic material andlife material, which is related to national interest and people’s livelihood. Food security is directly related to the harmony and stability of society. With gradually unloosening of China’s food market, the influence is gradually increased by the volatility from international food market. The large total amount of imported grain must be inevitable increased degree of dependence import and threaten to food security. Ensuring food self-sufficiency and enhancing the domestic food production ability are the most important and efficient ways to solve food security problem. Chinese government has always great importance to the food production and support strength has increased continuously in recent years. The total of agriculture subsidies for grain farmers has reached140.6billion RMB from central finance in2011. As China’s first food crops, rice plays an important part in China’s grain production. The total grain output was570million ton, and the rice is278million ton. is rice growing province. It is significant to research on of rice for promoting rural labor transfer, improving yield, promoting the land circulation and carrying out the scale operation.This paper studied rice planting in province and its which was based on technical efficiency theory, scale economy theory, technology innovation theory and system innovation theory. Firstly, this paper analyzed the rice planting area, the yield and the yield per unit of area in from the reform and open and comparing with other provinces. Secondly, it used BCC model of DEA to measure rice by292sample data, and analyzed the changes direction of inefficiency decision making units. Then, this paper transverse compared with the rice scale efficiency of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Fujian, Hubei, Hunan and Yunnan. Finally, it used Tobit model to analyses the influence factors of rice scale efficiency in Sichuan.Through the analysis of the above aspects, this paper concluded that the following conclusions.(1) The rice scale efficiency in Sichuan was high. The mean of scale efficiency has reached above0.94under either the input orientation or output orientation model. But there were some inefficiency decisions making units; the main reason was the indirect input was so much that influenced the efficiency.(2) The technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency in Sichuan were the highest comparing with Fujian, Jiangsu, Hubei, Hunan and Yunnan.(3) The scale efficiency in Sichuan has effected by many kinds of factors. The rice planting area, family engaged in labor force had positive effect. And the number of field, proportion of technical guidance and direct costs had negative effect on rice scale efficiency. The five factors are the major influence factors, but it doesn’t mean other factors are not important.In view of the above conclusions, this paper argues the following advises will improve the scale efficiency. The government should promote land circulation vigorously, improve the land circulation system, and scale of rice. The local agricultural technology department should carry out technical training actively, encourage farmers to participate in technical training, use a variety of instructional techniques and formats such as television and broadcasting, and improve the range of technology training. The farmers should join technical training actively, learn agricultural technology actively and use agricultural technology to practical production. And the farmers should adjust the rice planting proportion input elements; reduce inputs redundancy to improve the scale efficiency of rice.
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