China is currently in expansion of urbanization and industrialization, a large number of urban construction land and industrial land occupied by the collective land is unavoidable, resulting in a large number of Land-lost farmers. China is a large agricultural country, the rural population accounted for most of the sixth national census, including 31 mainland provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of the population living in the rural population of 674.14 million of the total population of 50.32%. According to statistics, since 2011 the national number of Land-lost farmers in about 50 million, and increase the rate of about 2 million per year of Land-lost farmers to produce the inevitable result of the modernization process of a country or region. After the land has been levied, the farmers lost not only the land, also lost jobs, residential housing, the protection of life and collective assets, particularly the loss of life and development to maintain farmers’survival, development of self-sufficiency. it can’t enjoy the benefits of the rise in the value of the land change use. Lost ground, unemployment and loss of social security, and was eventually reduced to farming the landless, working Kong, social security no “no” crowd, and thus need to establish a perfect social security system for peasants. The vulnerable groups of Land-lost farmers are many reasons, including the existing land policy with its own variety of factors, mainly due to the collective ownership of rural land in the urban and rural split system, as well as the collective value of the land assessment is not fully caused by land acquisition compensation costs low. The current collective land rights, the main fuzzy, so that the land acquisition process farmers can’t participate in decision-making of the relationship between self-interest, only in a passive acceptance of the status of the legitimate rights and interests are not fully protected. Standard of compensation for land acquisition does not reflect the actual price of the collective land into state-owned land and loss of workforce is unemployed, the land compensation in the distribution, use, management of confusion, as well as Land-lost farmers resettlement approaches are relatively simple, can not solve the subsequent development of the Land-lost farmers and other issues, need to further improve the land expropriation system. This article consists of seven chapters:PartⅠ, the literature review, on the point of view to study the problem of Land-lost farmers, and the main conclusions of Bishan County, Chongqing Municipality, Land-lost farmers in this study with reference.PartⅡ, Introduction, including the research background, the purpose and significance of the study, research methods and the possibility of innovation and shortcomings.PartⅢ, the determination of the basic concepts of land expropriation and the theoretical basis, mainly in defining the conversion of land-lost farmers, agricultural land, land expropriation, land acquisition on the basis of related concepts, a brief description of the theoretical basis of the land acquisition compensation system analysis of the need to improve China’s land expropriation system.PartⅣ, where the areas of our conditions of landless farmers, the level of socio-economic development, as well as local land expropriation compensation standards and placement methods, the Land-lost farmers up to the highest concentration of selected Bishan County bi city streets, through a questionnaire survey way to understand the Land-lost farmers of the land acquisition will contrast to the land of the living conditions before and after, as well as the problems faced by Land-lost farmers into the cities, on the basis of further analysis of the impact of land acquisition for landless farmers. Lost not only the land reached the peasants landless, but also include the loss of an important household wealth, loss of land means, loss of the most basic of jobs, loss of a self-sufficient lifestyle, loss of farmers’survival and development of the Guarantee.Part V, land expropriation, the widespread poverty of Land-lost farmers life that the main problems of the government in the implementation of the Compensation System is the subject of rights of collective land property rights is not clear, the standard of compensation design is unreasonable, the low level of compensation, resettlement relatively simple way; Land-lost farmers after land acquisition, the main problem is their own career ideas are conservative, older, low levels of education, lack of non-farm employment skills, limiting the re-employment of the Land-lost farmers.Part VI, countermeasures and suggestions are divided into two points:First, how to improve the analysis of the land expropriation system, countermeasures to protect the vital interests of the Land-lost farmers, mainly from all levels to ensure land use planning the effective implementation of strict right to the land development approval, land tax, regulate the land acquisition program to protect the legitimate rights and interests of farmers, innovation and Land-lost farmers placement mode, to increase the method of compensation, a fundamental solution to the problem of Land-lost farmers development. The second is to build the peasants the social security system, including old-age security for the protection of the minimum standard of living of the peasants, the establishment of the Land-lost farmers, the establishment of the medical security of Land-lost farmers and Land-lost farmers employment training protection, the establishment of the housing security of Land-lost farmers. Land-lost farmers the social security system is constructed, both urban and rural, urban and rural needs, but also an important measure to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the Land-lost farmers, Land-lost farmers and even solve the “three rural issues” are of great significance. Farmers Social Security system should follow the principle of gradual and orderly progress, and gradually the Land-lost farmers into urban low and urban health insurance coverage.Part VII, Conclusions and Prospects, Bishan County of Land-lost farmers to the following conclusions:(1) Land-lost farmers is the inevitable result of industrialization and urbanization, is a contributor to the process of modernization and sacrifice, survival The status quo is widespread poverty. (2) compensation for land requisition is the capital of the landless farmers to develop production, to maintain their living, is the most important Land-lost farmers landless household wealth. Scientific and rational land compensation calculation method and specific measures to strengthen the effective management of land compensation fee in order to build a reasonable land acquisition and compensation mechanism in order to protect the vital interests of the Land-lost farmers. (3) of the Land-lost farmers of the rural labor to urban labor supplement reserve resources, the protection of Land-lost farmers is the key of “sustainable development”.