Facing the challenges of Global climate change, the world set off upsurge reduction of low carbon emission, as the world’s third-largest country of the economic output, under the pressure of low carbon emissions, the Chinese Government made bold and firm decision to develop low carbon economy, low carbon agriculture came into being. Fundamentally changing traditional agriculture to low carbon agriculture, implementing modern low carbon agriculture construction, has become a trend and tendency of agricultural development in the world today. The beginning of low carbon agriculture faces both huge opportunities and a series of challenges.The existing research of low carbon agriculture mainly focused on the necessity, models, techniques and some discussion, theory of narrative, less empirical research. Especially, the very few empirical research of low-carbon agricultural development affected by system factors, based on micro-perspective.First of all, this study defines the system, modern agriculture and low carbon agriculture. We set institutional change theory, the transaction cost theory and James S.Coleman’s sociological rational choice theories as a starting point, it analysis that farmers agree or do not agree with the initiatives for low carbon agricultural development is or is not a process of rational choice, and try to explore in depth which system factors effects farmers do not support the development of low-carbon agriculture. In order to achieve this objective, according the random sampling method, we survey the farmers with interview from15provinces on the Eastern, Central and Western regions, the resulting effective questionnaires316. Study finds that the production base which low carbon agricultural develop with two distinct characteristics:one is lower participation rate; the other is lower revenues. The Logistic regression analysis model finds that, significant factors affecting farmers not agree with low carbon development initiatives has seven variables which is agriculture farmers’ educational level and age, neighborhood open space, methane-generating pit-building, agricultural subsidies, materials usage changes after agricultural subsidies, formula fertilization by soil testing technology usage. In the development of Low carbon agricultural, agriculture subsidies system become the biggest obstacles. Through James S.Coleman’s sociological rational choice theories analysis suggests that farmers agree or do not agree with the initiatives for low carbon agricultural development is a process of rational choice. In addition to the features agriculture subsidies system, the features of land management system and agricultural technology extension system also hamper the development of low carbon agriculture.Results of this study have important implications for the development of low carbon agriculture. Corresponding suggestions has been proposed:fully playing the main role of farmers, stepping up publicity mechanism; reforming rural land management system, establishing environment-friendly system of Energy conservation and emission reduction; continuing to increase the intensity of agricultural subsidies, appropriate changing indicators Structure of agricultural subsidies; Establishment and improvement supporting system of agricultural technology of low carbon agricultural development.
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