The configuration of rural land resource, not only affects thedevelopment of a region, but also determines the and ecological benefit of a area. If the disposition of rural land resource is not effective, it will cause a series of problems such as the costs of rural land market increasing, food security hiding hazards, ecology damaging, landless farmers troubling. Therefore, to study the configuration of rural land-purchasing market of China is not only theoretically meaningful but also practically significant.In the theoretical framework of transaction cost , to research on how to reduce the transaction cost is always through analyzing the selection of governance structure and the arrangement of property rights. Thus, in order to simplify the study, this dissertation divides the governance structure of Chinese rural land-purchasing market into governmental structure and non-governmental structure. In addition, from the perspective of transaction costs, this dissertation constructs an analysis framework of Chinese rural land-purchasing market. Then, it analyzes on governmental transaction costs in the market, from two aspects of transaction attributes and governance framework attributes. On this basis, we propose two fundamental theoretical hypotheses:(1) Under the condition of invariant formal institution, the choice of governance structure follows the decrease of transaction costs.(2) The selection of governmental governance framework in Chinese rural land-purchasing market is influenced by the size and direction of transaction attributes, governance framework attributes, and transaction costs.The data of this dissertation comes from the questionnaire survey in relevant government departments and non-government departments, in Wenjiang district of Chengdu city. The results show that:(1) Tangible asset specificity positively influences on the selection of governmental governance structure. And the current of tangible asset in government department is comparatively small, which needs continued input to diminish corresponding transaction cost.(2) Occupational stability has a positive effect on the choice of governance structure. And the more stable work will lead to the higher work enthusiasm and the less corresponding transaction cost.(3) Integrity positively functions on the selection of governmental governance structure. And the work that needs loyalty and honesty should be finished only by government.(4) Human resources specificity negatively effects on the choice of governmental governance structure. And to decrease the current human resource can successfully cut the corresponding transaction cost.(5) Administrative control has positive effects on the choice of governmental governance structure. And this feature that the government department own has efficiently reduced the corresponding transaction cost.(6) The legal environment positively functions on the choice of governmental governance structure. And to improve the legal system can also diminish the corresponding transaction costs. Additionally, due to collinearity and not significance, variables that are not listed do not get the final test and verify.Finally, according to empirical study, we propose some relative recommendations:(1) Government must strengthen the employees’transaction-cost concept, which can reduce the governmental transaction cost.(2) Government should carefully reform land property rights. If it cannot calculate the transaction costs of the reform, it must cut transaction cost by adjusting the transaction attributes and governance structure attributes.(3) Government should fortify its role in rural land-purchasing market of China.
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