A Study on Water Saving Non-Engineering Techniques in Agriculture in Shanxi

On 11/04/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Shanxi lacks of water resources for that it ranks the 29th place in per capita and per hectare water resources list of 31 provinces/ municipalities of China. With development of national economy and society, population increase and city establishment will speed up so that water consumption in industry and city life and ecological construction will greatly increase, which makes water shortage in Shanxi worse. One of key solutions to Shanxi water shortage is to save water, especially in Shanxi agriculture because Agricultural irrigation consumes enormously water. Researches and extension of Agricultural water saving techniques will ensure realization of sustainable water consumption, and will play a important role in improvement of crop production, ensurence of national food security, and increase of farmers’income, and will improve sustainable development of economy and society, and of new socialistic rural areas.Based on procedures of systematic analysis, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and inductive and deductive methods, the present paper reviewed worldwide agricultural water saving researches, evaluated water consumption statuses in Shanxi, and examined Shanxi agricultural water savings. Further, three non- Engineering water saving techniques were put forward to be applied in Shanxi. These 3 key techniques were analyzed with aspect to water saving and crop improving effects, and will serve as guidelines to agricultural water saving activities in Shanxi.Main conclusions are as follows:(1) Non- Engineering techniques are one of important components of agricultural water saving technology. These techniques are internally able to reduce water uses. They are involved in water saving in crop itself, temporal and spatial layout of crops, and farmland, therefore, are key factors for sustainable action of water saving irrigation engineering.(2) Non- engineering techniques proves to be suitable for current Economic conditions in Shanxi for they require low Investment, instant effects, are easy for farmers to accept and master, and to be applied and extended into large rural area. They are more important in range rainfed agriculture and limited irrigation agriculture. (3) Three agricultural non- engineering techniques were brought forward, namely, agronomic water saving, biological water saving, and managing water saving. Their effects of water saving and crop yield increasing were analyzed in terms of water production rate and water utilization rate.


A Study on Ecological Agriculture with Farming Characteristics of Western Part, Heilongjiang Province

On 29/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The agriculture development has been a new stage in China, and a deep change happened to its development target, functional task, external and internal environment. So, it is very stringent to construct ecological agriculture and some special ecological agriculture mode occurred in some place and all over the world. In this paper, the concept of ecological agriculture was put forward based on existing data according to the practical condition from the farmland in the west of Heilongjiang Province, and the main content of ecological agriculture was illustrated, and the system table for the ecological agriculture was formed. The ecological agriculture should be dynamic, developmental, highly effective, and sustaining; it also should develop with the society, and develop with environment hormonally, and stress the best synthesis benefit of economy, society and environment.Heshan farm of Nongken Jiusan substation in Heilongjiang Province is the typical farm in the west of Heilongjiang Province. It is representative in Environmental condition, Social economy condition and soil use structure. This paper discussed the method of construction partition for ecological and the chosen for ecological developing mode. One of the innovations was that the gray system mathematical model was introduced, based on it, the ecological agriculture with farming characteristics region was partitioned using qualitative and quantitative analysis method. Using this method could increase the theoretics, veracity and maneuverability. Another innovation was that the layered designing mode was utilized, which change the method of single layer designing mode used in the past. This method helped to develop clearly for the ecological agriculture on macroscopical and microcosmic view.Water conservancy is the life line of agriculture and the sustainable use of water resources is the important guarantee for ecological agriculture construction. So, the high efficient use of water resources in the ecological in the agriculture is necessary. This paper discussed the principle for Agricultural water resources utilization and its countermeasure for water loss and soil erosion and seasonal water depletion district, based on actual data from the west farm in Heilongjiang Province.Ecological agriculture should be system Engineering in which multi-disciplinary and multi-domain corporate tightly. This system not only need hardware facility


Study on the Reasonable Use of Water Resources in Zhanghe Irrigation District

On 28/10/2014, in Economics papers, by rain

With the increase of population, the development of Social economy and the improvement of living standard, peoples require more and more water of high quality. In China, waste, pollution and lack of water resource are concurring. The extrusive contradiction between water supply and demand is so conspicuous that it restricts the sustainable development of Social economy in most areas of the country. So, optimal allocation of water resources and improving the efficiency of water utilization and realizing sustainable use of water resources become the most important tasks of the researches and workers of irrigation and drainage Engineering in the 21st century. The author has read many articles about forecast of water resource, optimal allocation of water resouce, saving water irrigation and using of pond, and chosen Zhanghe Irrigation District, where is short of water, as the study target. In this study, the major research subjects include: forecasting of water resources in the future; optimal allocation of water resources among different sectors; analyses of the current situation and development tendency of saving-water irrigation; and the role of the small -and- middle sized water facilities in irrigation. The main contents of this dissertation are as following:(1) On the basis of Summary of the Basic characteristics of water resources and the problems in water utilization in China, the current situation of water resources rational use domestic and abroad are analyzed to lay a foundation for the study.(2) The general condition of the natural geography and social economy, the characteristics of water resources and the water facilities in Zhanghe Irrigation District are analyzed. Then, based on sustainable development of water resource system, the water requirements of agriculture, industry and living in cities and countryside of the Zhanghe Irrigation District are forecasted according to the development planning and water use quotas of different sectors, and the water balance between supply and demand is analyzed.(3) Based on the the optimal allocation theories of water resources, the model of optimal allocation of water resources in Zhanghe Irrigation District is developed and tested, and the parameters of the model are calibrated. Then, the results of optimal allocation of water resource are analyzed and evaluated.(4) The connotation, significance, the applications and development tendency of water-saving irrigation are expatiated, and the applications, development tendency and the problems ofwater-saving irrigation in Zhanghe Irrigation District are analyzed.Then, the influences of Fees-to-Taxes on the production of paddy rice are studied in detail.(5) The roles of the middle and small water facilities in irrigation are analyzed, and the irrigation function of ponds is studied deeply.(6) The main results of this study are summarized, and the future study plan is suggested.


Countermeasure Study on the Exploitation and Utilization of Agricultural Water Resources in Qiandongnan Prefecture,Guizhou Province

On 19/09/2013, in Agriculture, by rain

The water resources is the development of Economic society important support andassurance, is the most Basic Agricultural resources, is to realize the agriculturaldevelopment the most important condition for security. The national economy andagricultural water conservancy is the important infrastructure. Though rich in guizhouprovince of qiandongnan precipitation, river system developed, per capita wateravailable abundant, but because the precipitation dis tribution, special geologicalgeographic conditions, development and utilization of difficulty and as the nationowes the developed, owe the region development, there are water conservancyconstruction lagged behind, water conservancy project aging neglect, facilities notperfect, irrigation way backward, and low utilization ratio of Agricultural waterresources. In recent years flood and drought frequently, especially of drought disasterhas great influence farmers water and Agricultural production and the increasinglyprominent contradiction between supply and demand of water resources, waterresources project type has become the main water shortage of qiandongnan biggestobstacle of the development of agriculture. Therefore, the study of qiandongnanreasonable exploitation and utilization of agricultural water resources thecountermeasures so as to promote the sustainable development of agriculture ofqiandongnan and ecological improvement, guarantee the good development ofeconomy and society of qiandongnan has very important significance.This paper tries to sustainable use, according to the outside effect, public goods andrelated theory, combined with the guizhou province agricultural water resourcesdevelopment and utilization of qiandongnan situation, used the related policy analysismethod and Economics and sociology discipline knowledge, from the domestic andforeign agricultural water resources development and utilization of the related theoryand practice experience, analysis of qiandongnan agricultural water resourcesdevelopment and utilization of the existing problems, which induces the suitableagricultural water resources development and utilization of qiandongnan direction,ways and specific policy measures. Including through administrative measures toprotect agricultural water resources, improve the utilization rate of agricultural waterresources, agriculture GongChengXing to solve the problem of water shortage, andhow to perfect the system of agricultural water resources development and utilizationmeasures.


The System Dynamic Pricing Model Research of Sustainable Water Resources Utilization in Changchun City

On 19/09/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

Because the water Resources in China are scarce and unbalanced distributed, theaverage owning amount per capita is very low. Water resource problems becomesincreasingly serious with the increasing growth of population and the constant quickeningof the urbanization and industrialisation process.Water resource shortage problems of Changchun city are always combined with itseconomic development process. First, Changchun city is suffering from water shortagebecause the amount of water resources are gradually decreasing, the consciousness ofwater conservation is weak and the efficiency of the water uses are very low. Second,water pollutions and unreasonable utilization phenomenas become more and more seriouswith the development of the city. At last, the water supply Management system isunreasonable and the revelant laws and regulations are inadequate.Water price as an Economic lever can optimize water resources allocation, maintainthe efficient operation of the water suply, guide the healthy development of water market,strengthen the water saving consciousness and promote the sustainable utilization of waterresources. promoting the reform of water pricing is one of the most important measures toimplement the scientific development concept. It can benefit the transformation of theeconomic growth pattern and be conducive to the strenthening of the environmentalprotection, safeguarding of the people’s interests and the construction of theconservation-minded society.In this paper, recent studies on water resources were summarized at first, then thetheory of sustainable development and Water Resource Value and the role water priceplayed in the sustainable utilization of the water resources were summarized, finally,Vensim software was used to simulate the water suply and demand changing situations in2015and2020based on the system dynamics principle and adjust the water demandaccording to the different water prices so as to realize the balance of supply and demandof water resources.The results revealed In Changchun city there will be37million cubic metres waterresources suply-demand dificit in2015and123million cubic metres in2020. in order to realize the balance of water resources, the resident water price and industry water priceare adjusted to4.4yuan per ton and8.1yuan per ton respectively in2015and14yuan perton and24,8yuan per ton respectively in2020. the caculation of the water price is underthe consideration of the urban water demand and the resident’s bearing capability, so theprice is reasonale and acceptable.


Water Resources in Shanxi Use Analysis

On 17/09/2013, in Agriculture, by rain

Shanxi Province is a severe water shortage area. As a majorenergy and heavy chemical industry base in China, the requirement ofthe industrial and Agricultural production development, and improvingurban and rural residents’living standard further accelerate thescale and speed of water resources utilization. However, limitedwater supply in Shanxi Province can not meet the requirements of itseconomic development, and further worsens the regional watershortage conflicts.This paper analyzes the development and changes of the actualwater consumption in the whole province and local-level cities in thepast10years, from2000to2009, summarizes the trends and thecharacteristics of the water resources development in ShanxiProvince. It does cluster analysis and principal component analysis ofthe actual water consumption of the local-level cities,and also doesthe analysis of each water-use index,including the analysis of thewater exploitation and utilization to the whole province andlocal-level cities, the analysis of water supply comprehensiveproduction capacity and the total water supply,the analysis of thewater consumption per capita and the water utilization, in order toget a comprehensive understanding and grasp of the comprehensive actual situation of the water usage in Shanxi.Through the comparative analysis about the water utilizationsituation of areas in the eastern, central and western China,summarizes the evolution characteristics of the water consumptionin Agricultural, industrial and residential aspects of Shanxi, and itsranking around China.This paper evaluates the water resources utilization in ShanxiProvince and reveals the existing problems, and finally provides withrespective solutions and recommendations to improve its waterresource development and utilization Management.


Water Resources Construction and Development Planning of Dongpo District in Meishan City

On 10/09/2013, in Agriculture, by rain

Taking new rural construction planning in Meishan country as research object. To research present conditions of the water industry development and reform, development of economy and society of12th5-Year and water industry requirements, guideline, Basic principle, overall thought and main targets of reform, the overall layout of new rural construction and water industry construction, principal tasks in development and Management and reform of water industry, measured Investment and analysis of result of plans implementation in Meishan country. Paper main research conclusion as follows:(1) The Water conservancy construction status of Dongpo district in Meishan country as follows:The flood control and disaster alleviation exist insufficient Investment in Engineering construction, Already built levee has weak flood prevention ability, emergency Management ability shortage; at the end of the water resources in good condition, but exist regional distribution nonuniform. and inter-annual uneven distribution; farmland irrigation and water conservancy exist many unsafe reservoirs.many ditches fallen into very bad repair:investment for promotion soil and water conservation and ecological construction is insufficiency, ecological construction slow and don’t match with industrial development; water conservancy management sectors and water reforms lack of uniform management physique, Engineering management unit lack of funds, the ability of tax’s service capability is too weak.(2) According to the request of12th5-Year Economic and Social development for water industry construction in Dongpo district, ensure purpose of12th5-Year water industry construction. makng a overall layout of water industry construction, Make main task of water conservancy construction:The flood control and disaster alleviation main task is prevent flood to reduce calamity, accelerate the development of flood-control works construction in Minjiang rivers and important tributary hard, focus on establishing and sound theprevent flood to reduce calamity’system in particular urbanization which along the river; the main task of people’s livelihood of the the water conservancy construction is assuring the safety of rural potable water, finish auxiliary projact of canal system of irrigation area and water-saving renovations, seepage prevention and reinforcement for unsafe reservoirs. increase efforts to develop capital constructions of irrigation and water conservancy, consolidating the infrastructure of water supplies which is drought resistant:the main task of water resources development and utilization is finish the irrigation area construction of large and middle scale reservoirs(emphasis water sources) and other utilization of water resources:the main task of save water resources protection is to achieve save and protect water resources through some means such as reconstructive engineering and newly built:the main task of soil and water conservation and ecological restoration of the lakes and rivers is finish the treatment of water and soil conservation, developing and constructing normative and orderly based on the principle of protect ecology; the main task of construction of water conservancy industry ability is consummating the construction of management of hydrology water resources and monitoring capability of water and soil conservation, informationization in water sector, infrastructure construction of emergency and management, infrastructure construction of science and technology of irrigation works, construction of administration and law enforcement capacity in irrigation works.(3) calculations on water conservancy construction planning investment of Dongpo district. Irrigation and water conservancy development planning and construction projects of12th5-Year, total investment to water conservancy construction3.81billion yuan, among them,continuous project is subject to invest1.202billion yuan;aiming project investment is2.608billion yuan. In addition, the planning of water conservancy construction reserve project in the region, total need to invest3.589billion yuan. All benefits will promote service capability in water industry obviously after the implementation of plan. Include:drought and flood control,waterlogged elimination and disaster reduction benefit remarkable, people’s livelihood water conservancy benefit remarkable, utilization of water resources benefit remarkable, save and protect water resources benefit remarkable, soil and water conservation and ecological restoration of the lakes and rivers benefit remarkable, the service capability of water conservancy industry obvious promotion.


The Research of the Yellow River’s Comprehensive Treatment Promoted by Science and Technology

On 29/08/2013, in Economics papers, by rain

The Yellow River’s Comprehensive Treatment has always been as a major event inChina.The Yellow River meanders through many parts of China. It not only moist the soil ofChinese nation, but also brings a lot of disasters in history. The severely imbalance of flow,with too much sediment in Yellow River is rarely seen in other rivers. The comprehensivetreatment requires high-tech, to improve and to combine the traditional experience of the flowand sediment ratio in its every basin.Even in today’s opinion, many treatments in the history of the Yellow River are relativelyvery scientific. But as a result of the political and Economic conditions in that time, theunderstanding of Yellow River before is deficient. The lack of technical and many otherreasons result in the fail in putting the theories into practice or fully met. It is proved that as along river, the Yellow, absolutely can be treated in many sub-basin first; However, themulti-sediment, as a major feature of the Yellow River, which requires not just the normaltreatment of other rivers.Yellow River is constantly changing, which requires the combination of hydrology,climate, geology and other factors, the detection and managing of technique Engineering,furthermore, the technology upgrade. So that can finally achieve the comprehensive treatmentof scientific flood control, ice flood control, water resources reasonable proportion andmaking use of sediment resources, etc.Science and Technology is continually developed along with the changing of YellowRiver. The proposal of many new scientific theories, independent research and developmentof high-tech, these innovations will bring us a new beginning for the comprehensive treatmentof the Yellow River.


On Water Management Since Qing Dynasty

On 09/07/2012, in International, by rain

【Abstract】 Water is one of the Basic materials in human existence and the development of society and economy. Its Management has been an eternal subject for the Management of human society. In such an Agricultural country like China, How to take advantage of it has been a big event. And its Management has played a Basic role in the process of Social and historical development and will develop together with the advance of society, politics and Economics.In Qing dynasty, the last of the feudal society, great river disasters often happened successively because of the corrupted feudal rule and the low productivity. During this time, water management intended to solve the problems of human existence and was focused on disaster tackling, irrigation and water conservancy, with the invasion of western capitalism. The Chinese society fell step by step into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal one. In about a century, the suffering Chinese were seeking for ways out. They began to learn from the west and introduced advanced water management and science and technology. As a result, they established modern water conservancy. Then the People’s Republic of China was founded and a big socialist country stood in the east of the world. After more than 50 years development, we have established the socialist market economy and water management has experienced the transit of Engineering management to resource management. It is reasonable to draw such a conclusion that the changes in the Chinese society brought great changes to water management, which, in turn, embodies the Social changes and reflects from a special aspect the process of the Social changes.This dissertation analyzes the content of water management and the factors that influence it. It attempts to reach a conclusion about the changes in water management from the Qing Dynasty to the present society and reveals the interactive relationship between water management and the development of politics and Economics. It also aims to discuss, in practice, the patterns of water management under the socialist market Economic system and in theory, how to build a water -saving society, with this as the purpose, the author of this dissertation attempts to provide some suggestions on the policies about how to build a water saving society.


The Study on the Management System and Operational Mechanism of the Shanxi, Gansu, Ningxia Provinces’s Yan-huan-ding Pumping Yellow River Water Project

On 05/07/2012, in Agriculture, by rain

【Abstract】 With the market Economic and Social development in China, the old water resources Management pattern in the planned economy has to be phased out. At present, problems such as awkward and rigid Management mechanisms, insufficient funds, overstaffed personnel, coarse and unconstrained authority are widely existing in Chinese water resources Management system. These problems not only hinder the effectiveness of various water conservancy projects, but also threaten the country’s Economic growth and people’s security of life and property. Therefore, we must reform the present water resources management system and explore a new set of methodologies better adapted to the latest market Economic development needs.This paper cited some new public management theories, sustainable development theories and many other economic and management principles, thoroughly studied the Yan-Huan-Ding pumping Yellow river water project. Based on the progress achieved so far, the author also referred to the successful experience of some foreign water diversion projects. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, trying to be pertinent, forwarding-looking and feasible, this article has made a thorough research on the present and future management and operation system of Yan-Huan-Ding pumping Yellow river water Project.First, conduct a systematical analysis on the management system of the communal parts of Yan-Huan-Ding pumping Yellow river water Project; suggest the 3 relevant provinces set up joint-stock companies to manipulate the construction; raise some initial proposals on the future operation, especially on water rate pricing.Secondly, taking Gansu Province as an example, study the exclusive Phase 2 project in Gansu Province, mainly the water cost structure and bearablity of customers; recommend some management and operation program for the exclusive Phase 2 project in Gansu Province;Finally, this paper design a set of management and operation programs for the Yan-Huan-Ding pumping Yellow river water Project, including many constructive measures and proposals upgrading the effectiveness and smooth operation of project.