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Purpose:After the admission into the WTO,oversea institutions or per…

On 11/03/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Purpose:After the admission into the WTO,oversea institutions or persons will come to our country to start hospitals. At that tune,both the structural system and the personnel’s quality will extremely be unable to adapt. Quite a lot of outstanding talent will run off. This article is written with a purport to discuss the countermeasures for hospital to take after the admission into the WTO.Way:It is necessary to collect the first-hand information by way of investigation,spot exploration and finding out the real situation ;to sound the advanced experiences of Management in foreign hospitals;and to put forward the strategy and countermeasures based on our practice by way of comprehensive analysis.Result:If we want hospitals to adapt the market economy and take part hi the int’l eompetition,it is necessary for the government to transform its functions,let the hospitals obtain the independence in Management to full account,bring into effect the creative strategy and structural reform,administer the overall Management and bring about the uninterrupted development of hospitals.Conclusion:There are not a few problems that must be solved urgently:insufficient fund,weak management,heavy burden and serious run-off of talent and so on. The government must transform its function and means in its management. It is necessary for all hospitals to innovate,to transform their management system and conception. The reform of the structural system of service must be a key point.The reform of the structural system of management should be a guarantee. The traditional personnel management must be transformed into the management of human resources.To try out the system of human affair agency;to establish a systematic training system. In a word,it is extremely possible for our hospitals to develop further only on condition that hospitals carry out the reform of the structural system,set up the new-type mechanism of human resources development and bring into effect a wholly new strategy.

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The agriculture is the national economy’s foundation. As a big count…

On 26/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

The agriculture is the national economy’s foundation. As a big country, China has a population of 13 hundred million,9 hundred million of whom are farmers, so agriculture plays a particularly important role in China. However, Chinese agriculture has plenty of defects: the weak foundation, the lov; labor productivity, the narrow and disperse running scale, the laggard way of cultivation, the high cost and the bad quality of the main Agricultural product. On December 11,2001, China entered WTO formally. It brings not only a great opportunity but also an austere challenge for the development of Chinese agriculture. The challenge comes from two aspects: one is that we must accept the restriction of “The WTO Agriculture Agreement” rule on the market permission, the domestic support, the export subsidies .The other is that we must carry out the promise related to reduce the tariffs gradually, tore down not-tariff barracks, open the Agricultural product market. Facing the opportunity and challenge, China should take advantage of the opportunity to develop agriculture rapidly, meanwhile, we should strengthen the government’s protection on agriculture to meet the challenge. This article studies how to establish and consummate the system of supporting and protecting agriculture, according to the rule of “The WTO Agriculture Agreement”, hi order to alleviate the impact of entering the WTO, keep Chinese agriculture’s advantage position in the international competition, ensure continual and steady development of our country’s agriculture.The first section discusses the necessity of China supporting and protecting agriculture after entering the WTO. To support and protect agriculture is the rule of Economics development, our agriculture is far behind, and entering WTO will impact the Agricultural development of our country, so we can draw a conclusion that China must learn from the foreign experience to establish and consummate the system of supporting and protecting agriculture according to the rule of “The WTO Agriculture Agreement”. The second section analyzes the space of supporting and protecting agriculture after entering the WTO, according to “the WTO Agriculture Agreement” and our promises. The third section probes into the system of supporting and protecting agriculture from four aspects: the main body, the object, the principle and the way. The fourth section is the focus on the article and it provides the measures for supporting and protecting agriculture, emphasizes strongly the “Green Box “policy. At last, the article points out that we not only supports and protects agriculture, but also accelerate the development of agriculture of itself.

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On the Devdlopment of Chinese Educational Service Trade

On 01/01/2015, in Economics papers, by rain

Recently, the Economic profit of international Education has attracted attention of both educational and economical industry. Education service evolvement is making more and more impacts on international economy, and bringing great opportunities to capable countries. The prototype of Education service was commercial cultural/educational exchange. In the1970s, some developed countries eg. USSR, offered China with educational aid, including overseas courses for foreign students, and onsite professional training/assistance. Interestingly, the education services were usually bundled with political and diplomatic policies; therefore the services are more political oriented. In the end of1980s, the international Economic structure undertook great changes. Education service became more important in international business. Nowadays, it has become an important part of soft power in international trading and competition. Also, education service was regarded as a profitable industry in the Britain, who first started to charge “tuition fees” to international students, followed by US and Australia.It has been30years for China’s open‐up, China is playing much more important role in international business. The number of international students in China has increased from43,000to238,000during the period between1998and2009, with the speed of20%annually. At the same time, Chinese are sending more students overseas. In2003, there are3.1million Chinese students overseas, in2020, there will be about5.8millions, increasing by87%. Unsurprisingly, the trade deficit is making China losing significant amount of money. International students in China are more likely to study language and arts, while Chinese students overseas usually study science, business, and Management. In general the trade deficit ratio is1:10.72, which means with every dollar China make from education service,10.72dollars is spent on overseas education. China has become the biggest education market in the world.We organize the thesis into five chapters. The first chapter is instruction, in which we address how the topic is chosen, and review related works. In addition, the structure, methodology, contribution, and further research directions were introduced.In the second chapter, we discuss the education service and WTO policies. We will study the history and content of WTO education business policies in details.In the third chapter, we focus on the evolvement of education service in China. With the review of history in China education service, we figured out the major problems, which are structural bias and competitiveness of education service.Analysis of China education service competitiveness is presented in the fourth chapter. We compare the competiveness of education service between China and developed countries, and find out the advantages that China have, like regional culture, dominate subjects, etc. and disadvantages like recognition and educational resource Management.In Chapter5, some further thoughts were made. With the comparison of international education service policies under WTO, we have provided three thoughts and suggestions to China education service:1. improve the structure of education service, increase the competitiveness;2. carefully adjust the openness of education service;3. build up some world class universities.

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An Assessment of Syrian Economy for Accession to WTO

On 21/09/2013, in Trade, by rain

Syria is a low middle income country and its economy based on a diversified economy that revolves around agriculture, oil, industry and tourism. Recently, Syria’s economy is seen emerging from central planning towards a true market economy and reducing dependence on oil.Liberalization has allowed for new products and the private sector seems more able to effectively utilize Syria’s competitive advantages. As part of the on-going process of Economic reforms, Syria has given increasing emphasis to fostering the integration of its economy at regional and international level. As a result, a number of bilateral trade agreements have been signed, the Arab Free Trade Agreement is currently being implemented, and the negotiation of an Association Agreement with the European Union has been concluded. Moreover, Syria applied in2001for membership to the World Trade Organization. This application was formally “reaffirmed” in February,2004. In May2010Syria gained observer status in World Trade Organization (WTO) as an initial step to get the full membership.This dissertation demonstrates the current situation of Syrian economy where real GDP growth was at5%in2009from close to5.1%in2008. Also I try to make analysis of Syria’s external trade. In addition to show some lesson for Syria from other WTO acceding countries regarding the agriculture sector which are (Jordan and China).Finally I made a SWOT analysis of the Syrian agriculture sector in case of joining WTO. In general its early for Syria to join WTO because trade laws and Economic structure need more time to be Compatible with WTO in addition to that Syrian local industry is still not strong enough to face strong competition by Middle East competitors who may gain share in the Syrian market. So it is better for Syria to concentrate on the current treaty arrangements and trade agreements like GAFTA (Grater Arab Free Trade Area) before going to that big step.

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The Opportunity and Challenges for Lao PDR in WTO Accession

On 14/09/2013, in Trade, by rain

One of the most important factors consist to the Economic field which is a part of country development and concerned to politics of the least developed countries in order to integrate to international community as well as international organization. Lao PDR is one of the least developed countries and also a land-locked country made slowed Laos development. Laos declared independence from France in1975, and joined Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA) then transform country’s regime to Market Economic Mechanism (NEM) in1986. Since then Lao PDR has became a member of ASEAN in1997, and AFTA in1998.The World Trade Organization (WTO) is a major organization to protect international trade’s interest, settling dispute and equally provide benefits for member countries. Lao PDR has applied for WTO membership since1997, and now Laos is almost achieves to the last process of WTO accession process. Lao PDR is a one-single Party state, and started to transform a regime of market economic in1986, therefore to adjust the obligations, other regulations which related to WTO requirement would be slower than other developed country. However, Lao PDR could gain some good lessons from Vietnam and China which share the same political ideology path those have already successful in WTO membership.In this paper, the difficulties and challenges for Lao PDR in WTO accession will be surveyed. The ultimate goal of this research is to highlight the opportunities and challenges facing Lao PDR. To assess to which policies have been implemented since1998for preparing to be a member of WTO, and the difficulties on accession process, also the benefit gain for becoming a WTO’s member. It also intends to demonstrate whether the government policies are practical and sound, particular on curtain key factor as domestic and international respect in order to find out and answer these questions:(1) Why Lao PDR needs to join WTO?(2) What law, decree, and agreement changes are needed for Lao government in WTO accession? And (3) what is challenges for Lao PDR in current progress to access to WTO. This study will provide a great contribution to the pool of knowledge in this area. The results of this study will also deepen our understanding on efforts to improve economic factors in various government institutions. It can also help raise economic awareness of the reform policies implementation. Moreover, the results of the study can be utilized by government and international organizations and donor countries for their future reform program development and implementation. It can also serve as a basis for future studies in regard to policies reform in Lao PDR.This thesis has divided to four main chapters:chapter one is the introduction part, described about the background and all Basic of thesis including the review of literature and related research. Chapter two focused on the background and detail of WTO and the Lao PDR. Chapter three is a main part of this thesis; it is the findings and discussion part, described about the overall result of the thesis questions. And the last part is the conclusion and recommendations.Lao PDR is still facing a lot of policy adjusting and improvement which concerned to the internal and external aspects. To reform the law and obligations needs the balance of two aspects which are:(1) Must maintain the stable of political regime and protect the national interest (2) Can participate in global activities.

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Analysis on Trade Protectionism of Post-crisis Era

On 13/09/2013, in Trade, by rain

In the course of the development of international trade, the two forces–trade protection and free trade–have been alternately dominated the shift. Intheory, free trade is a win-win trade mechanism, also the development trendadvocated by different countries. Still every country is more or less to take acertain amount of trade protection measures. After the1990s, with thecontinuous deepening of the process of Economic globalization, the world seesincreasingly close trade and Economic links between different countries,expanding trade size and the trade field. The world economy has become anglobal economic entity as a whole. More and more countries participate in andgain more economic benefits through the international division of labor andinternational trade, promoting national economic development, while alsopromoting the rapid development of the global economy. In2008, the globalfinancial crisis broke out and quickly penetrated into the real economy. Theworld, especially the developed economies, has been hit hard, with enterprisesbankrupt, grim employment situation, recession, and Social unrest.Governments introduced a series of economic stimulus polices. So until2009,the world economy within a certain range is beginning to show signs ofrecovery, which means that, the global economy has entered the post-crisisera. In this special period, in order to resist the follow-up impact of theeconomic crisis and revive their economies, governments of different countriesincreased intervention efforts on international trade fields, introduced a varietyof trade restrictions, indicating that trade protectionism is on the rise. Thispaper analyses the trade protectionism of post-crisis era as comprehensivelyas possible, summarizes its adverse impact on our economy, and proposes aseries of response measures against these adverse effects, in order to makethe economic situation in China improve.The thesis is divided into five parts. The first chapter is the introduction. It briefly introduces the researchbackground and points out the main issues and significance of the research. Italso organizes, summarizes and reviews the researches so far. Finally, itshows the idea of this study.The second chapter introduces the trade protectionism of the post-crisisera. It explains the meaning of the post-crisis era and trade protectionism andsummarizes the contemporary theories of trade protectionism, such as theneo-mercantilist,”center-periphery” theory and the strategic trade theory. Atlast, it lists the primary means of trade protectionism, as a Basic introduction tothe contents of the article behind.The third chapter begins with the analysis on the causes of the tradeprotectionism of the post-crisis era. And then from five different ways, it sumsup the new features of trade protectionism presented in this special period.The fourth chapter is the pros and cons analysis on trade protectionism ofthe post-crisis era. In the real world economic situation, trade protectionismand its existence is reasonable, but also has its drawbacks. This part of thethesis summarizes the positive and negative effects in several aspects.The fifth Chapter combines trade protectionism of the post-crisis era withthe actual situation in China and does a detailed analysis on its main impactson the Chinese economy, and thus proposes a series of response measuresand policy recommendations against these adverse effects.

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The Comparison Study of China and India’s Agriculture Trade Policies in WTO’ Agricultural Agreement

On 03/09/2013, in Trade, by rain

Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy, is the premise of the country’s stability.In every country’ national economy, agriculture’s position can not be underestimated. China andIndia had always paid great attention to agriculture. Because of requirements and guidance of theWTOAgricultural agreement, China and India both need to adjust their domestic agriculturalproducts trade policy and Agricultural support policy. But on the other hand, India and China needgive agriculture special protection and support to ensure the domestic Agricultural production,ensure the safety of the country and food. Compared with China, India has abundant experience、lessons and achievements to deal with the requirements of the WTOagricultural agreement, whichhas important significance to our country.This paper is divided into six parts. The first part is the introduction, and this part introducesthe research background, research at home and abroad, research methods and innovative points. Thesecond part is the China and India’s agriculture in their domestic situation, through the China andIndia’s agriculture in the national economy, the status of agricultural resources condition, theagricultural production structure and agricultural policy to analyze and compare. The third part isChina’s and India’s foreign trade of agricultural products, through the trade between China and Indiaand agricultural products trade structure to analyze and compare. The fourth part is China andIndia’s agricultural products market access, through China and India’s market access commitmentsin the agricultural agreement, and actual implementation of market access to compare. The fifth partis China and India’s agricultural domestic support, through China and India’s agricultural domesticsupport in the agricultural agreement, and actual implementation of agricultural domestic support.The sixth part is the China and India’s agricultural products export competition, through China andIndia’s agricultural products export competition in the agricultural agreement, and actualimplementation of agricultural products export competition.

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China’s Financial Markets Opening and the Development Strategies of Korean Banks in China

On 02/09/2013, in Finance, by rain

With open-door policy of China’s financial markets, from the20th century90s,Korean banks began operating in China. For the first time, Korea exchange bank builtthe office in Beijing on July1992. By the end of2010, the number of branches ofKorean banks in China reached to sixty, and the size of the Investment funds alsogreatly increased. However, Korean banks operating in China in terms of Visibilityand profitability is the relatively weak compared to the company for themanufacturing industry(such as Samsung, LG, etc). Therefore, what problems whichKorean banks faced with and how these problems generate are worth to study. First,on the basis of related literatures, definition of its study background and meaning.Second, analyze organization of Chinese banks, present conditions and features, andmake a comparison between before and after join WTO that the limit of financialindustry foreign opening, and comprehensive analyzing on four steps: the early stage of opening (1979~1993), the early stage of progress (1994~2000), the transitionperiod of complete opening (2001~2006) and the stage of complete opening(2007~today). Third, we have consider develop and feature of foreign banks in China,search for what they have an influence for good on general sense.Concentrate upon the need to Korean banks enter the China market, synthesizeon develop steps each of them, take for the analysis method it called SWOT,reconsider to four sector that superior good, inferior good, opportunity and threatfactors of Korean banks. Comprehensive analyzing on strategy of SO, ST, WO andWT, makes a plan to need when they enter China market. For make it Koreanbanks a stable development in China market, to propose the following five plan.First, a entering areas diversification. Korean banks should expand to themiddle western China. Second, entering format diversification. Build a Branchor local subsidiary, and joint with local banks. Third, financial contents andproducts diversification. Expand to Private banking(PB) and credit cardbusiness, and develop a new contents. Fourth, a financial specialistglocalization. a financial specialist is the key how to got a successful progress in China. Fifth, capital financing diversification and expanded. Suggest expandto take deposits, make more various business with Korean companies in China.Korean banks in the process of the late1990’s Asian financial crisis and2008’sglobal financial crisis, already has been completely with financial risk managementsystem and high quality level’s service. Also, as with other foreign global bank, holdsconsiderable potential for development in the banking industry in China. For the fulldevelopment of the Korean banks, they to enter before the need for a morecomprehensive marketing plan, fully understand Chinese financial practices, focusingon promoting financial business to customers in China, will be the interests ofcustomers as a development strategy.

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Research on the International Marketing Problems of Green Food of Heilongjiang Province

On 11/12/2012, in Trade, by rain

【Abstract】 Since the trend of thoughts of sustainable development has emerged and developed, the awakening and strengthening of Environmental protection awareness have exercised direct and indirect influence on the national developmental strategies of any country in the world. With the patterns of people’s thinking, view of values and consumption being changed, the surge of green consumption springs up. Some districts and Social groups in the world, especially people in the developed countries, have come into the phrase to seek the life quality. And the Environmental awareness and the environment-oriented product preference have increasingly been strong. Therefore, the relationship of international Economic and trade has been affected seriously, and the green barriers have come to be an important factor to hinder the development of international trade. Especially after the entrance of china to WTO, the situation has appeared increasingly remarkable, meanwhile the trade of Agricultural products has been affected considerably. Under the influence of WTO rules, there appears new characteristics in trade and market competition, while the emphasis of trade has shifted.Under those background, it has been an inevitable problem for us on how to make Environmental protection in line with the development of our Economic development, being consistent with the world convention, improve the increases of Chinese export and import trade, and occupy the certain position in the world market. However, the infant industry of organic food is a new thought to realize the harmony between the development of export and import trade of Agricultural products with environmental protection.From the view of domestic situation, in recent years, the green food industry of our country and province has developed dramatically, and the market has constantly been growing. With the increase of green consumption demand, it is of realistic significance to apply the theories related to marketing and international trade to push forward the development of green food of our country and province. In this paper, through the analysis on the Basic concepts and theories of international trade of green food, the current situation and trend of international trade of green food are discussed, furthermore under those basis, the influential factors on international marketing of green food of Heilongjiang province are emphatically analyzed, the thought and emphasis of international marketing of green food of Heilongjiang province are defined, and the countermeasures to accelerate the green food of Heilongjiang province to the international market are proposed herein.This paper consists of six parts:Part one: Study the realistic value and theoretical significance on international marketing of green food of Heilongjiang province, introduce the research situation on the paper home and abroad, and propose the research approaches and technical lines. Define the related Basic concepts, analyze generation and concepts of green barriers.Part two: Analyze the background on international marketing of green food after the entrance of China to WTO, sum up the position and roles on international marketing of green food.Part three: Analyze the supply-demand situation of international market of green food and marketing potentiality. Explore standards of organic Food, administration system distribution Channels, market Accession of International organic Agricultural products and influnces on international marketing of green food of our country.Part four: Analyze the current situation and trend on international marketing development situation of green food of Heilongjiang province, sum up the existing problems and rational selection of International Marketing.Part five: This part is the emphasis of this paper, discuss the thought of international marketing of green food, from the aspects of government, industry and enterprises, propose the countermeasure of international marketing of green food of Heilongjiang province.Part six: On the basis of the above parts, d

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Study on Optimizing of Export Commodity Structure and Upgrading on Industrial Structure in Hebei Province under the WTO

On 10/12/2012, in Trade, by rain

【Abstract】 This paper aims to study optimization of export commodity structure and upgrade of industrial structure in Heibei province under the WTO. The current situation and problem on export commodity and industrial structure are analyzed and the WTO influences on export and all kinds of industries are also studied. By utilizing the relevant theories of international trade and industry Economics, corresponding measures are put forward in this paper. Mathematics model of gray relevant analysis is used to study the main export industries and their relevance with international trade and to propose its leading industry in Heibei province. The study has a practical meaning to optimization of export commodities structure and promotion of industrial structure and provides useful suggestions on Economic decisions in Heibei as well as the other provinces and regions.